No. 264
The Soviet Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the Embassy of the United States 1

Soviet Government considers it necessary once again to call attention of Government of USA as well as Governments of England and France to the abnormal situation in which Germany eight years after end of war in Europe, is without peace treaty, remains split into Eastern and Western parts, and is in unequal position with relation to other states. Such situation contradicts aspirations of peace-loving peoples for strengthening of peace in Europe and is, moreover, violation of legitimate national interests of German people.

As far back as March 10, 1952, Soviet Government presented for consideration of Governments of USA, England and France draft of bases for peace treaty with Germany in connection with which Governments of USA, England and France have not, up to present time, expressed their attitude.2 (Draft of bases of peace treaty with Germany is enclosed.3) Governments of USA, England, and France have also not presented their draft of peace treaty. It follows from this that governments of three indicated powers underestimate importance of question of peace treaty with Germany. Question of peace treaty with Germany is being dragged out more and more, for which responsibility is borne primarily by Governments of USA, England and France.

Refusing to examine question of peace treaty with Germany, Governments of USA, England and France embarked upon another course on May 26, 1952, Governments of USA, England and France along with Bonn Government of Adenauer signed “Treaty on Relations Between Three Powers and Federal Republic of Germany”,4 which is known as “Bonn agreement”; and on May 27 of same year, Treaty for “European Defense Community”5 known by name [Page 618] of “Paris agreement” was signed along with Bonn Government by Governments of France, Italy, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg. Thereby, both the “Bonn agreement” as well as “Paris agreement” are indissolubly bound for 50 years to come with aggressive North Atlantic bloc of powers.

As is known, sense of “Paris agreement” is that armed forces entering into composition of so-called “European army” destined for aggressive aims of North Atlantic bloc are to be created in Western Germany under leadership of Hitlerite generals and other revanchists. According to “Bonn agreement” Western Germany will remain in position of dependent state subordinated to three powers which, regardless of formal abolition of Occupation Statute,6 maintain their troops on territory of Western Germany with unlimited rights of interference in its internal affairs. This preserves for many years enslavement of Western German population under conditions of modified occupation regime.

This means Bonn and Paris agreements are leading to rebirth of German militarism and to transformation of Western Germany into a tool of aggressive plans of other powers which pretend to world domination.

As can be seen from communiqué of conference of Foreign Ministers of United States, England and France which took place in July 1953 in Washington,7 Governments of Three Powers decided to pursue further policy directed toward realization of plan to create “European Army” and to include in it West German armed forces led by Hitlerite generals. In communiqué it is shown outright that “Three Foreign Ministers reaffirm their strong intention to pursue energetically the policy upon which their governments agreed within framework of Atlantic Treaty. This policy includes work on creation of European unity of six European countries which have already created unification of coal and steel and whose governments have signed treaty for a European defense community”. Course which Governments of USA, England and France have taken in German question is leading to rebirth of German militarism, to creation of dangerous focus of new aggression, to continuing increase of danger of new war in Europe. To follow this course means to renounce those solemn international obligations which set up goal of promoting restoration of Germany as peace-loving and democratic state and which were undertaken by United States of America and England at Potsdam Conference in 1945 and subsequently adhered to by France.

[Page 619]

Other course is course which corresponds to peace-loving goals and obligations undertaken by Four Powers with regard to Germany immediately after ending of war and which respond to interests of strengthening peace in Europe. In this connection however it is impossible not to recognize fact that since time of Potsdam Conference eight years have passed and that since that time not a few changes have come about which must be taken into account at final regulation of German problem. However basic aims of Potsdam Agreement—to promote creation of peace-loving Germany—express as before interests of all European peoples including German people and must be guaranteed by means of concluding peace treaty with Germany.

Solution of this task will create conditions for unprecedented growth of Germany with its great possibilities for development of its economy and culture. No one can deny that rebirth of Germany as a great power worthy of occupying corresponding place among other powers is possible only by way of peaceful and democratic development of German State, by way of friendly cooperation with other states striving for strengthening of peace and international security. Experience of history shows more than once already course of war has led Germany to national catastrophe and that German people have paid dearly as a consequence.

There is no doubt that conclusion peace treaty with Germany has first rank significance for settlement German problem. It will in decisive fashion contribute to stabilizing peace in Europe and will permit definitive decision appropriate questions having arisen as result second world war in which are vitally interested European states which have suffered from Hitlerite aggression, and first of all Germany’s neighbors. Conclusion peace treaty with Germany is also necessary in view fact that threat reestablishment of German militarism, which has twice unleashed world war, has not been removed inasmuch as appropriate decisions of Potsdam Conference still remain unfulfilled. Peace treaty with Germany will establish stable conditions of peace for German people, will contribute to development of Germany as united, independent, democratic and peace-loving state, will assure the German people of possibility peaceful cooperation with other peoples on basis equal rights.

