Conference files, lot 59 D 95, CF 105

Resolution by the North Atlantic Council 1
secret
C9–D/20

The Reports of the Temporary Council Committee

Whereas, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has, from its inception, been developing programmes for the creation of adequate defensive strength essential to the maintenance of peace and freedom, and has been, in accordance with Article 3, implementing these programmes through national efforts to build up forces, and through mutual aid including the extension of assistance freely undertaken to each other in the form of economic resources and military equipment; and

Whereas, the North Atlantic Council at its meeting in Ottawa on 19th September, 1951, authorized the establishment of a committee [Page 221]to prepare an analysis of the issues involved in reconciling on the one hand the requirements of external security, in particularly in fulfilling a militarily acceptable NATO plan for the defence of Western Europe, with, on the other hand, the realistic politico-economic capabilities of member countries;2 and

Whereas, in accordance with this resolution the Temporary Council Committee has completed such an analysis and prepared a report thereon dated 18th December, 1951,3 as well as a supplementary report dated 8th February, 1952,4 to which are annexed the comments of the North Atlantic Treaty Governments;

Therefore, the North Atlantic Council

1. Agrees that it is necessary to promote by every means the development of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and its Military Commands as operationally effective bodies; and

Invites Governments and directs NATO Agencies and Commands, in consultation with national Governments and within their respective authority, to take as a matter of urgency all steps necessary to ensure the continuous development of the operational effectiveness of the Organization, and to report progress to the Council at regular intervals;

2. While recognizing that many financial and other problems remain to be solved before the goals can be fully met,

Resolves that the force targets set out in Annex B to the Supplementary Report of the TCC, which countries have indicated their willingness to raise and support during the year 1952, be adopted as firm goals for 1952, and that the force targets recommended by the TCC be adopted as provisional goals for 1953, and for 1954 as goals to be used for planning purposes to guide the early actions required to make possible the achievement of these targets;

3. Recognizes that the achievement of the forces recommended for 1952 will provide an increased deterrent to aggression; that the plan of action laid down in the TCC Report provides a militarily acceptable method for progressing towards the effective achievement of an adequate deterrent force in Western Europe based on a sound economic structure in the North Atlantic Community;

4. Resolves that the general method of NATO programming proposed in the TCC report be adopted: namely, the determination of the maximum effective forces which can be achieved in the short-term, and the definition of the steps which must now be initiated to achieve a progressive build-up to militarily acceptable force levels;

5. (a) Recognizes that the force targets recommended by the TCC represent a build-up which would greatly facilitate the eventual [Page 222]achievement of the force requirements formulated by the Military Committee, these requirements being subject to future revision;

(b) Notes the assumption of a substantial German participation in the build-up through forces in a European defence community as well as contributions by Germany in other ways;

6. (a) Recognizes that, on the basis of estimates of requirements formulated by the Military Committee, there remains a military risk after the force build-up recommended by the TCC has been achieved;

(b) Notes that the TCC Report and other NATO studies to date have not taken into account in detail the effects of certain new weapons and techniques; and

Recommends that, as it becomes possible these effects should be more definitely taken into account in determining the risks, the force requirements and the organization of NATO forces;

7. (a) Resolves that the TCC recommendations with regard to the readiness and effectiveness of forces and economy in use of resources are generally sound, that (with adjustments in actual application in particular cases as found to be appropriate by countries in consultation with the major NATO commands) each country should do its utmost to implement these recommendations, coordinating implementation with the appropriate Supreme Allied Commander with respect to forces assigned or earmarked to his command;

(b) Adopts the SCS standards of readiness of forces as a means of measuring progress for calendar year 1952;

(c) Directs that the Military Committee undertake further studies to fix the standards for subsequent years in order to ensure the readiness of the greatest possible number of units from resources available and improve continuously the state of readiness of military forces;

8. (a) Approves the revised directive of the Standing Group (Annex A) and revised terms of reference of SACEUR (Annex B);

(b) Invites nations to take all possible action to enable SACEUR to fulfill the responsibility and authority placed upon him under his revised terms of reference;

