Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the Embassy of the United States
Soviet Government confirms receipt note Government USA of September 22 answering notes Soviet Government August 4 and August 15.3 Familiarity with note of September 2 shows that in note of US Government questions raised by Soviet Government, consideration of which would assist in regulation of international problems which have come to head and in strengthening of peace and international security, have been passed over.
In its note of August 4, Soviet Government proposed consideration question measures assisting general lessening tension in international situation and also German question including problem re-establishment unity Germany and conclusion peace treaty. In addition to this, in note of August 15 Soviet Government outlined basic problems connected with essential tasks of solving German problem.
Advancing these proposals Soviet Government had and has as its aim achievement of agreements which would answer aspirations of peoples toward stabilization of peace and would assist in solution German problem in accordance with interests peace-loving peoples of Europe as well as of German people itself. Questions raised in notes of Soviet Government under reference have by present time acquired still greater significance.
First of all concerning lessening of international tension importance of which is not disputed in note of US Government of September 2.
Soviet Government has noted fact that achievement armistice in Korea has created favorable situation in which to achieve lessening of tension in international situation. However, recently there have been created new difficulties in solution Korean problem. Very calling of political conference on Korean problem is meeting with serious difficulties inasmuch as in defining the composition of the political conference at Seventh Session GA as result of all kinds of measures on part USA there was demonstrated impermissible one-sidedness [Page 640] and gross underestimation of importance of actions in agreement with such directly interested countries as Chinese Peoples Republic and Korean Peoples Democratic Republic. Moreover success political conference in many ways depends on joint efforts both interested sides and participation other governments which cooperated in achievement armistice and which are striving for definitive regulation of Korean problem. Also aggressiveness of South Korean Syngman Rhee clique which ceaselessly repeats threats to break armistice draws attention to itself.
In relation Asian countries one must not overlook other political problems having particular significance for national interests of these states and for stabilization of peace which have come to head. In this connection first of all one must point to necessity reestablishing legal rights Chinese People’s Republic according to which reestablishment its inalienable rights in United Nations organization must be secured, achievement of which at present time opposition of only certain states is hindering. The unpostponed regulation of such a problem is necessary in the interests of lessening international tension. The same is true of a number of other important problems relating to the situation in the countries of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. In the regulation of such problems as well as to achieve general lessening of tension in international relations continual participation of Chinese People’s Republic is necessary. As is well known in laying very foundations of United Nations organization place of China in solution Pacific problems of peace and security and peoples was defined in this very fashion.
As regards Europe recent political events in West Germany have increased alarm in peace-loving states. In West Germany especially in view of pressure on part foreign circles which base themselves on big German monopolies the influence of revanchist elements is becoming stronger and these elements have again started to talk in the language of the aggressive Drang nach Osten policy which has already brought not only other peoples but also the German people itself innumerable misfortunes. Although the failure of this policy is inevitable the peace-loving states of Europe and in particular the neighbors of West Germany cannot overlook these negative facts of political development in Western Germany, since in the center of Europe more and more former Hitlerites are raising their heads and the threat of creating a new dangerous nidus of aggression is growing. In its note on August 4 the Soviet Government taking into account the danger of the aggressive policy carried on by North Atlantic bloc emphasized importance of the question of limiting armaments and not permitting military bases on territory of other states. To pass over consideration of this question would mean to ignore a matter which has most important significance for [Page 641] lessening international tension. Specifically the continuing arms race especially in connection with the accumulation of atomic hydrogen and other weapons of mass destruction of people demands that there should be no postponement in considering the question of limiting armaments and outlawing atomic hydrogen and other weapons of mass destruction with the establishment of effective international control over execution of the appropriate agreements concerned. Nor may one deny that the creation by certain powers in the countries of Europe, Africa and Asia of air and sea bases especially numerous near the borders of USSR and countries of peoples democracies has aggressive aims. Refusal to consider the question of military bases on the territory of other states naturally may be considered as evidencing unwillingness to cooperate in the lessening of international tension and is capable of undermining the faith in all statements regarding aspirations of regulating ripe international problems.
Inasmuch as both Soviet Government and Government of US have repeatedly spoken of their aspirations to lessen international tension one cannot overlook the fact that propaganda for a new war and calls for new acts of aggression have not ceased and that governments of certain states have openly undertaken acts of diversion, threat and sabotage in countries of democratic camp. Not only is well known resolution of GA condemning war propaganda frequently unobserved, but also official circles of certain states praising “policy of force” are encouraging strengthening of “cold war” etc. Entirely evident that to achieve lessening tension in international relations it is necessary to undertake measures which would effectively rebuff continuing propaganda of new air and all attempts on part aggressive circles undermine faith of peoples in safeguarding and strengthening peace and international security.
From what has been said, it follows that important problems of international significance have come to head which demand unpostponed joint consideration USA, France, Great Britain, Chinese Peoples Republic and Soviet Union, inasmuch as in accordance with charter UN responsibility for safeguarding peace and international security lies above all with these countries.
Accordingly, Soviet Government in note of August 4 proposed to consider at conference of Foreign Ministers questions concerning measures for lessening tension in international relations. Significance of consideration such important international questions is completely self-evident. Nonetheless, in US note of September 2, necessity of relaxation of tension in international situation is grossly underestimated, since in answer of US Government, above mentioned important international problems which have come to head were passed over.[Page 642]
In notes of August 4 and 15, Soviet Government also proposed full consideration of German problem at conference Foreign Ministers. At same time Soviet Government proposed consideration following questions:
- Calling peace conference to consider question of peace treaty with Germany;
- Creation provisional all German Government and holding free and all German elections;
- Relieving financial and economic obligations of Germany connected with consequences of war.
