The Ambassador in the Soviet Union ( Kirk ) to the Acting Secretary of State
2475. Embassy’s translation Soviet note1 delivered seven this evening:
In connection with formation September 20 this year in Bonn of separate government for American, English and French Occupation Zones Germany Soviet Government considers it necessary declare following.
Formation separate government for Western zones Germany cannot be qualified otherwise than as completion of policy splitting Germany, [Page 276] which carried out Governments USA, Great Britain and France in course last few years in violation Potsdam agreement, according which these governments together with Soviet Union took upon themselves obligation regard Germany as one unit and cooperate in its reorganization into democratic peace-loving state.2
Having created separate government for Western Germany, three powers thus violated also decisions undertaken June this year at Paris CFM session according which Governments USA, Great Britain, France and USSR obligated themselves continue efforts achieve re-establishment economic and political unity Germany.
This step by Governments USA, Great Britain and France represents violation not only of obligations they took upon themselves in connection preservation German unity but also obligations for conclusion peace treaty Germany in so far as formation separate Western German Government leads to impermissible delay in conclusion peace treaty with Germany despite agreements Potsdam Conference.
Soviet Government considers completely groundless efforts Governments USA, Great Britain and France justify their actions in creation separate government Bonn in interests German people. Facts show this sort of attempt is groundless in so far as it is known to all that no one sought the opinion German people on question and in so far as, in this connection, it is known occupation authorities of three powers have carried out all their measures for creation separate government Western Germany including so-called “Bonn Constitution” relying only on narrow group specially chosen old reactionary politicians Western Germany closely connected foreign financial circles and dependent those circles.
“Bonn Constitution” was worked out under direct pressure occupation authorities Western Powers which in reality dictated its basic regulations. As result a federal structure was forced upon German people with which majority German people not in agreement. “Bonn Constitution” not only does not contain any regulations which would limit dominant role German monopolies and Junker class, which were inspirers and organizers German aggression and which served support Hitlerite regime, but even frees their hands in their extreme antidemocratic activities. Characteristic of “Bonn Constitution” is also presence Article 24, which states plainly Western German Government can “transfer its sovereign rights to international organs” and give “agreement on limitation its sovereign rights,” which plainly transforms this marionette “state” into obedient tool Western occupation powers for realization their aggressive plans Europe.
Indeed Bonn Constitution is merely appendage so-called “occupation statute,” dictated to Western Germany by Governments USA, Great Britain and France. Attempt-of three powers to represent affair as if occupation statute had as aim “to permit German people enact democratic self-government,” as was said in communiqué concerning Washington talks April this year, is in full contradiction with basic regulations that statute. As is known, according this statute most important functions government are monopoly occupation powers but [Page 277] German people actually have no part in enactment these functions to say nothing of fact that introduction occupation statute is expression policy directed toward breaking-off of efforts to conclude German peace treaty and impermissible extension occupation regime Germany.
From all this it is apparent that formation separate Bonn government is incompatible with decisions Potsdam Conference and crude violation these decisions at basis of which lies necessity preserving German unity on democratic and peace-loving foundations. Together with this it is completely obvious formation this separate government is merely new and at that far-reaching manifestation of policy splitting Germany which in violation decisions Potsdam Conference has been carried out by Governments USA, Great Britain and France in course past few years.
Already in December 1946 Governments of USA and Great Britain concluded agreement concerning union two zones which was crude violation Four-Power agreement concerning joint control Germany. Then they attempted justify these splitting activities with economic explanations alluding to fact that union American and British Occupation Zones supposedly would lead neither to dismemberment Germany nor to rupture earlier Four-Power agreed policy in connection with Germany. Actually this act of Governments USA and Great Britain was beginning of open reversal of policy these states—away from Potsdam agreement concerning Germany unity to policy splitting Germany.
Throughout 1947 in American and British Zones Occupation Germany were carried out most extreme measures directed toward deepening of split and dismemberment Germany which manifested itself in particular in decision Anglo-American occupation authorities concerning separation of Ruhr region from Germany and withdrawal of Ruhr from Four-Power control with its transfer to control USA and Great Britain, and likewise in separate Anglo-American measures which have amounted to actual repudiation Potsdam decisions concerning democratization and demilitarization Germany. At London Conferencce 1948 the three powers with participation Benelux countries undertook decision concerning carrying out new measures for splitting Germany. These measures manifested themselves in carrying out of separate monetary reform in Western zones Germany and Western sectors Berlin and also in open preparation for creation of government for Western zones Germany.