(c) Stresses the importance of the closest possible liaison in the area of his expanded responsibilities between SACEUR and the appropriate national authorities; and

(d) Directs the Military Committee to continue to review arrangements for mutual support between different NATO commands within NATO areas and between them and national military commands with a view to maximum economy of force and military effectiveness;

(e) Directs the Military Committee to study the terms of reference of other NATO Commanders, to bring them into consonance with the decisions resulting from the TCC recommendations;

9. (a) Directs the Military Committee, in consultation with major NATO commands, to devise and put into operation a system designed [Page 223]to achieve the highest priority for the most important units and activities (including the provision of infrastructure) and lower priority for less important units and activities, this system to be based on the accepted concept of the provision of collectively balanced NATO forces; and

Invites Governments to take fully into account in the build-up of their forces the guidance so provided; and

(b) Directs the Military Committee to establish immediately a system for the recommending of priorities for assignment of major items of equipment, which should be related to priorities in the development of other elements of the military build-up, such a system of priorities to be based on the principle of priorities as between commands being recommended by the Military Committee and priorities within major commands by the Commander concerned, and

Invites Governments to take these recommended priorities fully into account in the provision of equipment;

(c) Directs the Military Committee and the major NATO Commanders to prepare the plans and groundwork for an operative logistics and supply system in support of NATO defence;

10. (a) Resolves that the financing and construction of increments of common infrastructure in phase with the build-up of military units are essential to the effectiveness of NATO forces;

(b) Requests all North Atlantic Treaty Governments, in budgeting for their respective defence expenditures, to accord a sufficiently high priority to the essential common infrastructure programme for 1952 to ensure that the country contributions to this programme will provide the funds needed for its completion even should this necessitate adjustment in other items of defence expenditures;

(c) Notes that the recommendations on 1952 infrastructure made by the Council Deputies and the Military Committee to the Council, are consistent with the need for urgent attention to this subject emphasized by the TCC.

11. (a) Directs the Military Committee to determine with the assistance of major NATO commands the screened, time-phased, essential equipment needs of NATO forces in recommended orders or priority;

(b) Directs the NATO military and civil agencies to produce, in collaboration, recommended measures to meet critical deficiencies and to achieve proper balance in the equipment of NATO forces;

(c) Invites governments, through the provision of appropriate current information and in other appropriate ways, to assist the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the expeditious conduct of such studies, which will be part of the reviews provided for in paragraph 17 below.

12. (a) Resolves that the realisation of adequate defensive strength and its continued support by the governments and peoples of the North [Page 224]Atlantic Treaty countries require sound economic and social foundations which can be developed only by a satisfactory rate of general economic expansion; and

(b) Recommends that governments undertake to the fullest extent possible to adopt those measures necessary to ensure the economic strength and stability of the North Atlantic Treaty Area, giving special attention to the economic and financial aspects of Parts I through V of the TCC report which have been recommended for the acceptance of governments, as well as the OEEC declaration on the expansion of output endorsed by the North Atlantic Council at Ottawa; and to this end

(c) Notes

(i)
that there exist within the Community actual and potential resources adequate to provide an expanding economic base, both for adequate defence and for the general strengthening of the Community;
(ii)
that the efficient utilisation of these resources requires actions both by national governments alone and by governments acting together;
(iii)
that actions in the economic field by any member country may affect, in some way, the economic strength and stability of others; and therefore

13. Recommends

(a)
that particular attention be given to budgetary problems which exert a powerful influence on the possibility of carrying out the defence effort;
(b)
that each country should adopt appropriate fiscal, financial and monetary policies in order to avoid creating a total demand which outstrips available supplies of key resources, or puts additional pressure on the balance of payments, or prejudices progress towards social equity;
(c)
that vigorous action be taken to increase production of scarce raw materials, especially of coal, steel and certain non-ferrous metals, and through adequate conservation, and where needed allocation measures, to achieve greater economy in their use, and to channel them to the most essential uses;
(d)
that the above considerations should be taken into account in the annual reviews provided for in paragraph 17 (b) (ii) below;

14. Agrees with the analysis of the man-power problem as stated in the TCC Report;

Notes the importance of emigration, particularly for Italy, but also for other countries; and in line with the foregoing and in order to overcome man-power shortages in defence and defence-supporting industries.