Out of all these questions in United States Government’s note of September 2 only question of all German elections is touched on and all other questions having outstanding significance for solution of German problem are ignored. Such position is all the more untenable since all German elections are exclusively internal affair of Germans and must be decided by German people itself without allowing interference on part of foreign powers.
On other hand note of September 2 overlooks vital problems relating to Germany, solution of which under present conditions is impossible without active participation and cooperation of four occupying powers: USA, France, England and USSR.
Soviet Government has twice sent to United States Government, as well as to Governments England and France, its draft peace treaty with Germany and proposed this draft be considered and that it (United States Government) present its draft peace treaty for consideration. One year and one-half has gone by without United States Government having expressed its opinion regarding Soviet draft peace treaty and without having presented its own draft.4
In note August 15 this year Soviet Government proposed calling peace conference within 6 months in which all interested states would participate and in which necessary German representation at all stages of preparing peace treaty and peace conference would be assured. United States note in reply overlooked question of calling peace conference although one cannot argue with significance of such conference.
According to Soviet Government’s proposal, formation of provisional all German democratic government was to have assisted in the unification of Germany on peaceful and democratic principles. This government could either have replaced existing governments in East and West Germany in advance of holding all German free elections or it could have temporarily taken on itself certain all [Page 643] German functions and, above all, the preparation and holding of all German free elections, while the presently existing governments in East and West Germany were maintained. The Government of the USA did not agree with this proposal of the Soviet Government. This attitude toward the above-mentioned proposal of the Soviet Government excludes practical and possible measures directed toward re-establishing unity of Germany, inasmuch as no all German organ is being formed which could carry out the will of the German people in the preparation of all German elections. From this moreover it follows that there is intent actually transmit the holding of all German elections to the occupation powers and this makes possible impermissible pressure on the part of foreign authorities on the whole course of preparing and holding the elections.
In its note of September 2 the Government of the United States gave up finally, the creation of the so-called “neutral commission” composed of representatives of foreign powers “to investigate with the aim of creating conditions” for carrying out all German elections and which, as is well known it had not given up in its note of July 15,5 of this year, and on which it had previously insisted over the course of many months. But in this case objections to the Soviet proposition that the holding of elections be given over to the Germans of East and West Germany themselves without any kind of interference and pressure on the part of foreign powers should have disappeared.
In its note of August 15 this year, the Soviet Government in addition proposed to the Governments of the USA, France and England to decide to lessen the financial and economic obligations of Germany connected with the consequences of the war, namely:
From January 1, 1954 to free Germany from payment of reparations and post-war debts to the four powers;
To limit the extent of occupation costs to sums not exceeding 5 per cent of the incomes of the state budgets of East and West Germany;
To free Germany fully from the repayment of indebtedness connected with external occupation costs of the four powers which had come about since 1945.
All these questions relating to relieving the financial and economic obligations of Germany connected with the consequence of the war were passed over in the United States Government note of September 2. Moreover, acceptance of the proposals of the Soviet Government would have now resulted in significant economical relief to the German people and would have assisted in raising the [Page 644] level of the German economy which naturally is what the population of Germany expects inasmuch as more than 8 years have passed since the end of the war. The Soviet Government continues to consider it necessary for the Government of the United States and equally for the Governments of England and France to state definitely their attitude toward the Soviet Government’s proposals under reference. The necessity for an unpostponed solution to the vital questions under reference relating to Germany is dictated by the fact that recently there have been undertaken more and more new measures of anti-democratic external influencing intended to achieve the ratification by the parliaments of the governments concerned of both Bonn and Paris agreements as a result of which it is intended to accomplish the militarization of Western Germany and to make it into an obedient weapon of the aggressive North Atlantic bloc. All this has been going on despite the fact that ratification and execution of these agreements would turn Western Germany into a nidus of new aggression with all the dangerous consequences ensuing therefrom for the German people and for the cause of maintaining peace in Europe and would make impossible the uniting of Western and Eastern Germany into a single state.
In view of this situation, Soviet Government while agreeing to proposal of Government USA to consider question of all German elections considers that in addition it is necessary that at conference of Foreign Ministers consideration German problem not be limited only to this question. It is necessary to agree that consideration of German problem at coming conference should include all basic questions mentioned above and, in addition, that representatives of both Western and Eastern Germany should take part in this discussion.
In accordance with above Soviet Government proposes to call conference of Foreign Ministers proceeding from following:
- To consider at conference composed of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of United States, United Kingdom, France, CPR, and Soviet Union measures to lessen tension in international relations.
- To discuss at conference composed of Foreign Ministers United States, France, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union German problem including all proposals introduced in course of preparing conference.
Soviet Government has not yet received from United States Government answer to its note of August 28 concerning Austrian treaty6 and expresses readiness to continue discussion of this question in normal diplomatic channels. (Poryadok)[Page 645]
Soviet Government is sending similar notes to Governments France and United Kingdom.
- Transmitted in telegram 421 from Moscow, Sept. 28. This translation should be compared for minor textual differences with that in Department of State Bulletin, Oct. 26, 1953, pp. 548–550.↩
- Document 268.↩
- Documents 259 and 264.↩
- For Soviet note of Mar. 10, 1952, to which was attached the Soviet draft treaty, see Document 65.↩
- Document 257.↩
- Regarding the Soviet note of Aug. 28, see Document 882.↩