Policy of splitting and dismembering Germany found its culmination in decisions undertaken at Washington Conference USA, Great Britain and France April 1949 concerning “occupation statute” for Western Germany which was made basis of “Bonn Constitution” and likewise concerning formation so-called “international organ” for Ruhr and in conclusion special agreement concerning Three-Powered Anglo-Franco-American control over Western Germany, which were decisively directed toward annulment basic agreements between USSR, USA, Great Britain and France concerning Four-Power control mechanism Germany.
In course entire period beginning 1946 Soviet Government has called attention Governments USA, Great Britain and France to impermissibility violations Potsdam agreement concerning German unity and [Page 278] impermissibility rupture Four-Power decisions concerning democratization and demilitarization Germany which were at basis of all agreed Four-Power decisions concerning policy in connection Germany. In addition Soviet Government pointed to pernicious effects policy splitting Germany which is being carried out by three Western Powers and on re-establishment dominant position reactionary militarist and revanche elements Western Germany which appeared in past as support German militarism and Hitlerite regime and which have again raised their heads immediately following formation Western German state. Such policy of three Western Powers can be explained only as expression of aspiration certain imperialist circles to use Western Germany as place d’armes for enactment aggressive plans these circles which are turning Western Germany into new center unrest Europe.
For its part Soviet Government has carried on steadfast struggle against splitting Germany insisting according decisions Potsdam Conference on creation all-German economics organs as first step toward creation all-German democratic government. More than two years ago Soviet Government proposed to Governments USA, Great Britain and France taking steps for carrying out measures necessary for creation government of democratic Germany and also steps for working out German peace treaty. However, governments three Western Powers turned down these proposals of Soviet Union, continuing pursue their policy deepening splitting Germany which led to breaking-off of efforts to conclude peace treaty and to extension occupation Germany, indefinitely denying possibility establishing lasting peace Europe.
Finally at Paris CFM session in June this year governments of three Western Powers again refused accept proposal of Soviet Union concerning formation on basis of German economic organs existing at present time in Eastern and Western zones of all-German state council as economic and administrative center with governing functions, which would have been first step toward formation all-German democratic government. Governments of three Western Powers refused likewise accept proposal Soviet Union concerning preparation German peace treaty and withdrawal occupation troops from Germany within one year following conclusion peace treaty.
In this fashion in course last few years Governments of USA, Great Britain and France not only have not carried out obligations which they accepted according Potsdam agreement but in direct violation these obligations carried out policy splitting Germany and postponing in every possible way conclusion German peace treaty, violating joint Four-Power decisions concerning democratization and demilitarization Germany, having now completed carrying out this anti-democratic policy with formation separate Western German Government entrusted to hands yesterdays lackeys of Hitlerite regime.
Soviet Government considers it necessary to direct attention to that exceptionally serious responsibility which is lodged upon US Government in connection with policy in Germany carried out by USA together with Great Britain and France which has led to formation anti-popular separate government in Bonn which is taking hostile attitude toward decisions Potsdam Conference concerning democratization and demilitarization Germany and to obligations placed on Germany, incompatible with interests peace-loving peoples Europe.[Page 279]
Together with this Soviet Government considers it necessary to state that insofar as separate government has been formed in Bonn, new situation has been created Germany at present time which lends particularly important significance to carrying out of tasks concerning re-establishment German unity as democratic and peace-loving state and concerning guarantee of fulfillment by Germany of obligations placed upon her by Potsdam Four-Power agreement.
Government of USSR is sending similar notes also the Governments of Great Britain and France.
Sent Department 2475; Department pass Paris 351, London 270, Berlin 215, Frankfort 31 (Niact to all addressees).
- A copy of the Soviet note, handed to Kirk at the Foreign Ministry by Gromyko, is in file 862.01/10–149. It is also printed in Vneshniaia politika Sovetskogo Soiuza, dokumenty i materialy, 1949 god, Moscow, 1953, pp. 165–170.↩
- For the text of the Protocol of the Proceedings of the Berlin Conference, August 1, 1945, see Foreign Relations, The Conference of Berlin (The Potsdam Conference), 1945, vol. ii, pp. 1478 ff.↩