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List of Papers

[The arrangement of this list is by chapters, the papers therein appearing chronologically under date of writing. Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to the Secretary of State or the Department.]

CHAPTER I. SIBERIA AND MANCHURIA

Discussion of the Contemplated Dispatch of Japanese Troops to Siberia: Russian Attitude—Bolshevik Activities in Siberia and Manchuria—The Formation of Local Governments—Proposed Use of Chinese Troops in the Zone of the Chinese Eastern Railway—The Dispatch of Warships to Vladivostok—French Suggestion of Allied and American Intervention: Attitude of the United States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1917 Undated [Rec’d Nov.1] From the British Ambassador Quotes Prime Minister on the use of Japanese or U. S. troops in Russia and on the reorganization of the Russian Army. 1
Nov. 17 From the Consul at Harbin to the Minister in China Effects of the Bolshevik coup d’état at Petrograd on the administration of General Horvat at Harbin. 2
1729 Nov. 19 From the Minister in China Discusses an international police force to protect the lives of foreigners at Harbin. 4
Dec. 6 From the Minister in China (tel.) Allied Ministers propose the use of Chinese troops to support the treaty authorities in Manchuria. 5
Dec. 8 To the Minister in China (tel.) China is within its rights in protecting its territorial integrity. 5
2073 Dec. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Report of landing of Japanese militia at Vladivostok. 6
Dec. 11 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.); to China Inquiry regarding report that Japanese forces are protecting Vladivostok. 6
Dec. 11 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Conditions at Vladivostok call for presence of foreign force, preferably American. 6
Dec. 12 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Inquiry regarding dispatch of Japanese troops to Vladivostok. 7
Dec. 13 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Instructions to avoid discussion of the advisability of the presence of foreign forces at Vladivostok. 7
Dec. 14 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan has prepared for emergencies but has no forces at present in Vladivostok. 7
Dec. 15 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Official statement that Japan will send troops to Russia only to protect Japanese interests. 8
Dec. 15 From the Minister in China (tel.) Bolsheviks reported in control of railway at Harbin, opposing General Horvat. 8
[Page XIV] Dec. 16 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Views of Russian Ambassador concerning Japanese intervention. 9
Dec. 16 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) No Japanese troops have arrived at Vladivostok. 9
Dec. 18 To the Minister in China (tel.) The President desires that American representatives withhold direct communication with Bolshevik government. 9
2127 Dec. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Japanese denial of landing at Vladivostok. 10
Dec. 22 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Bolshevik control in Vladivostok and in Siberia is increasing. 10
Dec. 24 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Interview of Stevens, chairman of American railway commission, with Japanese Foreign Minister on intervention in Russia. 11
Dec. 27 Memorandum Interview with Japanese Ambassador on Allied intervention in Russia. 13
Dec. 27 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Friction between Bolsheviks and officials in Vladivostok of Provisional Government. 13
659 Dec. 28 From the British Embassy Advisability of arrest and deportation by China of Bolshevik leaders and disaffected troops, at Harbin. 14
Dec. 29 To the British Ambassador; to China Opinion on advisabilitv of the use of force by China at Harbin. 15
[Quoted in tel.] Dec. 29 From the Consul at Harbin via Vladivostok (tel.) Reports outrages by Bolsheviks in Irkutsk, including the murder of British and French nationals. 16
Dec. 30 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes report of Dec. 29 from the Consul at Harbin. 16
1918 Jan. 1 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Better-class Russians request intervention and protection. Consular Corps agrees that foreign warships are necessary. 16
Jan. 2 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reported massacre at Irkutsk is unconfirmed. Zemstvo of Amur region organizes a provisional government. 17
Jan. 2 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Instructions to keep Department informed of welfare of Americans in Siberia. 18
21 Jan. 4 From the British Embassy Unofficial recognition of Zemstvo Committee, which has taken over the administration of eastern Siberia, is recommended. 18
Jan. 5 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Authorization to deal with Zemstvo Committee unofficially. 19
[Page XV] 1918 Jan. 5 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) The Brooklyn has been ordered to Yokohama. 19
Jan. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) British and Japanese cruisers are sent to Vladivostok. 19
Jan. 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) British standpoint concerning Japanese protection of military stores at Vladivostok. 20
Jan. 8 From the French Ambassador France suggests U. S. cooperation with Allies in intervention in Siberia. 20
Jan. 8 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Specific inquiries regarding conditions at Vladivostok and in Amur Province. 21
Jan. 9 From the Minister in China (tel.) The Consul at Harbin requests authorization for Military Attaché Drysdale to proceed to Siberia. 22
Jan. 10 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Irkutsk is reported quiet; consuls are protecting foreigners and provisional officials. 22
Jan. 10 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Interview with Russian Ambassador on possible occupation of eastern Siberia by Japanese. 23
Jan. 10 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Authorization to send Military Attaché Drysdale into Siberia. 24
Jan. 10 To the Minister in China (tel.) Instructions concerning an interpreter to accompany Drysdale. 24
Jan. 11 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Inquires if Japan is preparing to occupy Vladivostok and Khabarovsk. 24
Jan. 12 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Inquires if the Brooklyn is needed at Vladivostok. 25
Jan. 12 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Inquires if Japan has sent warship to Vladivostok, as Great Britain has done. 25
Jan. 13 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Reports information requested regarding conditions at Vladivostok and in Amur Province. 25
Jan. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan is thought to have no present intention of occupying points in Siberia. 27
Jan. 14 From the Japanese Chargé Japan has decided to dispatch warships to Vladivostok. 27
Jan. 14 The Consul General at Moscow to the Ambassador in Russia Reports the general situation in Siberia with respect to Bolshevism. 28
2043 Jan. 16 To the French Ambassador; to Great Britain, Japan, and China The American Government declines to support the French proposals of intervention in Siberia. 28
[Quoted in tel.] Jan. 16 From the Consul at Vladivostok via Tokyo (tel.) Additional Japanese cruiser is considered superfluous. The presence of the Brooklyn is desirable. 30
[Page XVI] Jan. 17 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Should conditions require the occupation of Vladivostok and the Chinese Eastern and Amur Railways, Japan desires to act alone. 29
Jan. 17 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) The presence of Japanese vessels at Vladivostok arouses Russian suspicions. Quotes note of Jan. 16 of the Consul at Vladivostok. 30
Jan. 20 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.); to Great Britain and France Instructions to inform Foreign Minister that the United States is not in favor of a military expedition in Siberia. 31
3086 Jan. 23 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Foreign Minister’s explanation of France’s original attitude toward a military expedition in Siberia. 32
8388 Jan. 24 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) British attitude toward a military expedition in Siberia. 33