Governments USA, England and France justify their refusal to consider peace treaty with Germany by fact that there does not as yet exist all-German Government which could take part in preparation of treaty. However, such type of motives for refusal to consider peace treaty do not correspond with real state of affairs. In reality policy of USA, England and France will lead to result that not only will consideration question of peace treaty be even further [Page 620] postponed, since this policy is directed at reinforcing division of Germany, toward prohibiting reestablishment of German unity.

At present time more and more new measures of pressure are being carried out in order that Bonn and Paris agreements be ratified by appropriate states despite serious opposition which exists on part parliaments several states. This pressure, and especially on part US Government, has aim of hastening creation armed forces of Western Germany and their inclusion in “European Army” provided for by Paris Agreement in order to turn Western Germany, which is dependent on states North Atlantic bloc into weapon for implementation plans of this bloc. But inclusion Western Germany in “European Army” and North Atlantic bloc will render impossible unification Western and Eastern Germany into one state. Peace-loving peoples of all Europe are interested in establishment united and peace-loving Germany, as German people itself is also interested in this. But from that time when Bonn Government brings Western Germany into aggressive North Atlantic bloc unification Western and Eastern Germany will be rendered impossible. For exactly this reason overwhelming majority Germans not only in German Democratic Republic but also in Western Germany oppose plans Adenauer Government for bringing Western Germany into “European Army” and North Atlantic bloc, and in this regard peace-loving peoples of all Europe are on their side.

From what has been said above it is evident that policy Governments USA, England and France, and equally of Adenauer Government, is directed not toward unification Germany and not toward formation all-German Government but toward leaving Germany divided into parts for many years. Such policy is directly aimed opposition to formation all-German Democratic Government.

Consequently, refusal to consider peace treaty with Germany under pretext non-existence all-German Government does not reflect real motives for this refusal.

From what has been said above it is also evident that present policy Governments USA, England and France is directed both against deciding question of peace treaty and against unification Germany on peace-loving and democratic basis, against formation all-German Democratic Government.

Governments USA, England and France instead of deciding question of formation all-German Democratic Government introduce a different proposal. They propose to discuss question of all-German elections but reduce this matter to consideration by Four Powers of their proposal for appointment so-called neutral commission from representatives foreign states “for investigation with aim creating conditions” for conducting these elections.

[Page 621]

It is impossible to evaluate this other than as attempt transfer conduct elections in Germany to hands foreign powers, to foist on German people for this purpose all sorts of foreign “investigators”, as if matter concerns not Germany which has democratic traditions of many years standing, but some sort of colony without rights. Such proposal leads to pushing German people aside from decision its internal question, is expression of crude lack of faith in German people and, naturally, is met with rebuff on part wide circles German population.

Above indicated proposal Governments USA, England and France in its essence departs from principles of democratism which found its expression in Potsdam decisions. This proposal, according to statement of Three Powers, has been agreed upon with Adenauer Government, which serves interests greatest capitalist monopolies of Western Germany, which more and more unleashes hands yesterday’s Hitlerites and open Fascists for suppression German democratic forces, which represents mouthpiece of extreme German nationalists and revanchists, who are striving for the rebirth of German militarism for new aggressive wars. In this connection it is impossible to forget that Adenauer Government has invariably come out against very possibility of coordinating policy of Four Powers on German question, since it has completely tied its fate with plans for the reestablishment of German militarism, with plans for preparation of new war in Europe. Exactly for these anti-popular purposes, it is striving for ratification of Paris and Bonn agreements despite fact that these agreements contradict national interests German people and mean turning Western Germany into dependent state, enslaving Western German population for many years.

The Bonn agreement as well as Paris agreement have nothing in common with interests reestablishment unity democratic Germany and that real purposes these agreements are directed against basic principles Potsdam Conference, at which USA, England and USSR, and also France which acceded to it, decided to assure reestablishment of United Germany as peace-loving and democratic state.

From all that has been said above it is evident that question of reestablishment national unity of Democractic Germany was and remains fundamental question for German people, in decision of which are interested peace-loving people of all Europe. No sort of pretexts can justify further delay in this matter inasmuch as under present conditions chief responsibility for its decision rests on Governments USA, England, France and USSR. In any case there must not be postponed such measures as can serve even gradual settlement question of unification Germany, of formation all-German Democratic Government.

[Page 622]

Government USSR is approaching Government USA and also to Governments England and France with proposal to take now practical measures aimed at settlement German problem.

In accordance with what is set forth above Soviet Government considers as urgent settlement following basic questions with regard to Germany.