Recommends that North Atlantic Treaty Governments review their immigration policies and regulations where necessary with the aim of [Page 225]facilitating labour mobility in and between NATO countries; and that to the same end North Atlantic Treaty governments consider what further practical steps they can take to make more effective their cooperation in other international bodies in this field of which they are members such as OEEC, the Provisional Committee set up by the Brussels Conference and ILO; and that the North Atlantic Council keep this matter under review;

15. (a) Notes that the TCC Report has recognised as particularly critical for European countries the satisfactory solution of the dollar balance of payments problem, and as contributions towards such a solution

Recommends

(i)
the adoption of measures to facilitate and increase European dollar earnings, including increased exports to dollar markets, of vigorous mutual measures to facilitate US military expenditures in Europe, and also of all possible measures to assure more rapid progress on the infrastructure programme, thereby increasing dollar expenditures in Europe:
(ii)
the achievement of an appropriate balance between the components of the mutual aid made available, with a view to achieving maximum defensive strength on a sound economic foundation;
(iii)
the rapid development of off-shore procurement programmes (the primary purpose of which, however, is the most economic use of resources and the expansion of military production in Europe), including action by all NATO countries to enlarge, facilitate and accelerate off-shore procurement;

(b) Notes that a satisfactory solution of the intra-European payments problem is also of critical importance to European countries;

Notes the views to this end contained in the TCC Report and

Recommends the adoption by the interested Governments of effective measures to provide during the defence build-up a satisfactory functioning of the European Payments Union;

16. Directs the appropriate NATO agencies to study, and to report to the North Atlantic Council not later than next fall, together with the review foreseen in paragraph 17(b) (ii), the longer-term economic implications of the defence build-up, and in this connection to examine the annual cost to individual NATO countries of currently approved NATO defence plans, projecting these costs into the future as far as these plans permit, and taking into account both the cost of achieving the forces goals and the cost of maintaining the forces contemplated;

17. Agrees that the effective execution of the Plan of Action recommended by the TCC depends upon a reorganisation and strengthening of NATO machinery in accordance with the general principles laid down in Part V of the TCC Report;

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Notes that this question is dealt with in a separate Resolution of the Council, and

(a) Resolves that the appropriate NATO agencies should continuously review the requirements for building adequate defensive strength and reconcile military needs with the politico-economic capabilities of member countries, and, in the carrying out of this resolution, should have regard to relevant past decisions of the North Atlantic Council;

(b) Resolves that, in addition, provision should be made for follow-up action by NATO agencies and governments pursuant to decisions of the Council

(i)
to maintain up-to-date information on the progress of the forces build-up and
(ii)
to prepare necessary material for comprehensive annual reviews of the requirements for building and maintaining adequate defensive strength on a realistic foundation of politico-economic capabilities, the first such review to be completed in the fall of 1952;

18. (a) Notes that country comments indicate the existence of military, economic and political problems of varying degrees of severity; that urgent and sustained action on these problems is of vital importance to the achievement of the full build-up proposed; and accordingly

(b) Urges that governments and NATO agencies and commands undertake without delay necessary actions in accordance with the principles embodied in this Resolution to promote the achievement of the goals for 1952 and the continued build-up in 1953 and beyond, and that the member governments, as well as NATO agencies and commands, provide the Council with reports of actions taken to this end.

19. (a) Recognizes that Greece and Turkey have not been considered in the TCC analysis and report;

(b) Invites the governments of Greece and Turkey to consider in co-operation with the appropriate NATO bodies the applicability of these findings and recommendations to Greece and Turkey; and

(c) Directs the NATO agencies to undertake the necessary actions so that there may be full and equal participation by these new members of NATO in the annual review to be undertaken pursuant to Article 17(b) (ii) of this Resolution.