Proposed Japanese Occupation of the Trans-Siberian Railway—The Reported Activities of German and Austro-Hungarian Prisoners—British and Japanese Support of Semenov

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Quoted in tel.] 1918 Jan. 22 From the Associated Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) The necessity for the immediate sending to Russia of Japanese or American troops. 33
3092 Jan. 24 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Jan. 22 from the Associated Ministers at Jassy. 33
112 Jan. 28 From the British Embassy Proposes the control of the Trans-Siberian Railway by Japan as mandatory of the Allies. 35
Jan. 31 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Recommends visit to Vladivostok of Admiral Knight on U.S.S. Brooklyn. 36
3138 Feb. 3 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Views of the Russian Ambassador in France concerning Allied (particularly Japanese) intervention in Russia. 37
Feb. 4 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Reports hotel robberies and assaults on Japanese. 37
153 Feb. 6 From the British Embassy Suggests that Japan be asked concerning the occupation of the Trans-Siberian Railway. 38
154 Feb. 6 From the British Chargé Great Britain is assisting Semenov with funds and supplies and asks U. S. participation. 38
Feb. 8 To the British Embassy; to French, Italian, Chinese, and Belgian missions The United States is opposed at present to intervention in Russia but if necessary in future advocates international cooperation. 41
[Page XVII] Feb. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan advises exchange of views between Allies to effect a uniform policy toward Russia. 42
2347 Feb. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) A separate government for Siberia will be determined by a convention in March. 43
Feb. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) French attitude toward Japan’s request for a free hand in case of intervention in Siberia. 44
Feb. 9 To the Minister in China (tel.) Instructions to send representative to report conditions in eastern Siberia. 44
Feb. 11 From the Minister in China (tel.) Reports that Military Attaché Drysdale is investigating conditions in Siberia. 44
Feb. 13 To the Minister in China (tel.) Requires reports regarding Bolshevik strength and activities of German and Austrian prisoners. 45
6561 Feb. 13 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); to France, Japan, and China Instructions to lay before the government to which accredited certain reasons opposed to the Japanese plan for intervention in Siberia. 45
Feb. 15 From the Minister in China (tel.) Financial aid to Semenov by Great Britain. 46
[Quoted in tel.] Feb. 15 From the Military Attaché in China via Vladivostok (tel.) Recommends financial assistance to Cossacks to protect Siberian Railway against German activities. 47
Feb. 16 To the Secretary of the Navy Purpose of the return of Admiral Knight with the Brooklyn to Vladivostok. 46
Feb. 17 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Instructions to Admiral Knight to visit Vladivostok. 47
Feb. 17 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes telegram of Feb. 15 from the Military Attaché in China. 47
8723 Feb. 18 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) British plan for Japanese occupation of Siberian railways abandoned. 48
9 Feb. 19 From the Diplomatic Liaison Officer, Supreme War Council (tel.) Substance of paper submitted by British War Office to French General Staff advocating Japanese intervention in Siberia. 49
Feb. 19 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Aid to Cossacks by Japan and Great Britain. Discussion in the Japanese Diet on interests in Siberia. 50
3221 Feb. 20 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Discussion with French Foreign Minister of proposed Japanese entrance into Siberia as a means of opposing Germany. 50
Feb. 21 From the Minister in China (tel.) Military conditions at Irkutsk, Chita, and Harbin, as reported by the Consul at Harbin. 52
Feb. 21 From the Minister in China (tel.) Japan reported preparing military expedition to help Russians restore order in Siberia. 53
[Page XVIII][Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Consul at Moscow to Consul General Plan for occupation of the Siberian Railway by the United States, China, and Japan. 53
198 Feb. 23 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Quotes undated communication from the Consul at Moscow. See supra. 53
Feb. 23 From the Minister in China (tel.) Reliance on Semenov as a leader to restore order in Siberia is unwise. 54
Feb. 23 From the Minister in China (tel.) Japan proposes cooperation with China to restore order in Siberia. China requests U. S. advice. 55
Feb. 23 To the Minister in China (tel.) Instructions to inform China of U. S. attitude toward intervention in Siberia. 55
Feb. 24 From the Minister in China (tel.) The Military Attaché reports food shortage caused by Chinese embargo and reaction against Bolsheviks. 55
Feb. 24 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan is prepared for immediate intervention in Siberia and awaits British and French consent. 56
6683 Feb. 26 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); to France Russia reported to be unfriendly to entry of Japanese troops unless with other Allied forces. 57
Feb. 27 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Francis requests protection against armed prisoners on proposed trip across Siberia. 57
6705 Feb. 27 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); to France Advice to China concerning that part of the Trans-Siberian Railway which passes through Manchuria. 57
3259 Feb. 28 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Interviews with Foreign Minister and Russian Ambassador to France on Japanese intervention in Siberia. 58
Feb. 28 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan officially states it awaits Allied approval of military activities in Siberia: French attitude. 60
[Quoted in tel.] Feb. 28 From the Military Attaché in China via Peking (tel.) Conditions at Vladivostok, Irkutsk, and Khabarovsk and the possibility of Germany’s obtaining Siberian supplies. 61
Mar. 1 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes telegram of Feb. 28 from Military Attaché. 61
Mar. 1 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Information received does not confirm report of serious conditions at Irkutsk. 61
[Quoted in tel.] Mar. 1 From the Consul at Harbin via Peking Russian activities in support of Semenov and Kolchak; Japanese aid to Semenov. 65
Mar. 2 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Russian Ambassador’s views on Japanese intervention in Siberia and German aggression in Russia. 61
Mar. 2 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Instructions to report regarding arming of German prisoners at Irkutsk. 63
[Page XIX] Mar. 2 To the Chargé in China (tel.). Reports of consuls desired on arming of war prisoners and other conditions in Siberia. 64
Mar. 3 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Report from Irkutsk of conditions under Bolsheviks and arming of prisoners. 64
225 Mar. 3 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Attitude of prominent Russians toward Allied and American occupation of the Siberian Railway. 65
Mar. 3 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes message of Mar. 1 from the Consul at Harbin. 65
Mar. 4 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Inquiries regarding the arming of German and Austrian prisoners. 66
Mar. 5 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Moser reports that Bolshevik force against Semenov is increasing. 66

