Preface

The late S. Everett Gleason supervised the initial planning and compilation of this volume. Fredrick Aandahl succeeded him as editor in 1972 and directed the process of review, declassification, and final editing.

David H. Stauffer compiled and edited the sections on the concern of the United States with the defense of Western Europe, continued economic assistance to Europe, and negotiation of the Schuman Plan, as well as the sections on Belgium, Iceland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. Charles S. Sampson prepared the sections on the meeting of ambassadors at Rome, the meetings of foreign ministers at London and New York, and the question of possible establishment of diplomatic relations with the Vatican, as well as those on Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Lisle A. Rose prepared the section on American interest in the Council of Europe; Joan Ellen Corbett those on efforts in support of democratic forces in Italy and the Free Territory of Trieste; and Mr. Aandahl the one on France and John A. Bernbaum the one on revision of the Treaty of Peace with Italy. The technical editing of the volume was done by the Publishing and Reproduction Division (Willard M. McLaughlin, Chief), and Francis C. Prescott prepared the index.

The editors acknowledge with appreciation the assistance provided them by the historians of the Department of Defense, including those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. They are grateful for the cooperation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the National Security Council, the Department of Defense, and the Central Intelligence Agency, all of which facilitated declassification of papers for release in this volume. Thanks are also due to those foreign governments that kindly granted permission for publication of certain of their documents.

David F. Trask

The Historian
Bureau of Public Affairs

Principles for the Compilation and Editing of “Foreign Relations”

The principles which guide the compilation and editing of Foreign Relations are stated in Department of State Regulation 2 FAM 1350 [Page IV]of June 15, 1961, a revision of the order approved on March 26, 1925, by Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, then Secretary of State. The text of the regulation, as further amended, is printed below:

1350 Documentary Record of American Diplomacy

1351 Scope of Documentation

The publication Foreign Relations of the United States constitutes the official record of the foreign policy of the United States. These volumes include, subject to necessary security considerations, all documents needed to give a comprehensive record of the major foreign policy decisions within the range of the Department of State’s responsibilities, together with appropriate materials concerning the facts which contributed to the formulation of policies. When further material is needed to supplement the documentation in the Department’s files for a proper understanding of the relevant policies of the United States, such papers should be obtained from other Government agencies.

1352 Editorial Preparation

The basic documentary diplomatic record to be printed in Foreign Relations of the United States is edited by the Historical Office, Bureau of Public Affairs of the Department of State. The editing of the record is guided by the principles of historical objectivity. There may be no alteration of the text, no deletions without indicating where in the text the deletion is made, and no omission of facts which were of major importance in reaching a decision. Nothing may be omitted for the purpose of concealing or glossing over what might be regarded by some as a defect of policy. However, certain omissions of documents are permissible for the following reasons:

a.
To avoid publication of matters which would tend to impede current diplomatic negotiations or other business.
b.
To condense the record and avoid repetition of needless details.
c.
To preserve the confidence reposed in the Department by individuals and by foreign governments.
d.
To avoid giving needless offense to other nationalities or individuals.
e.
To eliminate personal opinions presented in despatches and not acted upon by the Department. To this consideration there is one qualification—in connection with major decisions it is desirable, where possible, to show the alternatives presented to the Department before the decision was made.

1353 Clearance

To obtain appropriate clearances of material to be published in Foreign Relations of the United States, the Historical Office:

a.
Refers to the appropriate policy offices of the Department and of other agencies of the Government such papers as appear to require policy clearance.
b.
Refers to the appropriate foreign governments requests for permission to print as part of the diplomatic correspondence of the United States those previously unpublished documents which were originated by the foreign governments.