India-Pakistan 1


103. Telegram 32 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, January 2, 1973, 1048Z.

The Embassy assessed the Bhutto Government's first year in power, with a specific focus on Pakistan's foreign policy.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, Political and Defense, POL 1 PAK. Confidential. It was repeated to Dhaka, Hong Kong, Kabul, Karachi, Lahore, London, Moscow, New Delhi, and Tehran. Sober offered a separate assessment of the Pakistan domestic political situation in Telegram 355 from Islamabad, January 11. (Ibid.)


104. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, January 29, 1973, 1:15-2:20 p.m.

Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Kissinger and Indian Ambassador Jha discussed Indo-U.S. relations on the occasion of Jha's departure from his post. Much of the conversation also included the relations of India to its regional neighbors in South and Southeast Asia.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1030, Presidential/HAK Memoranda of Conversations, HAK/Amb. Jha and Amb. Kaul of India [2 of 2]. Top Secret; Sensitive; Exclusively Eyes Only. The meeting took place in Kissinger's office in the White House.


105. Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon, Washington, January 31, 1973.

Secretary of State ROGERS summarized a report that offered a fundamental reassessment of American interests and policies in South Asia that reflected recent developments. Although the report focused on U.S. policy in South Asia in general, its principal focus was the prospect for improved bilateral relations with India.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 202, Geopolitical File, Pakistan, Chronological File, 13 September 1971-7 March 1973. Secret. Attached but not printed are the four unpublished attachments, “Military Supply Policy: Interim Recommendations,” “Talking Points for Ambassador Moynihan,” “South Asia Policy: Interests and Options,” and “South Asia Scenario.”


106. Conversation Between President Nixon and Ambassador Moynihan, Washington, February 8, 1973, 2:34-3:07 p.m.

Ambassador Moynihan spoke to President Nixon on the day the U.S. Senate confirmed his appointment as Ambassador to India.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Tapes, Oval Office, Conversation No. 853-16. No classification marking. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House.


107. Intelligence Note RNAN-9 Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, February 15, 1973.

On February 10, the Pakistani military seized a cache of Soviet-made arms in the Iraqi Embassy in Islamabad, which the Government of Pakistan claimed was being used to support separatist elements in Baluchistan. The Bureau of Intelligence and Research compiled a brief synopsis of the events and analyzed the political repercussions.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, DEF 12 PAK. Secret; No Foreign Dissem. It was drafted by Howells and Gerth; cleared by Jones, and approved by Mark.


108. Telegram 1389 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, February 16, 1973, 1139Z.

The Embassy reported that Prime Minister Bhutto apparently had used the Iraqi arms smuggling controversy as an opportunity to purge opposition governments in Baluchistan and on the frontier through constitutional means; however, the Embassy also speculated that the move may signal the “end of his government's experiment with democracy.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, Political & Defense, POL 23-8 PAK. Confidential; Priority. It was repeated pPriority to Kabul, Karachi, and Lahore, and to New Delhi and Tehran. On February 14, Bhutto sent a letter to Nixon requesting U.S. aid to combat what he believed to be Soviet attempts to subvert Pakistan. (Ibid., POL PAK-US)


109. Telegram 1606 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, February 24, 1973, 0652Z.

1The Embassy attempted to gauge the impact of the Iraqi arms incident on Pakistan's foreign and domestic policy but admitted, “we have never known the principal facts.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, DEF 12 PAK. Confidential. It was repeated to Dhaka, Colombo, Kabul, London, Moscow, New Delhi, Tehran, Karachi, and Lahore.


110. Telegram 1608 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, February 24, 1973, 0826Z.

The Embassy commented on previous assessments of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research that cast doubt on Prime Minister Bhutto's allegations of Soviet arms being smuggled into Pakistan. While it agreed that Bhutto had definitely used the crisis as an opportunity to request U.S. support and to discredit domestic opposition, the Embassy was reluctant to dismiss outright the possibility of Soviet involvement.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL PAK USSR. Secret; No Foreign Dissem. It was drafted by Sober and repeated to Kabul, Karachi, Lahore, London, Moscow, New Delhi, and Tehran.


111. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, March 7, 1973.

President Nixon approved a reversion to the 1967-1971 policy for South Asia that would authorize sales of non-lethal military aid to Pakistan and would provide the Pakistanis with armored personnel carriers sold under the 1970 “one-time exception.” Nixon also conditionally authorized the release of suspended pre-1971 loans to India.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 202, Geopolitical File, Pakistan, Chronological File, 13 September 1971-7 March 1973. Secret. Sent for action. Nixon approved the recommendations. A copy without Nixon's signature's approvals is in the National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 628, Pakistan, Vol. X, Sept. 72-Oct. 73, Country Files, Middle East.


112. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, March 7, 1973.