Declaration of the American Government against Intervention, March 5, 1918: Further Discussion—Further Reports Concerning Enemy Prisoners—Japanese Offer of Support to Horvat

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Mar. 5 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.); to Great Britain, France, and Italy U. S. statement of confidence in Japan but doubt of wisdom of intervention in Siberia. 67
Mar. 6 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Report on activity of enemy prisoners in Siberia. 69
Mar. 6 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Reports violation by Bolsheviks of person and property, including forced contributions from American firms. 70
Mar. 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reinforcements from Harbin for Semenov. Attitude of Japanese public men toward intervention. 71
Mar. 7 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Members of Chamber of Commerce arrested by Soviet were released. 72
3310 Mar. 7 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) British suggestion for joint plan of intervention by Allies. French attitude toward Japanese intervention. 72
Mar. 8 From the Chargé in China (tel.) British support of Semenov with military supplies. 73
Mar. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports concerning Russian attitude toward Japanese intervention and toward peace treaty with Germany. 73
2 Mar. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky complains of consular opposition to Soviet organizations at Vladivostok. 74
Mar. 12 From the French Ambassador Points out advantages from Allied viewpoint of Japanese intervention and asks U. S. cooperation. 75
Mar. 12 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Palmer reports activity of Bolsheviks and war prisoners at Blagoveshchensk and Khabarovsk. 77
[Page XX] Mar. 12 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese attitude toward British proposal of military occupation in Siberia. 78
Mar. 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recent events in the Far East. 79
Mar. 15 From the Counselor for the Department of State Discussion with Allied representatives in Washington of U. S. position on Japanese intervention in Siberia. 68
Mar. 15 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Japanese offer of support to Horvat. 79
Mar. 16 To the French Ambassador U.S. attitude regarding Japanese intervention in Siberia. 80
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Military Attaché to the Chargé in China Report on war prisoners at Nikolsk and Spasskoe and strength of Bolshevism. 80
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 16] From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes undated report of the Military Attaché. See supra. 80
Mar. 17 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Reports Japanese participation in fighting at Blagoveshchensk. 80
[Quoted in tel.] Mar. 19 The Japanese Foreign Minister to the American Ambassador Japan will act in Siberia only in accord with the American and Allied powers. 81
Mar. 19 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes memorandum of Mar. 19 of the Foreign Minister. 81
Mar. 20 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reasons for attitude toward Japan’s sending expeditionary force into Siberia. 82
15 Mar. 20 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to Summers to inform Department of situation in Russia and in Siberia west of Chita. 82
Mar. 20 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Instructions to consuls to inform Department of situation east of Chita. 83
25 Mar. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Conflicting reports upon the arming of war prisoners. 83
Mar. 21 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Wright instructed to report on situation in Siberia. 84
84 Mar. 22 From the Ambassador in Japan Résumé of changes of attitude in Japan toward intervention in Siberia. 84
Mar. 22 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Instructions to express to Japan appreciation of its candid statement on intervention in Siberia. 88
23 Mar. 25 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires regarding provisional government of Siberia and Siberian conference. 88
Mar. 26 From the Counselor of Embassy in Russia (tel.) Reports conditions in Siberia as noted during trip from Petrograd to Vladivostok. 89
[Page XXI][Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Consul at Harbin via. Peking Report of armed prisoners at Chita. 91
Mar. 26 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes undated report from the Consul at Harbin. See supra. 91
40 Mar. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Has no news of separate Siberian government or of conference. 92
Mar. 29 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Instructions to report views of Masaryk on Russian situation and possible resistance to Central powers. 92
Mar. 29 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Cooperation of armed Austrian prisoners with Bolsheviks. 92
Mar. 29 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Moser reports Horvat’s organization of military forces (Japan aiding with supplies) and of a cabinet. 93
Mar. 30 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes report from Irkutsk that war prisoners are arming. 94
Mar. 30 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Requires reports from Wright and Bailey on specific points. 94
Apr. 2 From the Minister in China (tel.) Reports from Harbin of armed prisoners joining Bolsheviks. 95
61 Apr. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Views upon Japanese intervention and on proposed conference of railway men at Vologda. 95
67 Apr. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolshevik protests against the activities of Semenov and Allied support. 96
Apr. 4 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Quotes Japanese note offering support to Horvat. Latter appeals for U. S. support. 97

