India-Pakistan 2


161. Telegram 6591 From the Embassy in India to the Department of State and the Embassy in the United Kingdom, May 18, 1974, 0600Z.

Chargé d'Affaires Schneider reported on his telephone conversation with Indian Foreign Secretary KEWAL SINGH that morning. Singh had telephoned Schneider to inform him that, at 8 a.m., India had conducted a “peaceful nuclear explosion.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Secret; Exdis. A copy was sent niact; immediate to Damascus. On May 23, the President instructed the NSC to study non-proliferation and the NPT in light of the India test; this document will be printed in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, volume XXXV, National Security Policy, 1973–1976.


162. Telegram TOSEC 794/104621 From the Department of State to the Mission to the International Atomic Energy Agency, May 18, 1974, 2238Z.

Deputy Secretary of State Kenneth Rush acknowledged Secretary of State Kissinger's orders for a “low-key” response to the Indian nuclear test and speculated on its long-term implications for nonproliferation and regional instability, but requested permission to develop a longer-term response.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Secret; Immediate; Exdis. It was drafted and approved by Kurze. It was repeated priority to London for Moynihan; and sent immediate to the Mission in Geneva. In Telegram 764 from Damascus, May 18, Kissinger instructed that the Department not issue a strong statement on the Indian nuclear test. Official reaction was to be limited, and any statement would be to the effect that American policy does not favor nuclear proliferation in general because of its adverse effect on world stability. (Ibid.)


163. Telegram 6602 From the Embassy in India to the Embassy in the United Kingdom, May 19, 1974.

Chargé d' Affaires Schneider relayed details of India's nuclear test to Ambassador Moynihan, based on public statements by the chairman of India's Atomic Energy Commission.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, New Delhi Embassy Files: Lot 80 F 5, Subject Files 1974-77, AE-8. Secret; Immediate. It was drafted and approved by Schneider.


164. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 23, 1974, 10:30 a.m.

President Nixon met with Pakistan Minister of State for Defense and Foreign Affairs Ahmed to discuss the Indian nuclear test and other issues.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser Files, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 4, May 23, 1974. Secret. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House. Tab A is not printed.


165. Research Study OPR-5 Prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, June 1974.

The CIA research study “India: Developing Power or Developing Power Vacuum” assessed India as ripe for crisis due to outstanding social, economic, and political problems.

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Executive Registry, Job 80-M01048A, Box 3, India. Confidential. Director of Central Intelligence Colby forwarded the study to the President on June 27 (Ibid.)


166. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, June 3, 1974.

Pakistan Minister of State for Defense and Foreign Affairs Ahmed discussed U.S. military supply policy with Secretary of State Kissinger.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1029, Presidential/HAK Memoranda of Conversations, June 1974-8 August 1974. Secret; Nodis. It was drafted by Constable.


167. Telegram 5623 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, June 12, 1974, 1335Z.

Ambassador Byroade commented on Ambassador Moynihan's cable to the Department of State of June 6 and noted the reaction of “profound shock” to the Indian nuclear test in Pakistan.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 203, Geopolitical File, Pakistan, Chronological File 12 May-31 October 1974. Secret; Nodis. Moynihan's cable is not printed.


168. Telegram 8150 From the Embassy in India to the Department of State, June 19, 1974, 1420Z.

Ambassador Moynihan met with Indian Prime Minister Gandhi to discuss nuclear energy and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Islamabad Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 114, Decentralized Subject Files 1973-74, Pak/India January-June 1974. Confidential. It was repeated to Bombay. Calcutta, Madras, Islamabad, and the Mission to IAEA in Vienna.


169. Memorandum From Director of Central Intelligence Colby to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, June 22, 1974.

DCI Colby submitted intelligence that confirmed that the Indian Government was considering possible military applications of its nuclear capability but had not yet established a weapons program.

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Executive Registry Files, Job 80-M01048A, Box 3. Secret. Printed from a copy that indicates Colby signed the original. Attached but not printed are an interagency intelligence memorandum on “Prospects for an Indian Nuclear Force” and [text not declassified].


170. Memorandum From the Secretary of State Kissinger to President Nixon, Washington, July 23, 1974.

Secretary Kissinger suggested, and President Nixon approved, a response to a letter sent by Prime Minister Bhutto on the eve of Nixon's trip to Moscow that stated his concerns about Soviet, Indian, and Afghan ambitions in South Asia and the threat to Pakistan. Bhutto also requested the end of limitations on U.S. arms sales to Pakistan in light of the Indian nuclear test. Nixon's response emphasized the U.S. commitment to Pakistan's independence and integrity but did not explicitly discuss arms policy then under review.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, Correspondence 1969-1970, Box 760 Pakistan. No classification marking. Nixon initialed his approval. Attached but not printed at Tab B is Bhutto's June 24 letter.


171. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 2, 1974, 11 a.m.

Secretary of State Kissinger met in his office to review Indian-U.S. relations with a delegation that included Indian Foreign Secretary KEWAL SINGH and Ambassador T. N. Kaul.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P820097-0933. It was drafted by Morley and cleared by NEA. Kissinger sent a lengthy summary of this conversation to Ambassador Moynihan in Telegram 170818 to New Delhi, August 6. (Ibid.)


172. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 10, 1974, 12:45 p.m.

Indian Ambassador T. N. Kaul brought his science and economics attachés to meet with Secretary of State Kissinger to review the state of Indian-U.S. relations following President Nixon's resignation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P820097-1159. Secret; Nodis. It was drafted by Morley and approved on August 15 in S. The meeting took place in the Secretary's office. The text of the aide mémoire on the Tarapur nuclear reactor that Kaul presented Kissinger is in Telegram 175346 to New Delhi, August 10. (ibid.).


173. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 21, 1974, 12:20-1:05 p.m.

Ambassador Kaul of India met with President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger and conveyed a letter of greetings from Prime Minister Gandhi.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 5, Ford Administration. Secret; Nodis. Attached but not printed at Tab A is Indira Gandhi's August 20 letter. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House. According to the President's Daily Diary, the meeting lasted approximately 45 minutes. (Ibid., Staff Secretary's Office)


174. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 21, 1974, 12:38 p.m.

Following his inauguration, President Ford met with Pakistani Ambassador Yaqub Khan to discuss the sale of military supplies to Pakistan.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser Files, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 5, August 21, 1974. Secret. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House. On August 10, Kissinger met briefly with Yaqub to reassure him that a commitment to Pakistan's independence and integrity was a “central part of U.S. policy.” (National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P820097-1157)


175. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, September 19, 1974, 5:30-6 p.m.

Indian Foreign Minister SWARAN SINGH and Ambassador Kaul met with President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger. They discussed various issues of concern to Indian-U.S. bilateral relations and Kissinger's planned official visit to India in October.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 5, Ford Administration. Secret; Sensitive. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House.


176. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, September 30, 1974, 4:30 p.m.

Secretary of State Kissinger discussed his upcoming official visit to Pakistan with Minister of State for Defense and Foreign Affairs Ahmed. They also discussed improving the effects of improved U.S. relations with India on U.S.-Pakistan relations as well as U.S. military and food aid to Pakistan.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P820097-2274. Secret; Nodis. It was drafted by Constable and approved on October 15 in S.


177. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, October 17, 1974, 3:40-4:33 p.m.

President Ford discussed U.S. arms and food aid to Pakistan with Foreign and Defense Minister Ahmed.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser Files, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 6, Ford Administration. Secret; Nodis. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House.


178. Telegram 231919 From the Department of State to the Embassy in India, October 22, 1974, 1238Z.

Kissinger authorized Ambassador Moynihan to inform the Indian Government of the sale of 300,000 tons of PL-480 wheat for 1975.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Limited Official Use; Immediate. It was drafted by Morley; cleared by EB/OFP, AID/FFP, USDA, Treasury, GC/AID/TFHA, and NEA; and approved by Kissinger. Moynihan reported disappointment on the part of the Indian officials when he relayed this amount. (Telegram 14249 from New Delhi, October 23; Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Middle East and South Asia, Box 12, India, Telegrams to SecState NODIS (1))


179. Memorandum From the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to President Ford, Washington, October 28, 1974.

Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs Scowcroft relayed to President Ford Kissinger's report on meetings with Indian Prime Minister Gandhi and Foreign Minister SWARAN SINGH during his visit to India.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Trip Briefing Books and Cables for Henry Kissinger, Box 2, October 20-November 9, HAK Messages for President (1). Secret; Sensitive. Ford initialed the memorandum.


180. Memorandum of Conversation, New Delhi, October 29, 1974, 10:40-11:40 a.m.

Secretary of State Kissinger and Ambassador Moynihan called on Indian Minister of Defense SWARAN SINGH at the Ministry of Defence to discuss the Simla negotiations and India's relations with its neighbors in South Asia and with China.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Henry Kissinger 1973-1977, Entry 5403, Box 5, Nodis Memoranda of Conversations, November 1974. Secret; Nodis. The meeting took place at the Ministry of Defense.


181. Information Memorandum From the Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to the President, October 29, 1974.

Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs Scowcroft relayed to President Ford Kissinger's account of his meetings with Indian Cabinet Ministers of Finance, Food, and Defense.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Trip Briefing Books and Cables for Henry Kissinger, Box 2, October 20-November 9, HAK Messages for President (1). Secret; Sensitive. Sent for information. Ford initialed the memorandum. On November 15, Kissinger briefed the Cabinet and the President on his trip. Kissinger reported: “As for South Asia, I went as a result of Indian importuning. I had cancelled it twice before. For their own purposes, the Indians have decided to warm up to us. It must be frustrating for the Soviet Union, after all the aid they had poured in. It is no credit to us—the Indians want hegemony on the subcontinent. We want to draw them away from the Soviet Union.” (Ibid., Memoranda of Conversations, Box 7, Ford Administration)


182. Telegram SECTO 206/14537 From the Embassy in New Delhi to the Department of State, October 29, 1974, 2050Z.

Ambassador Moynihan reported on Secretary of Kissinger's meeting with Indian Foreign Minister Y.B. Chavan in New Delhi.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Confidential; Immediate; Exdis. It was repeated immediate to Islamabad, Dhaka, Tehran, Moscow, Kabul, and Peking.


183. Memorandum of Conversation, Islamabad, October 31, 1974, 2-3:30 p.m

Secretary of State Kissinger met with Prime Minister Bhutto during his official visit to Pakistan for a wide-ranging discussion of international issues. Although Bhutto did not specifically raise the issue of arms sales, he referred to the need to deal with India from a position of relative strength.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Henry Kissinger, Entry 5403, Box 5, Nodis Memoranda of Conversations, November 1974. Secret. The meeting took place in the Prime Minister's office.


184. Telegram 11321 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, December 4, 1974, 1010Z.

Ambassador Byroade offered an assessment of Pakistan's foreign relations for the last quarter of 1974.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Confidential. It was repeated to Abu Dhabi, Colombo, Dhaka, Hong Kong, Jidda, Kabul, Karachi, Katmandu, Lahore, London, Manama, Moscow, New Delhi, Tehran, USLO Peking, and CINCPAC for Polad.


185. Telegram 268984 From the Department of State to the Mission to the United Nations and the Embassy in Pakistan, December 7, 1974, 0011Z

The telegram summarized Under Secretary Sisco's meeting with Ambassador YAQUB KHAN on December 5 to explain the reasons why the United States would continue to abstain from voting on Pakistan's proposal in the General Assembly for a South Asia Nuclear Free Zone.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Confidential. It was drafted by David Thompson (IO/UNP); cleared by IO, NEA/PAB, and ACDA/IR; approved by Arnold Raphel (P). It was repeated to New Delhi, Colombo, Katmandu, Kabul, Dhaka, Bonn, London, and NATO.


186. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, January 6, 1975, 4 p.m

Secretary of State Kissinger met with the subcommission chairs of the U.S.-Indian Joint Commission to discuss the work of the Commission and noted that the greatest opportunities would be in promoting educational and scientific cooperation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Limited Official Use; Exdis. It was drafted by Kux and approved on January 26 in S. The meeting was held in the Secretary's office.


187. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, January 27, 1975, 3 p.m.

Secretary of State Kissinger met with Ambassador-designate William B. Saxbe to discuss his appointment as Ambassador to India.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Secret; Nodis. It was drafted by Kux and approved on February 19 in S.


188. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, February 5, 1975, 10:30-11:45 a.m.

President Ford met with Prime Minister Bhutto during his official visit and discussed several issues of concern to Pakistan-U.S. relations, including military and food aid.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 203, Geopolitical File, Pakistan, Chronological File, 1 Nov. 1974-15 Aug. 1975. Secret. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House.


189. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, February 5, 1975, 2:30-3:30 p.m.

Secretary of State Kissinger met with Prime Minister Bhutto during his official visit to Washington to discuss Pakistan-U.S. relations and nuclear issues, including the South Asia Nuclear Free Zone proposal and Pakistan's relations with India and Bangladesh.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Secret; Nodis. It was drafted by Constable and approved on May 11 in S. The meeting took place in Blair House. On February 6, Kissinger hosted a lunch for Bhutto and Senator Charles Percy attended. The memorandum of conversation of the meeting is ibid.


190. Telegram 2410 From the Embassy in India to the Department of State, February 20, 1975, 1355Z.

Chargé d'Affaires Schneider reported that Indian Foreign Secretary KEWAL SINGH requested that the U.S. defer its announcement to resume arms sales to Pakistan until after Foreign Minister Chavan's visit to Washington in March.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Middle East and South Asia, Box 12, India, State Telegrams to SecState NODIS (2). Secret; NIACT Immediate; Nodis.