Annex A

Proposed Revised Directive to the Standing Group

Reference—

  • MC 2/1, 6 October 1949, Pages 8–12 incl.

3. Functions of the Standing Group

In accordance with the above stated terms of reference, the Standing Group is agent for and will act for the Military Committee. The Standing Group will also act as a steering and executive agency for the [Page 227]Military Representatives Committee under the conditions outlined in DC 24/3.5 The Standing Group will be primarily responsible for the performance of the following functions:

(a)
With regard to plans prepared by Regions or Commands:
(i)
Review, integrate and coordinate plans as necessary for their consideration by the Military Committee.
(ii)
Reconcile any points of disagreement between NATO Commands.
NATO Commands
(b)
With regard to relative priorities for the raising of forces and the provision of equipment:
(i)
Provide the information to Commands and Regional Planning Groups and appropriate agencies on which their recommendations for priorities can be based.
(ii)
On the recommendations received from NATO Commands and Regions, determine the relative priorities between those Commands and Regions and recommend to the appropriate authorities the priorities to be established.
(c)
When disagreement on the subjects referred to in (a) and (b) above cannot be resolved through direct contact with the interested Commands, Regional Planning Groups or Nations, refer them for consideration and resolution by the Military Committee.
(d)
Prepare plans, studies and recommend policies of a military nature on issues referred to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization by the national or regional staffs for multilateral consideration.
(e)
Review equipment deficiency lists submitted by the Commands and Regions and recommend the priority for the supply of equipment which is available to meet those deficiencies.
(f)
No change.
(g)
Maintain coordination with the Defence Production Board.
(h)
No change.

Annex B

Proposed Revised Terms of Reference of the Supreme Commander Allied Powers in Europe

Commander

1. A Supreme Commander Allied Powers Europe is hereby designated. His command will be established in a Supreme Headquarters (SHAPE). The Supreme Allied Commander (SACEUR) shall have an integrated staff composed of officers from all nations contributing to his command. Nations will be represented to his staff by national liaison representatives.

Command area

2. The command area of the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, and his major subordinate commanders, will be defined by responsible authority. SACEUR’s command area, unless and until later redefined, [Page 228]will include the area of the three former European Regional Planning Groups of NATO, exclusive of the Channel Command area.

3. The control and the defence of the zones of the interior, including French North Africa, is the direct responsibility of the National Authorities concerned, who will grant the Allied Commanders under SACEUR all facilities necessary for the efficient conduct of their operations. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe shall have authority to conduct such combat operations in these zones, including French North Africa, as he deems necessary for the defence of Western Europe.6

Forces

4. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe will have command responsibility over all Army, Navy and Air Force forces assigned to him for the defence of Western Europe.

Responsibilities and powers in war

5. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe will be responsible to the Standing Group for the overall direction and conduct of wartime operations within his command area. The division of responsibilities between the National Territorial Commanders and Supreme Allied Commander Europe and subordinate Allied Commanders will be as defined in MC 36.

6. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe in war will exercise the full powers of a Supreme Commander. These powers may later be defined in greater detail by the North Atlantic Council after consultation with the Military Committee.

Responsibilities in peace

7. The main function in peacetime of the Supreme Allied Commander Europe is to ensure that, if an emergency occurs, the NATO forces made available by nations for the defence of Western Europe will be organized, equipped, trained and ready to implement agreed war plans. Since a Supreme Commander’s peacetime functions are in effect a prelude to his wartime responsibility for the defence of his area of command, his peacetime responsibilities shall include: [Page 229]

