Introduction

Methodology

In presenting the materials in this volume the editors have sought to use records from a wide variety of sources. For the most part, the documentation, as indicated in the individual headings, comes from the central (decimal) files of the Department of State. The records of the central files have been supplemented by materials from decentralized “lot files” of the Department of State, both those of the offices and bureaus within the Department and those of United States Missions abroad. The editors have also examined numerous record collections at the Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas, and lot files of the Mutual Security Agency and its successor organizations held at the Federal Records Center in Suitland, Maryland. Where it proved important to the presentation of the record of United States foreign policy, the editors have also sought documentation from the Truman Library and from other agencies of the United States Government, primarily the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency. The editors have indicated in all cases the source of the documents presented in this volume, either in the individual headings for the documents printed or in the footnotes or editorial notes. A list of the sources used in the preparation of this volume is printed on page XXXVII.

In the case of documents chosen for inclusion in this volume, the editors have, whenever possible, identified the drafter and those officers or institutions which cleared each document. The editors have also indicated as appropriate the major officers who initialed telegrams for the Secretary of State and have recorded those instances when President Truman, President Eisenhower, Secretary Acheson, or Secretary Dulles drafted, cleared, initialed, or signed any document. In the case of the more significant documents, the editors have further noted officers and institutions, other than the primary recipient, to whom additional copies were sent or to whom telegrams were repeated.

The classification line for each document represents the original classification given that document and does not reflect any further alterations in its security handling. The dateline represents the date of transmittal as well as can be determined; if the dateline is in [Page X]brackets, that denotes the fact that the source text did not bear a date but that one was supplied by the editors based on other materials. If doubt exists about the information provided in the dateline, the editors supplied a question mark in the brackets.

All documents referred to in the text of this volume have been footnoted. The footnote citations to printed documents are either to a page in the same volume; to a page, compilation, or chapter in another volume of Foreign Relations; or to another published source. Those documents which the editors examined but decided not to publish will generally have a footnote citation “Not printed” followed by a description or summary of their contents, unless their substance is obvious from the text, and a citation to the place in which they can be found. Documents which the editors were unable to find have the footnote citation “Not found in Department of State files” or less frequently “The document under reference here has not been identified further.” In general these citations have been used for those documents which could be expected to be found in Department of State files but were not located after a reasonable search or were incorrectly or insufficiently identified. Documents transmitted between other countries or agencies which could not be expected to be found in the Department of State files will only be footnoted if they were found. In some cases the editors have presented as editorial notes the substance of larger bodies of documents which were not printed. In these cases they have included appropriate references to the sources from which the material cited was drawn.

To assist in the use of this volume, the editors have prepared a list of abbreviations and a list of identifications of persons. These lists include explanations of the most frequently used abbreviations and the full names and positions for persons who appear more than once in this volume.