1. East Europe Regional

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1. Memorandum From the Acting Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Johnson) to President Nixon, Washington, January 30, 1973.

Johnson submitted the Committee's evaluation of the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) system for controlling exports to communist countries.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-241, NSSM 222 [2 of 2]. Confidential. The full report was not attached. The COCOM study was in response to NSDM 159 of March 29, 1972. NSDM 159, which governed the sales of integrated circuit technology to communist nations, is printed as Document 380 in Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, volume IV, Foreign Assistance, International Development, Trade Policies, 1969-1972.


2. Memorandum From the Acting Chairman of the Ad Hoc Group on Economic Policies Toward Eastern Europe (Stoessel) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, February 1, 1973.

The AD HOC Group presented its review of issues relating to the normalization of economic relations with Eastern Europe. This 8 page memorandum, drafted in response to NSSM 163 and CIEP Study 24 outlined 7 principle recommendations, including the prompting of the establishment of negotiations with Hungary and Romania and improving trade with the GDR.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials,NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-194, NSSM 163 [1 of 2]. Confidential. The memorandum and its report were part of a briefing book for the Senior Review Group meeting of March 7. Attached but not published are the following: Chapters II-XI; copies of the January 31 Department of Defense commentary in which the Department expressed that the Ad Hoc Group's correlation between greater economic interchange and improved political relations between the United States and Eastern European countries was overly optimistic; a summary of NSSM 163/CIEPSM 24; and a copy of the NSSM/CIEPSM itself, October 27, 1972. NSSM 163/CIEPSM 24 is printed as Document 25 in Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, volume XX, Eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean, 1969-1972.


3. Minutes of Senior Review Group Meeting, Washington, March 7, 1973, 3:13-3:44 p.m.

The Senior Review Group considered economic policy for Eastern Europe and concluded that the Department of State should prepare a detailed plan for economic engagement with each country.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-113, SRG Meeting Minutes. Confidential. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room. NSSM 163, October 27, 1972, is printed as Document 25 in Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, volume XX, Eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean, 1969-1972. The Department of State's response to the Senior Review Group's request is Document 4.


4. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, March 14, 1973.

In this 3 page memorandum, Eliot outlined the recommendations put forth in the attached 5 page “Proposed Actions and Negotiations in US Relations with the Countries of Eastern Europe during 1973 and 1974,” which provides a country-by-country strategy toward the normalization of economic relations with East European nations.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-194, NSSMs 162-165. Confidential. Ambassador Harry Barnes signed for Eliot above Eliot's typed signature. For the minutes of the Senior Review Group meeting, see Document 3.


5. Memorandum From the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (Ash) and the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, March 26, 1973.

Under the cover of this 3 page memorandum, Kissinger and Ash submitted the report of the Commission on International Radio Broadcasting chaired by Dr. Milton Eisenhower. This document provides the conclusions of the report, outlines possible Congressional reaction, and presents the “Next Steps” that should be taken. The Commission recommended further government support for and improvements to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Special Files, President's Office File, President's Handwriting File, Box 21, March 11-31, 1973. No classification marking. A stamped notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it. The Commission's recommendations as approved by Nixon became the basis for the Board of International Broadcasting Act of 1973 (PL 93-129), which the U.S. Senate approved on October 19. No attachments were included.


6. Memorandum From Secretary of Transportation Brinegar to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, April 19, 1973.

Brinegar informed Kissinger of the Port Security Committee's decision to close the port of Charleston, South Carolina, to vessels of the Warsaw Pact and the People's Republic of China.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-242, NSDM 232. Secret. On September 1, the President issued NSDM 232, barring access of Warsaw Pact and PRC ships to Charleston. (Ibid.) The attachment is a copy with an indication that Eagleburger signed the original.


7. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) and the Assistant to the President (Flanigan) to President Nixon, Washington, April 26, 1973.

In this 2 page memorandum, Kissinger and Flanigan recommended a series of guidelines for the Department of State in its negotiations with Eastern European countries.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-239, NSDM 212. Confidential. Sent for action. A stamped notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it. Nixon initialed his approval of the recommendation. The decision memorandum at Tab A is not attached, but the signed copy is Document 8. Attached but not published is an April 6 memorandum for Kissinger from Sonnenfeldt; Eliot's attached memorandum to Kissinger, March 14, is Document 4. For the minutes of the Senior Review Group meeting, see Document 3. The NSSM 163/CIEPSM 24 Study Memorandum is Document 2.


