File No. 861.00/953

The Ambassador in Russia (Francis) to the Secretary of State


2228. Cole, Consul at Archangel, in reports dated January 2, 9th, latter being reply to your 1931, December 24,1 states that commander in chief of Archangel and White Sea region same person appointed by Kerensky, and still directs all military, naval, and civilian affairs. When Bolshevik revolution occurred, socialist anti-Bolshevik leaders, with consent and cooperation of commander in chief, formed revolutionary committee in anticipation of possibility local Bolsheviks’ assuming authority. This committee proclaimed itself the supreme power in the province and has been continuously sustained by commander in chief and civil authorities; no independence proclaimed, but committee function [proclamation?] announced orders of People’s Commissaries obeyed. Munition shipments practically ceased.

Cole report January 4 stated movement started for federation of eight northeastern provinces by representatives of Zemstvos, Councils of Workmen-Soldiers-Peasants’ Deputies, professional unions, City Dumas of Archangel, Vologda, Olonets, Novgorod, Yaroslav, Vyatka, and Perm Provinces, but his report of 9th states separation movement less strong and sentiment favoring semi-autonomous policy, as fear was growing that starvation would ensue if declared complete independence, starvation being only influence checking anti-Bolshevik sentiment.

Cole reports Constituent Assembly elections show following percentages for Archangel Province: Social Revolutionists 62, Cadets 10, [Page 469] Mensheviks 6, Bolsheviks 21, and that Bolshevik vote in Archangel city confined to soldiers, sailors, and naval shop workmen, that anti-Bolshevik sentiment attributable to money scarcity, interference with Constituent Assembly, and seizure of banks.

Reports railroad transportation steadily declining because of lack of locomotives, that food committee declares breadstuff supply will last until middle of February and that local supply meat and fish, small but steady. Postscript says “both” Constituent Assembly delegates are conservative Social Revolutionists.