Landing of Japanese Forces at Vladivostok, April 5, 1918; British Landing: Attitude of the United States—Formation of the Autonomous Siberian Government, the Far Eastern Committee, and the Chinese Eastern Railway Governing Board—The Webster-Hicks Reports on Armed Prisoners—Appearance of the Czecho-Slovaks

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Apr. 4 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Japanese nationals shot by Russians. 99
Apr. 5 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Landing of Japanese forces at Vladivostok. 100
45 Apr. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Assurance that no action will be taken by Japan without understanding with Allies or the United States. 100
47 Apr. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Relates murder of Japanese and landing of troops at Vladivostok. 100
[Page XXII] Apr. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) British renewal of representations to Japan for intervention in Siberia as of strategic value. 101
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 6] From the Prime Minister of the Siberian government (tel.) Organization and aims of the provisional government of autonomous Siberia. 101
Apr. 6 From the Counselor of Embassy in Russia (tel.) Report from Harbin on the general situation in Siberia. 102
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Assistant Military Attaché in Russia to the War Department Interviews with Trotsky on situation at Vladivostok and personal recommendations on intervention in Siberia. 104
329 Apr. 6 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Quotes undated report from the Assistant Military Attaché to the War Department. See supra. 104
Apr. 6 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Landing of British sailors and additional Japanese force protested by local Soviet. 105
78 Apr. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Soviet statement regarding murder of Japanese and Soviet protest against invasion of Russian territory. 105
79 Apr. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes his message to Robins on the landing of Japanese at Vladivostok and Chicherin’s protest, with comments. 106
371 Apr. 8 From the British Ambassador Forwards four telegrams from the Embassy in Japan and the Foreign Office on the Siberian situation, Semenov’s activities, and the landing at Vladivostok. 108
Apr. 8 From the French Ambassador Requests reconsideration of Japanese action in Siberia on the basis of fresh information. 109
53 Apr. 8 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Requests full details of Webster’s reports on prisoners of war in Siberia. 113
Apr. 8 From the Minister in China (tel.) Japanese support of Horvat. Russian attitude toward U. S. assistance on the Chinese Eastern Railway 113
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Assistant Military Attaché in Russia Reports conference of military representatives with Soviet government on Allied intervention in Siberia. 114
81 Apr. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes undated report from the Assistant Military Attaché, with comments. See supra. 113
Apr. 9 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Inquires regarding formation of the Siberian Provincial Duma. 115
55 Apr. 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Corrects statement that Japanese landing at Vladivostok was made by agreement with Allies. 115
57 Apr. 10 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires what action is proposed to control armed war prisoners in Siberia. 116
[Page XXIII]86 Apr. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes his public statement regarding purpose of Japanese and British landing at Vladivostok. 116
Apr. 10 From the Minister in China (tel.) Advocates economic support and railway restoration in Siberia before resort to military intervention. 117
Apr. 12 To the Minister in China (tel.) Instructions to verify certain reports regarding situation in Siberia 118
Apr. 12 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Data on Siberian Provincial Duma and provisional Siberian government and their relations with Horvat. 119
95 Apr.12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Denies having made statement that Japanese landing at Vladivostok was by agreement of Allies. 121
Apr. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese concurrence in British statement that landing at Vladivostok was only for protection of nationals. 121
Apr. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reports Masaryk’s views on situation in Siberia and his recommendations. 122
97 Apr. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Webster-Hicks investigation of the arming of war prisoners. Relations of Robins with Soviet régime. 122
Apr. 17 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Chinese cruiser arrives at Vladivostok. 124
107 Apr. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes German message to Soviet government insisting upon disbanding of war-prisoners’ committees. 124
109 Apr. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes message from Webster on armed prisoners and cites conflicting reports. 125
110 Apr. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reasons for disapproval of separate Japanese action in Siberia as expressed by Allied Ambassadors. 126
Apr. 19 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Question of maintenance of Czechoslovaks who will arrive at Vladivostok en route to France. 126
Apr. 20 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Organization of Russian Far Eastern Committee and its interest in Blagoveshchensk refugees. 127
[Enclosure] Apr. 20 From the Consul at Harbin to the Minister in China Criticism of Semenov’s methods of warfare. 133
Apr. 21 From the French Ambassador Japanese hope for U. S. support of intervention in Siberia based on relations of Bolsheviks with Germany. 128
401 Apr. 22 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Quotes German Foreign Office demands on Soviet Russia for discipline of prisoners of war and Soviet reply. 129
[Page XXIV]3600 Apr. 22 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) Instructions to inquire of France in regard to maintenance and transportation of Czecho-Slovak troops at Vladivostok. 130
118 Apr. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Statement of Webster and Hicks on armed prisoners in Siberia. Siberian attitude toward Allied intervention. 130
405 Apr. 23 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Soviet protest against German-Ukrainian advance in Crimea and Soviet order respecting war prisoners. 131
Apr. 23 From the French Ambassador German advances in Russia, as reported by French Ambassador in Russia, necessitate Japanese and Allied intervention. 132
2002 Apr. 23 From the Minister in China Forwards despatch of Apr. 20 from the Consul at Harbin and adds comments on Semenov. 133
3663 Apr. 23 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) Suggestion that Italian and Belgian troops remain in Far East in case intervention becomes necessary. 134
Apr. 25 From the British Ambassador Forwards Balfour’s proposal of an Allied front in Russia to oppose Germany. 135
Apr. 25 From the Minister in China (tel.) Verifies data of Department regarding grain supply, activities of armed prisoners, etc. 137
Apr. 25 From the Minister in China (tel.) Russians organize governing board for the Chinese Eastern Railway. Relations of reactionary forces and Japanese aid. 137