8. National Security Decision Memorandum 212/Council on International Economic Policy Decision Memorandum 17, Washington, May 2, 1973.

President Nixon issued general guidelines for negotiations with Eastern Europe that linked greater trade liberalization to satisfactory improvements in bilateral political relations with each country.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 364, Subject Files, National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDMs), Nos. 145-264. Confidential. Copies were sent to the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The NSSM 163/CIEPSM 24 Study is Document 2.


9. National Security Decision Memorandum 222, Washington, June 11, 1973.

President Nixon upheld the use of the COCOM system to regulate export of strategically sensitive products and technology to communist countries.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Subject Files, Box 364, NSDMs 145-264 (1972-1974) [1 of 2]. Secret.


10. National Security Decision Memorandum 247/Council on International Economic Policy Decision Memorandum 22, Washington, March 14, 1974.

The President ordered several amendments to U.S. policy on the export of computer technology to communist countries.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, S/S-I Files, NSDMs, 1969-1977, Entry No. UDWX 1510,NSDM 247. Secret. Attached but not published is a table of permitted sales and a definition of terms. CIEPSM 25 was not found.


11. Memorandum Prepared by the Office of Current Intelligence of the Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, August 13, 1974.

The Central Intelligence Agency projected increasing tensions between the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies.

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, NIC Files, Job 79-R01099A. Top Secret; Codeword.


12. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Springsteen) to the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, January 23, 1975.

The Department of State submitted to the President an issues paper on U.S.-Eastern European relations.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Europe, Box 1, Europe—General (1). Confidential. The attached issues paper amends and supersedes a December 13 draft version written before the passage of the Trade Act of 1974, which Ford signed into law on January 3, 1975. (Ibid., NSC Staff Files for Europe, Box 48, Europe 1974) The Trade Act contained provisions for greater trade with Eastern Europe and granted Most-Favored Nation Status (MFN) to Romania, the first Eastern European country to be granted such status.


13. National Intelligence Estimate 11-14-75, Washington, September 4, 1975.

The estimate, “Warsaw Pact Forces Opposite NATO,” assessed the fighting readiness and strength of Warsaw Pact land and tactical air forces in the European Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe relative to NATO.

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, NIC Files, Job 79-R01017A. Top Secret; Codeword. According to the cover pages, the estimate was prepared by the CIA, the Intelligence agencies of the Department of State and Defense, the National Security Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration with participation of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence of the Army, the Director of Naval Intelligence, and the Assistant Chief of Staff of the Department of the Air Force. It was concurred in by the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State, the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Director of the National Security Agency, and the Assistant Director of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Abstaining were the Special Assistant to the Secretary for National Security of the Department of the Treasury and the Assistant Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. A table of contents and a summary are published here. Attached but not published are the cover sheet and complete study.


14. Notes of a Meeting of European Chiefs of Mission Conference, London, December 14, 1975.

Sonnenfeldt spoke with U.S. chiefs of mission in Europe concerning U.S. policy in Eastern Europe.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Helmut Sonnenfeldt, 1973-1977, Entry 5339, Box 3, HS Chron., Official, Jan.-March 1976. Secret; EXDIS. The notes were enclosed on January 8, 1976, under a covering memorandum from Sonnenfeldt to Haig. In March 1976, newspaper columnists Rowland Evans and Robert Novak commented on Sonnenfeldt's speech and quoted him as describing U.S. policy as encouraging an “organic” relationship between the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. (Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, “A Soviet-East Europe ‘Organic Union',” Washington Post, March 22, 1976, p. A19.) The Counselor's remarks were transmitted as telegram 24976 to all European posts, February 1, see Document 15.


15. Telegram 24976 From the Department of State to All European Diplomatic Posts, February 1, 1976, 2139Z.

The Department issued a summary version of Sonnenfeldt's remarks of December 1975 to the Chiefs of Mission Conference in London.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, D760038-0493. Secret; EXDIS. Drafted by Zimmermann and approved by Kissinger, Sonnenfeldt, and Glowenstein. For Sonnenfeldt's remarks to the Chiefs Mission Conference, see Document 14.


16. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 12, 1976, 11:05 a.m.

