54. Editorial Note

On January 20, Assistant White House Staff Secretary John S.D. Eisenhower included the following preview of the Baghdad Pact meeting and related developments in his Synopsis of State and Intelligence Material reported to the President:

“As the Baghdad Pact meeting in Karachi approaches, we find many expressions of discouragement from its members. This, I am [Page 208] advised, is partly a local rumbling prior to these meetings representing an effort on the part of the various member countries to secure more U.S. aid. However, we have the following reports:

  • “(a) Allen Dulles reported a couple of days ago that the situation in Iran has taken an ugly turn. The Shah has stated that he will have to turn more to the Communists for help if American aid is not increased. He may sign a non-aggression pact with the USSR.
  • “(b) Pakistan has shown discouragement over the amount of aid received by India, and has expressed a view that there is nothing to be gained by “standing up to be counted.”
  • “(c) The policies of the opposition party in Turkey which I have mentioned advocate withdrawal from the Baghdad Pact. This is significant in view of the fact that the regime of Menderes is losing strength.
  • “(d) Qasim in Iraq is in a weak position and largely dependent on Communists. He has stated twice that he plans to maintain a strict neutrality. This can hardly be conducive to enthusiastic support of the Baghdad Pact.
  • “(e) Our Ambassador Warren (Turkey) has reported his concern over these feelings of discouragement and has urged forceful action, including acceding as far as possible to the regional members’ wishes on the bilaterals, inviting the ministerial council to Washington for its next session, sending a strong Presidential message, and having the Vice President or the Secretary of State visit Karachi during the council session.” (Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, Eisenhower Diaries)