Attitude of the United States toward Siberian Political Organizations: Relations of Diplomatic and Consular Officers with Them—Advance and Repulse of Semenov—Appeals, Recommendations, and Plans for Intervention

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Apr. 26 To the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Recognition of Far Eastern Committee must riot be implied. 138
127 Apr. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes message from Chicherin to Robins protesting against activities of U. S. representatives and requesting recall of the Consul at Vladivostok. 139
Apr. 27 From the British Embassy Presents Balfour’s note pointing out problems involved in intervention in Russia and Bolshevik attitude. 140
Apr. 27 From the Minister in China (tel.) Japan’s demands upon Harbin group in return for military support. 140
Apr. 27 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Petition of provisional Siberian government for U. S. counsel and material support against the Central powers. 141
[Page XXV]128 Apr. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Summary of papers seized by Bolsheviks purported to involve U. S. and Allied representatives. 142
Apr. 29 To the President Interview with Japanese Ambassador designate Ishii on Japan’s attitude toward intervention. 144
439 Apr. 29 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Soviet message to France requesting recall of Noulens and protest to Germany against advance into Soviet territory. 145
Apr. 30 From the Minister in China (tel.) Formation of board of directors of Chinese Eastern Railway. Financial support from Japan. 147
Apr. 30 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Conflict between Soviet and Zemstvo to control city. Arrival of Czecho-Slovak troops. 148
May 1 From the British Ambassador Presents Balfour’s message suggesting that Allies work with Trotsky to prevent domination of Russia by Germany. 148
3770 May 1 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Arrangements for maintenance and transportation of Czecho-Slovak troops arriving at Vladivostok. 149
May 1 To the Minister in China (tel.) Inquiries regarding the government reported to be headed by Horvat. 150
May 3 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Reports Semenov, aided by British and Japanese supplies and reen-forced by Cossacks, advancing in Transbaikalia. 150
May 4 From the Japanese Ambassador Reasons for the landing of Japanese forces at Vladivostok, at variance with statement of Francis. 151
May 4 To the Minister in China (tel.) Instructions to Legation and Consulate to maintain strict neutrality toward Russia. 152
May 4 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Soviet has dissolved City Council and taken over its functions. 152
May 6 To the Minister in China (tel.) Use of Chinese soil as a base for foreign military activities may embarrass China. 152
May 6 To the Minister in China (tel.) Instructions to report facts regarding alleged conspiracy against Soviet government. 153
2131 May 7 To the French Ambassador Views intervention in Siberia now as inopportune. 154
May 7 From the Minister in China (tel.) Horvat’s aim is a government for Siberia after military success with aid of Allies or Japan. 154
May 7 From the Vice Consul at Harbin (tel.) Reports Semenov’s advance in Transbaikalia and support by Siberians. 155
May 8 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Board of directors for Chinese Eastern Railway administer railway zone independently of any government except Chinese. 155
May 8 To the Minister in China (tel.) Attitude of strict neutrality toward contending factions in Russia. 157
[Page XXVI] May 9 From the Minister in China (tel.) No communications for any Russian party have been transmitted by the Legation. 157
24 May 10 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the Secretary of War (tel.) Movement of Czecho-Slovak and Serbian troops across Russia to France via Murmansk or Vladivostok. 158
May 10 From the Minister in China (tel.) Reports Semenov’s gains and proposes an Allied and American commission to strengthen local Siberian government. 158
May 11 To the President Interview with British Ambassador on advisability of intervention in Russia, assuming Bolshevik invitation. 160
May 11 From the Minister in China (tel.) Semenov’s success offers opportunity of securing Siberia, Caucasus, and Ukraine against German efforts. 160
May 14 From the Minister in China (tel.) China is concerned over reports of Horvat’s activities involving Chinese Eastern Railway. 161
May 16 From the Minister in China (tel.) Conditions on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Explanation of rumors concerning Chinese Eastern Railway. 161
524 May 16 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Semenov’s advance checked. Bolsheviks reinforced by prisoners. 162
May 16 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Plan for Allied intervention in Siberia under Japanese command. 162