President's Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger advised President Nixon of Prime Minister Bhutto's recently stated claims of Soviet-Indian alignment against Pakistan and presented a letter of reply for Nixon's signature.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 202, Geopolitical File, Pakistan, Chronological File, 13 September 1971-7 March 1973. Secret. Sent for action. Attached but not printed is a signed copy of Nixon's March 8 letter to Bhutto. (Ibid.)


113. Conversation Between President Nixon and his Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, March 8, 1973, 9:54-10:05 a.m.

Kissinger discussed the potential impact of releasing military equipment to Pakistan that had been purchased prior to the arms embargo.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Tapes, Oval Office, Conversation No. 872-3. No classification marking. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House.


114. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, March 8, 1973, 4:30 p.m.

President's Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger met with Khar for a brief discussion of military aid and other issues of bilateral concern after Khar's meeting with President Nixon earlier that day.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 612, Pakistan, Vol. X, Sept. 72-Oct. 73, Country Files, Middle East. Secret. It was drafted by Saunders. The meeting took place in Kissinger's office.


115. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, March 8, 1973.

President's Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger summarized cables from Ambassador Moynihan in which the Ambassador evinced strong opposition to potential resumption of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 203, Geopolitical File, Pakistan, Chronological File, 8 March 1973-11 May 1974. Secret. Sent for information. Nixon appended a lengthy handwritten comment: “K—Moynihan will be desperately disappointed—do your best to reassure him—pointing out the overriding consideration (in confidence) which leads to this one time exception—also point out—letting the balance get too much on India's side could lead to another war & to China intervention.” In telegram 2632 from New Delhi, March 7, Moynihan had first stated his objections to Pakistani arms sales to the Secretary of State. (Ibid.)


116. Telegram 44799 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Pakistan, March 10, 1973, 1728Z.

Secretary of State ROGERS summarized his meeting with Special Emissary Khar of Pakistan. Pakistani officials complained that the Indian Government was delaying the Simla peace process and expressed concerns about Soviet ambitions in South Asia. ROGERS replied that U.S. policy was under currently under review.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Dhaka Embassy Files: Lot 76 F 62. Confidential; Priority. It was repeated priority to New Delhi and to Dhaka, Tehran, London, Moscow, and the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.


117. Telegram 48647 From the Department of State to the Embassy in India, March 16, 1973, 0032Z.

Assistant Secretary of State of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Sisco reported on a meeting with Indian Ambassador L. K. Jha to discuss tensions in Indo-U.S. relations, especially regarding the U.S. decision to resume arms sales to Pakistan.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL INDIA-US. Secret; Immediate. It was drafted on March 15 by Hawes; cleared by NEA/INS; and approved by Sisco.


118. Telegram 49943 From the Department of State to the Embassies in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Iran, March 17, 1973, 2044Z.

The Department relayed a summary of Ambassador Moynihan's first official meeting with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, covering various topics, such as U.S. arms sales to Pakistan, PL-480 food aid, and the Simla negotiations between India and Pakistan.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. It was drafted by Holmes; cleared by NEA/IRN and NEA; and approved by Laingen. Secret; Exdis.


119. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, March 27, 1973, 2:30-2:50 p.m.

Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Kissinger met briefly with Indian Finance Minister Y. B. Chavan to discuss the U.S.-Indian economic relations.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 150, Geopolitical File, India, Chronological File, 2 Jan-27 June 1973. Secret. It was drafted on March 29. Brackets in the original.


120. Conversation Between President Nixon, his Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), and the Indian Ambassador to the United States (Jha), Washington, March 30, 1973.

Nixon and Kissinger met with Jha before his departure from Washington to discuss the state of United States-Indian relations.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Tapes, Oval Office, Conversation No. 890-17. No classification marking. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House. The transcript is part of a longer conversation that took place between 11:39 and 11:56 a.m.


121. Telegram 3743 From the Embassy in India to the Department of State, April 2, 1973, 1615Z.

Ambassador Moynihan submitted a country summary for India.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Colombo Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 54, Subject Files 1973, POL 3 Organizations and Agreements. Secret; Priority. It was repeated to Amman, Ankara, Athens, Beirut, Colombo, Dhaka, Islamabad, Jidda, Kabul, Katmandu, Kuwait, Nicosia, Sanaa, Tel Aviv, Theran, Abu Dhabi, Manama, and Muscat.


122. Intelligence Note No. RNAN-15 Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, April 2, 1973.

The Bureau assessed the reactions in India and Pakistan to the resumption of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, DEF 12-5 India. Limited Official Use. It was drafted by Jones; cleared by James Leader (INR); and approved by Mark (INR/Near East and South Asia).


123. Telegram 2770 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, April 5, 1973, 0926Z.

The Embassy prepared a summary of Pakistan's foreign and domestic situation as requested by the Department of State.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL PAK. Confidential; Immediate. It was drafted by Sober and repeated to Colombo, Dhaka, Kabul, Katmandu, New Delhi, Tehran, Amman, Ankara, Athens, Beirut, Jidda, Karachi, Kuwait, Lahore, Nicosia, Sanaa, Tel Aviv, Abu Dhabi, Manama, and Muscat.