Kissinger met with Sonnenfeldt and members of the staff of the Bureau of European Affairs to discuss current policy in Eastern Europe and to discuss possible revisions to the priorities for trade as set out in NSDM 212.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Helmut Sonnenfeldt, 1973-1977, Entry 5339, Box 9, Eastern Europe—General. Confidential; Nodis. Drafted on May 13 by Schmidt. The meeting took place in the Secretary's office. NSDM 212 is Document 8. The Helsinki Conference's Final Act of 1975 included clauses about territorial integrity and the inviolability of national borders in Europe, thereby solidifying the Soviet territorial gains at the end of World War II.


17. Briefing Memorandum Prepared by the Bureau of European Affairs for Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, July 27, 1976.

The notes summarized the relationship between the Department of State and the Board for International Broadcasting, the governing body for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Helmut Sonnenfeldt, 1973-1977, Entry 5339, Box 12, RAD 6—Radio Free Europe. Confidential. Drafted on July 24 by Armitage and Brown. Attached but not published are Roche's June 29 letter and the attachments, Warsaw 4657 and Warsaw 4666, both July 6.


18. National Security Study Memorandum 245, Washington, August 3, 1976.

Scowcroft tasked the Departments of State, Defense, the OMB, the USIA, and the BIB to prepare a study on how to improve the effectiveness of U.S.-funded international broadcasting facilities.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 46, NSSM 245, President's Report to Congress Concerning International Broadcast Facilities (1). Confidential. Copies were sent to the Director of Central Intelligence and the Chair of the Under Secretaries Committee. Attached but not published is a distribution list.


19. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to President Ford, Washington, September 27, 1976.

Scowcroft recommended revisions to the Port Security Program that would allow ships of the German Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of China access to U.S. ports.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, 68, NSDM 340, U.S. Port Security Program (1). Confidential. Sent for action. A stamped notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it. Ford initialed his approval. Tab A as signed is Document 22.


20. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, October 11, 1976, 10:08-10:35 a.m.

Ford met with Kissinger to discuss his second televised Presidential Campaign Debate with Governor Carter and the Eastern Europe “gaffe.”

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 21, October 11, 1976. Secret; Sensitive. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House. During his second debate with Carter, October 6, Ford stated: “There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe.” See “Presidential Campaign Debate of October 6, 1976,” in The Public Papers of the Presidents: Gerald R. Ford, 1976 (Washington, 1979), pp. 2416-2417. Ford clarified his statement at a White House meeting with representatives of Americans of Eastern European ancestry, October 12. (Ibid., pp. 2484-2486)


21. National Security Study Memorandum 247/Economic Policy Board Study Memorandum 1, Washington, October 18, 1976.

Assistant to the President for Economic Affairs L. Seidman and Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Brent Scowcroft tasked the Departments of State, Treasury, Defense, Agriculture, Commerce; OMB, the CIA; and the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations to review U.S. policy toward East-West relations and to assess the mutual trade interests of the United States, Western Europe, the USSR, and Eastern Europe.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 48, NSSM 247, U.S. Policy Toward East-West Economic Relations (1). Secret. Copies were sent to the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisors and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


22. National Security Decision Memorandum 340, Washington, November 4, 1976.

The President approved reforms to the Port Security Program that included greater access to U.S. ports for ships of the People's Republic of China, the USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.

Source: Ford Library,NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box 68, NSDM 340 (1). Confidential. Copies were sent to the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, Commerce, and Transportation, as well as the Attorney General, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Director of Central Intelligence, and an administrator of the Energy Research and Development Administration.


23. Memorandum DM-142 From the Chair of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Robinson) to President Ford, Washington, January 6, 1977.

The Under Secretaries Committee submitted the results of its interagency study on International Broadcasting Facilities as requested in NSSM 245.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 46, NSSM 245, President's Report to Congress Concerning International Broadcast Facilities (1). Confidential. NSSM 245 is Document 18. The attached study and draft report to Congress were not found.


24. Draft Report of the Interagency Working Group on National Security Study Memorandum 247/Economic Policy Study Memorandum 1, Washington, January 19, 1977.

The interagency working group on NSSM 247/EPBSM 1 submitted a draft of their review of East-West economic relations.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 48,NSSM 247, U.S. Policy Toward East-West Economic Relations (2). Secret; Noforn; Nocontract. Published here are the, “Short Replies to Questions Posed in NSSM,” the text of the full report is attached but not published. The NSSM/EPBSM directed the study to be prepared by an interagency working group chaired by representatives of the Secretaries of State and Treasury. NSSM 247/EPBSM is Document 21.