May 19 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Requests permission to deny reports of U. S. control of Siberian Railway in agreement with Bolshevik government. 163
539 May 22 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Huntington’s report on conditions in Siberia, including popular desire for Allied and American intervention. 164
May 22 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Instructions to explain to Japan the purpose of the Russian Railway Service Corps. 165
May 23 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) No messages for private Russian citizens have been transmitted by the Consulate. 166
3966 May 23 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Opinion of the chief of the French Military Mission to Russia on intervention in Siberia. 166
May 23 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Russian distrust of Emerson’s mission to Vologda. Quarrel of Semenov with railway administration and with Kolchak. 168
1657 May 24 From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.) Proposed political and military plan to save Russia from falling into the hands of Germany. 170
1663 May 25 From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.) Russian Ambassador in Italy recommends immediate Allied military intervention in Russia. 171
[Page XXVII]206 May 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Chicherin demands that China cease to harbor Semenov or permit Soviet troops to pursue him on Chinese territory. 172
3999 May 26 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Discussion of French views on intervention in Siberia and northern Russia. 172
May 27 From Admiral Knight to the Secretary of the Navy (tel.) Résumé of conditions at Vladivostok. 174
1669 May 28 From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.) Views of president of League for Regeneration of Russia in Union with her Allies on measures to oppose Germany. 175
2180 May 28 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Swedish press report that the United States may recognize Soviet régime and assist it against German aggression. 175
May 28 From the Minister in China (tel.) Semenov’s statement of reluctance to accept Japanese aid, other Allied support having been discontinued. 177

Clashes between the Czecho-Slovaks and Soviet Forces: Good Offices of American and French Consuls

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Quoted in tel.] 1918 May 26 From the Consul at Omsk via Vologda (tel.) Clash between Soviet and Czech forces at Omsk. 177
219 May 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes message of May 26 from the Consul at Omsk. Reports that Czech and Polish prisoners desire to fight Germany. 177
May 29 To the Japanese Ambassador Francis’s statement regarding landing of Japanese forces at Vladivostok will be corrected. 178
May 29 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Czecho-Slovak troops in conflict with Bolsheviks and armed prisoners of war near Irkutsk. 178
226 May 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied and American Ambassadors advocate immediate intervention. German Ambassador gains in influence with Soviet régime. 179
4033 May 29 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Allied conference at Paris and French mission to the United States will discuss Japanese intervention in Siberia. 180
May 30 From the Minister in China (tel.) Urgent appeal for Allied intervention in Siberia to protect common interests. 181
May 30 From the Chairman of the Advisory Commission of Railway Experts (tel.) Indorses Horvat’s statement regarding the menace of armed prisoners and necessity for Allied action in Siberia. 181
May 31 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Soviet complaint of the concentration of Czecho-Slovaks at Vladivostok. 182
[Page XXVIII]4289 May 31 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) No justification for change of U. S. policy regarding intervention in Siberia. 182
229 May 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department’s circular telegram of May 29, expressing sympathy for Czecho-Slovaks and Jugo-Slavs sent to Chicherin. Soviet order to disarm Czechs. 183
588 May 31 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Further clashes between Soviet and Czecho-Slovaks at Chelyabinsk and elsewhere. 183
6 June 2 From the Consul General at Irkutsk Good offices of American and French consuls in arbitrating between Czech and Soviet forces after clash near Irkutsk. Enclosure: text of agreement. 184
592 June 2 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Soviet officials demand complete disarmament of Czecho-Slovaks. 187
155 June 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Use of Chinese soil as base for hostile military operations by Russian faction may embarrass China. 188
241 June 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet government to be informed of attitude of Associated Governments towards disarmament of Czecho-Slovaks. 188