124. Telegram DEPTO 70/2683 From the Embassy in Iran to the Department of State, April 22, 1973, 1135Z.

Deputy Secretary Rush recounted his meeting with Indian Prime Minister Gandhi. Ambassador Moynihan and Assistant Secretary Sisco accompanied him.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL INDIA-US. Confidential; Limdis. It was repeated to Dhaka and Islamabad. Rush reported a further meeting on April 20 with Indian Foreign Minister SWARAN SINGH. (Telegram 2749 from Tehran, April 25; ibid., RG 84, Colombo Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 54, Subject Files 1973, POL US/INDO Relations).


125. Telegram DEPTO 101 From the Mission in Geneva to the Department of State and the Embassy in Pakistan, April 27, 1973, 1356Z.

Deputy Secretary Rush reported on his meeting with Prime Minister Bhutto on April 26. Bhutto expressed concerns about Pakistan's relations with Bangladesh and India following those countries' recent joint declaration and about Soviet ambitions in South Asia. Rush clarified U.S. policy toward the Simla negotiations and reassured Bhutto of U.S. desire for close relations with Pakistan.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL PAK-US. Secret; Priority. It was repeated priority to New Delhi, Dhaka, Moscow, Tehran, and Kabul.


126. Telegram 3585 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, May 3, 1973, 0605Z.

The Embassy assessed Pakistan's domestic political situation as more stable following its government's passage of a new constitution on April 10.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 15-1 PAK. Confidential. It was repeated to Karachi, Lahore, New Delhi, and Tehran. The Embassy had reported on the ratification process in telegrams 2903, April 10 (Ibid.), 2993, April 12, (Ibid., Central Foreign Policy Files), and 3017, April 13, (Ibid., Central Files 1970-73, POL 15-5 PAK) all from Islamabad.


127. Telegram 88965 From the Department of State to the Embassies in Pakistan and India, May 10, 1973, 1754Z

Secretary of State ROGERS issued the White House's statement on current arms supply policy toward India and Pakistan.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, New Delhi Embassy Files: Lot 78 F 45, Subject Files 1974 DEF 19 Mil Asst/MAP/Sales 1974. Confidential. It was repeated to Tehran, London, USUN, Dhaka, SecDef, and CINCPAC.


128. Telegram 4533 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, June 4, 1973, 1101Z.

Chargé Sydney Sober reported that Prime Minister Bhutto requested that he act as an intermediary with Baluchistan Governor Bizenjo in order to quell political tensions between the provincial and central governments.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 15-1 PAK. Confidential; Stadis; Exdis; Eyes Only for Sisco and Meyer. Telegram Islamabad 4532 outlined the particulars of the problem in greater detail, including anti-government violence, to which Bhutto had responded with limited military force to keep order. Sober summarized his subsequent meeting with Bizenjo in Telegram Islamabad 4659 on June 7. (Ibid.)


129. Telegram 109643 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Pakistan, June 7, 1973, 1452Z.

Assistant Secretary of State of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Sisco ordered Chargé Sober to cease acting as a channel of communication between Prime Minister Bhutto and regional leader Mir Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo due to concerns that the U.S. could be accused of meddling in Pakistani domestic affairs.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 15-1 PAK. Confidential; Stadis; Exdis. It was drafted by Armin Meyer on June 6 and approved by ROGERS, Sisco, and Porter.


130. Telegram 4712 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, June 8, 1973, 1142Z.

Chargé Sydney Sober reported to Assistant Secretary of State of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Sisco that, as instructed, he had informed Bhutto that he could no longer act as an intermediary in the Baluchistan conflict.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 15-1 PAK. Confidential; Priority; Exdis; Stadis; Eyes Only for Sisco.


131. Telegram 115596 From the Department of State to the Embassy in India, June 14, 1973, 1454Z.

Ambassador Meyer met with Indian Ambassador Kaul to discuss the U.S. Government's position on Indian debt rescheduling. Kaul pressed Meyer for a more definite declaration of availability of future U.S. aid to India, noting that the current vagueness of U.S. intentions would hamper India's ability to construct its fifth five-year economic plan. Meyer indicated that he believed the U.S. would rule in favor of extending future aid to India.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, AID 3 India. Confidential; Immediate. It was repeated immediate to the Mission to OECD. It was drafted by Kux; cleared by AID/ASIA and NEA/INS; and approved by Meyer.


132. Telegram 116421 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Pakistan, June 15, 1973, 0005Z.

The Department offered its approval of recent Embassy initiatives to assist Pakistan's efforts to combat the production of opium. It authorized Embassy personnel to convey assurances of U.S. support by both equipping interdiction strike teams and by providing development assistance as economic compensation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5 PAK. Confidential; Priority; Exdis. It was drafted on June 14 by Robert Flaten (NEA/PAB); cleared NEA/PAB, S/NM, BNDD, and AID/ASIA. NE; and approved by Davies.