(a)
The organization and training of national units assigned to his command into an effective integrated force.
(b)
The preparation of plans for the execution of his assigned missions, and their coordination with other NATO, national and Allied Commanders in accordance with the applicable principles laid down in MC 36.
(c)
The deployment of major elements of forces assigned to his command in consultation with the appropriate National Authorities and in consonance with operational plans.
(d)
The exercising of these forces in manoeuvres after consultation, as appropriate, with the national authorities concerned.
(e)
Informing National Authorities of his operational, personnel and logistic requirements for these forces.
(f)
Making recommendations, as necessary, to the Standing Group and to nations on infrastructure, training standards adequacy of forces, priorities for the organization and equipping of assigned and earmarked forces, and for construction of facilities to train, house and support these forces, and such other military matters as will affect his ability to discharge his war and peace-time mission.
(g)
The maintenance of an efficient organization, including the subordinate planning and command organizations with staff elements charged with logistic support planning which will be the nucleus for expansion in war for the control of the battle for the defence of Europe.
(h)
Proposing to the Standing Group any increase, elimination or reorganization of subordinate Allied planning and command organizations which he considers necessary.

Powers in peace

8. To execute the peacetime functions detailed above, the Supreme Allied Commander Europe will have: Operational control to the extent necessary for the accomplishment of his mission, over all national forces assigned to his command in peacetime. This includes:

(a)
Direct control over the higher training of all national forces assigned to his command in peacetime and the inspection of training of all forces assigned to his command. Furthermore, he should be given facilities by nations to inspect the training of those cadre and other forces earmarked for his command.
(b)
Authority to place requirements upon national governments for the deployment of forces assigned to his command in consonance with operational plans.
(c)
Authority to recommend to national governments the provision of logistic resources for their national contingents both for combat zone and communications zone support of Allied Command Europe.
(d)
Authority to recommend to appropriate authorities the priorities of raising and equipping units and organizations assigned to his command in peace-time and those earmarked for his command.

General

9. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe is authorized direct access to National Chiefs of Staff and to communicate with their respective Defence Ministers, and Heads of Government, directly as necessary to facilitate the accomplishment of his mission.

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10. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe is authorized to make recommendations direct to National Chiefs of Staff on logistic and administrative matters affecting the efficiency of readiness of these forces placed or to be placed under his command.

11. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe may delegate to his major subordinate commanders, such authority as may be necessary for the discharge of his responsibilities.

12. The responsibility for logistic support to national component forces will, in general, remain with the responsible authorities of the nations concerned. The responsibility for coordination will, however, rest with the Supreme Commander, and with his major subordinate commanders at the appropriate levels.

13. The Supreme Allied Commander Europe is empowered to propose to the Standing Group, for its review and further submission to the Military Committee such modification of these Terms of Reference as he may deem desirable.

  1. This resolution was adopted by the North Atlantic Council at its fourth meeting on Feb. 23; see the report in telegram Secto 59, Feb. 23, from Lisbon, p. 150. This resolution was circulated in draft to the Council as document C9–D/13, Feb. 13, not printed. (Conference files, lot 59 D 95, CF 105) Differences between that draft and the text printed here are indicated in the report in telegram Secto 59.
  2. For text of the resolution establishing the Temporary Council Committee, see Secto 23, Sept. 19, 1951 in Foreign Relations, 1951, vol. iii, Part 1, p. 677.
  3. For a summary of the Dec. 18, 1951 report of the Temporary Council Committee, see LIS D–4/1a, Feb. 6, p. 203.
  4. Ante, p. 211.
  5. Dated Dec. 12, 1950; for text, see Foreign Relations, 1950, vol. iii, p. 548.
  6. In a memorandum of Mar. 3 to Byington (WE), McBride (WE) pointed out that there had been press comment, particularly an article by Cyrus Sulzberger in the New York Times to the effect that Morocco and Tunisia had been added to the NATO area in a decision made at the Lisbon session of the North Atlantic Council. After quoting this paragraph, McBride added the following comment:

    “It would appear from this document, a copy of which must have been studied by Mr. Sulzberger, that it would be inaccurate to say that Tunisia and Morocco have been added to the NATO area for other than purely command functions. It does not appear that the peoples of the area would receive any NATO guarantees nor that the native governments would be in any way involved, even with France acting on their behalf. On the contrary, it will be noted that the paragraph refers purely to defense and combat operations in French North Africa, and it accordingly is my conclusion that the Times headlines to the effect that two protectorates have been added to the NATO area are not accurate.” (740.5/3–352)