Consideration of Intervention by the American Government—Development of the Czecho-Slovaks’ Conflict with Soviet Forces—Protest of the Allied and American Representatives against the Disarmament of the Czecho-Slovaks—Good Offices of American Officials—Formation of the Temporary Siberian Government at Omsk

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Quoted in tel.] 1918 June 3 From the Consul at Omsk via Moscow (tel.) Reports situation of the Czechoslovaks at Omsk and at points west. 204
1395 June 4 To the Ambassador in Italy (tel.) Requests details of plans of League for Regeneration of Russia. 188
June 4 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Requests concrete plan of intervention in Siberia and views upon its military advantage. 189
June 5 From the Minister in China (tel.) Japanese military assistance to Semenov and compensation promised. Allied intervention vs. German control. 189
June 5 To the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Inquires views of Cooperative Societies regarding methods of resistance to Germany. 190
June 6 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Kolchak gathering forces at Pogranichnaya to oppose Bolsheviks. Russian desire for intervention. 190
June 7 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Russian Ambassador discusses relative strength of opposing forces in Siberia and possible use of Czechoslovak army. 192
[Page XXIX]9288 June 7 From the Chargé in Great Britain Views of a prominent Siberian on Allied military assistance to Siberia. 193
4120 June 7 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Trotsky orders movement of troops against the Czecho-Slovaks. 194
1708 June 7 From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.) Reported that Russian parties hope for Allied intervention but can not ask for it. 194
9 June 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet measures against Czechoslovaks said to be dictated by Germans. 195
June 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Agitation in Japan renewed in favor of armed intervention in Siberia. Semenov’s success short-lived. 195
Undated [Rec’d June 9] From the Foreign Commissar of the Central Siberian Soviet (tel.) Assurances that difficulties with Czecho-Slovaks will be settled peacefully. 196
621 June 9 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Quotes Y.M.C.A. Secretary and others on aims and progress of Czecho-Slovak troops. 197
Undated [Rec’d June 10] From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Mediation reported to prevent conflict between Czechs and Russians near Mariinsk. 191
June 10 From the Russian Ambassador Forwards for the President extract of resolution of Cadet Party regarding Allied intervention in Russia. 198
638 June 10 From the British Ambassador Memorandum on proposed transportation to France by Japanese ships of Czecho-Slovak troops now at Vladivostok. 199
[Quoted in tel.] June 10 From the Consul General at Irkutsk via Vladivostok (tel.) Czecho-Slovak trouble due to detention of Czech troops in Russia by order of Trotsky. 200
June 10 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes telegram of June 10 from the Consul General at Irkutsk. 200
17 June 10 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Conflict between anti-Bolshevik forces and local Soviet at Irkutsk. 201
170 June 10 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Communications of Moscow Consulate with Soviet should be limited to matters affecting American interests. 201
June 10 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Railway and telegraph services with Russia and Siberia broken; Semenov and Orlov outnumbered by Bolshevik forces. 201
92 June 10 From the Diplomatic Liaison Officer, Supreme War Council (tel.) Conditions specified by Great Britain, France, and Italy of Japanese and Allied intervention in Russia. 202
[Page XXX][Quoted in tel.] June 10 From the Consul General at Irkutsk via Vladivostok Consular protest to Soviet against measures taken to oppose passage of Czechs through Irkutsk. 205
626 June 11 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Soviet proclamation of June 11 denouncing provisional Siberian government. 203
June 12 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes message of June 10 from the Consul General at Irkutsk. 205
628 June 12 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Statement of an official of the Cooperative Societies on Allied intervention in Siberia. 205
[Quoted in tel.] June 12 From the Soviet government to Consul at Moscow Reply in part to protest of Allied and American Consuls against disarmament of Czecho-Slovaks. 211
June 13 From the Minister in China (tel.) Usefulness of Czecho-Slovak troops to control Siberia against German aggression. 206
264 June 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Protest of Allied and American representatives against the disarmament of the Czecho-Slovaks. 207
[Quoted in tel.] June 13 From the Consul General at Irkutsk via Vladivostok (tel.) Reports counter-Bolshevik movement throughout central Siberia, encouraged by presence of Czechs. 210
June 14 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Memorial signed June 14 at Harbin by Consuls, advocating joint Allied intervention in Russia. 208
June 14 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Local Soviet executive committee seeks friendly relations with the Allied and American consuls. 209
June 14 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes telegram of June 13 from the Consul General at Irkutsk. 210
637 June 14 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) An official of the Cooperatives invites Allied intervention on condition of U. S. guaranty of territorial integrity of Siberia. 210
269 June 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Soviet note of June 12 in part and reports decisions of Paris conference regarding Murman, Archangel, Czecho-Slovaks. 211
[Quoted in tel.] June 14 From the Consul General at Irkutsk via Vladivostok Suggests return of Czechs from Vladivostok to Irkutsk to insure passage of other Czechs. 213
June 15 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Irkutsk in hands of armed Austrian and German prisoners commanded by prisoner officers. 212
June 15 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Reported that Czech troops at Suslovo agree to armistice with Soviet forces. 212
June 15 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes telegram of June 14 from the Consul General at Irkutsk. 213
[Page XXXI] June 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Plan of Paris conference for Allied intervention in the north. Attitude of Russians toward intervention. 213
646 June 17 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Attitude of Czecho-Slovaks at Samara toward Allies and toward Russia, reported by Williams. 214
626 [?] Undated [Rec’d June 18] From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Quotes telegram of June 3 from the Consul at Omsk. 204
650 June 18 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Opinion of leader of Cooperatives upon offensive of provisional Siberian government with Czechs against Germany. 215
June 19 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Semenov is defeated by war prisoners. Anti-Bolshevik movement is gaining but needs armed Allied support. 216
June 20 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Struggle in Irkutsk between White Guard and Red Guard, aided by armed prisoners. 217
June 20 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Meeting of members of Siberian Duma and Cooperative Societies votes to appeal for intervention. 217
June 20 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) No plans yet made to bring Czechoslovaks from Vladivostok. 218
June 20 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) The Department is not prepared to recognize Bolshevik authorities. 218
June 20 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Czecho-Slovaks encouraged by British are guarding military stores. 219
June 22 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan awaits U.S. decision on question of intervention. 219
June 22 To the Minister in China (tel.) Disapproval of connection of U. S. representatives with any public statement indorsing military intervention in Siberia. 220
295 June 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Views on conditions in Russia as result of Soviet rule, on German relations, and on intervention. 220
June 25 To the Diplomatic Liaison Officer, Supreme War Council (tel.) Representations to French Foreign Minister called forth by French statement of Colonel House’s views on intervention in Siberia. 223
June 25 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Report requested on organization of Czecho-Slovak troops at Vladivostok. 224
[Page XXXII]