1. Convocation peace conference for examination question of peace treaty with Germany.

Soviet Government proposes that such a conference with participation of all interested states can be convoked within next six months and sees no basis for further postponement of convocation of a peace conference. All preparatory work for preparation of peace treaty with Germany could be completed within above mentioned period. In connection therewith it is important to assure appropriate participation of representatives of Germany at all stages of preparation of peace treaty and at a peace conference. Prior to formation of a provisional all-German government the representatives of the existing governments of East and West Germany could take part in the preparation of the peace treaty.

2. The formation of a provisional all-German government and the carrying out of free all-German elections.

For purpose of restoration of German national unity on peace-loving and democratic bases Soviet Government proposes that parliaments of German Democratic Republic and German Federal Republic with the broad participation of democratic organizations should form a provisional all-German government. Such a government can be created by means of a direct agreement between East and West Germany as a substitute for presently existing governments German Democratic Republic and German Federal Republic. In event that this proves to be difficult at given time the provisional all-German government can be established with retention for a certain period of governments of German Democratic Republic and German Federal Republic. At same time in this event the provisional German government obviously will have in first stage only limited functions. However, in such a situation also the establishment of a provisional all-German government will represent in itself a real step forward on path of reunification of Germany which must receive its full completion in creation of an all-German government on basis of really free all-German elections.

The tasks of the provisional all-German government:

The provisional all-German government could decide such urgent questions of all-German significance as the representation of Germany in preparation of peace treaty and also representation in international organizations; the inadmissibility of involvement of Germany in coalitions or military alliances directed against any power which took part with its armed forces in the war against Hitlerite Germany; questions of German citizenship; guarantee of free activity of democratic parties and organizations and the inadmissibility of existence of Fascist militaristic and other organizations hostile to democracy and to cause of preservation of peace; the expansion of trade relations [Page 623] between East and West Germany; questions of transport, postal and telegraphic communications; questions of free movement of peoples and goods independent of established zonal frontiers; the development of economic and cultural ties between East and West Germany and other questions affecting interests of the entire German people.
A chief task of provisional all-German government furthermore must be preparation and carrying out of all-German free elections as a result of which German people itself without interference of foreign powers will decide question of social and state structure in a democratic Germany. The provisional all-German government must work out a draft of an all-German electoral law guaranteeing the really democratic character of all-German elections, the participation in the elections of all democratic organizations and the inadmissibility of pressure on the electors from the great monopolies. On its free decision must depend the recognition of expediency of verification of existence in all Germany of conditions necessary for the carrying out of democratic elections as well as adoption of measures for guaranteeing such conditions in addition Soviet Government considers it necessary that measures be taken by governments of USA, England, France and USSR for carrying out of all-German elections under conditions of genuine freedom with the exclusion of any pressure whatsoever on part of foreign powers in the carrying out of these elections.

3. The easing of the financial and economic obligations of Germany connected with the consequences of the war.

Taking into consideration that Germany has already carried out an important part of its financial and economic obligations in regard to USSR, USA, England, and France connected with the consequences of the war and considering the necessity of easing the economic situation of Germany, Soviet Government recognizes urgency of adopting in this connection appropriate decisions.

Soviet Government considers it necessary beginning January 1, 1954, that Germany be freed completely from payment of reparations and equally from payment to Four Powers of postwar state debts with exception of indebtedness for commercial obligations.
Soviet Union considers it also necessary to limit extent of expenditures connected with presence of forces of Four Powers on territory of Germany. For this purpose it is proposed that sum of expenses for maintenance of these forces annually should not exceed 5 percent of revenues of state budget of German Democratic Republic and German Federal Republic and in any event should not exceed the sum of the occupation expenditures of 1949 when the extent of the occupational expenditures had not yet been affected by the formation of the North Atlantic Bloc. Soviet Government proposes in addition that Germany should be completely freed of payments of indebtedness for foreign occupation expenditures of Four Powers which were created after 1945. Soviet Government is confident that an agreement between the USSR, USA, England and [Page 624] France on German question and the adoption in near future of decisions in accordance with proposals outlined above would serve to reduce tension in international relations, assisting thereby in strengthening of peace and international security.

  1. Transmitted in telegram 215, Aug. 16, from Moscow. It should be compared for minor textual differences with the unofficial translation in Department of State Bulletin, Sept. 14, 1953, pp. 354–356. Similar notes were sent by the Soviet Government to the Governments of France and the United Kingdom.
  2. For text of the Soviet note of Mar. 10, see Document 65.
  3. According to the Embassy in Moscow, this enclosure was the same as that attached to the Soviet note of Mar. 10.
  4. For text of the Convention on Relations between the Three Powers and the Federal Republic of Germany, see Document 51.
  5. For text of the European Defense Community Treaty, see Documents (R.I.I.A.) for 1952, pp. 116 ff.
  6. For text of the Occupation Statute, signed Apr. 8, 1949 at Washington, see Foreign Relations, 1949, vol. iii, pp. 179181.
  7. For text, see vol. v, Part 2, p. 1703.