Request of the Czecho-Slovak Leaders for Aid in Establishing a New Eastern Front—Overthrow of the Vladivostok Soviet by the Czechoslovaks—Landing of American Marines—Proclamation of the Protection of Vladivostok by Commanders of Allied and Associated Forces—Proclamation of a Government by Horvat: Controversy with Other Political Organizations

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 June 25 The President of the Czechoslovak Nat’l Council to the Soviet Foreign Commissar (tel.) Defense of the Czecho-Slovak attitude toward Soviet Russia. 224
9 June 25 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Allied aid urged for Czecho-Slovak troops to enable them to return westward to assist their fellows. 226
10 June 25 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): for Military Staff Increasing strength of armed prisoners. Proposal for a Siberian army with Czecho-Slovaks as nucleus. 227
June 26 From Mr. Alexandre Konovaloff Views on proposed inter-Allied action in Siberia, Japanese troops predominating, and on use of Czecho-Slovak troops. 227
June 26 From Admiral Knight to the Secretary of the Navy (tel.) Czecho-Slovak National Council describe the situation of their military forces in Siberia and ask Allied help. 230
June 26 From the Minister in China (tel.) China seeks U. S. views on action to be taken regarding Russian forces which crossed Chinese boundary. 231
June 27 From the Assistant Secretary of State Sookine plans an Allied and American commission to restore order in Russia. 232
96 June 27 From the Diplomatic Liaison Officer, Supreme War Council (tel.) Source of statement alleged to have been made by Colonel House on Japanese intervention in Siberia. 233
15 June 27 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Partial reply to inquiry regarding Czecho-Slovak troops. 234
June 28 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) British armed force prevented shipment of copper west. 234
2372 June 29 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Strength of Czecho-Slovak movement. Enclosure: Report of Lieutenant Stines advocating Allied support of Czech army. 234
June 29 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Overthrow of Vladivostok Soviet by Czecho-Slovaks after presenting ultimatum. 235
683 June 30 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Fears German military support of Bolsheviks in the north and advocates Allied intervention. 236
July 1 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan’s attitude toward French request for loan of munitions to Czech forces at Vladivostok. 239
904 July 2 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Position of Czecho-Slovak troops in Russia and attitude towards Russia and Central powers. 241
[Page XXXIII]100 July 2, 3 From the Diplomatic Liaison Officer, Supreme War Council (tel.) Supreme War Council’s appeal to President Wilson to support Allied intervention in Russia and Siberia. 241
2407 July 3 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Bolshevik régime in the Urals and Siberia failing and monarchistic party gaining. 246
1 July 4 From the Consul at Omsk Report of armed conflict of Czechoslovaks with Red Guard near Omsk on May 25. Enclosures: Appeal of Magyar communists to war prisoners; Czecho-Slovak official statement. 248
25 Undated [Rec’d July 5] From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Views on conditions under Bolshevik régime in Finland, Russia, Turkestan, and Siberia. 239
30 July 5 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Asks aid for Czechs in struggle against armed prisoners. Reports conditions in Vladivostok after Czech occupation. 261
July 6 Memorandum Conference at White House on Siberian situation: program to aid Czecho-Slovaks. 262
[Quoted in tel.] July 6 The Secretary of the Navy to Commander of the Brooklyn Instructions to keep Vladivostok available as a base for the safety of the Czecho-Slovaks. 263
July 6 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes instructions of July 6 of Secretary of the Navy to flagship Brooklyn. 263
[Quoted in tel.] July 6 From the Consul at Harbin via Peking (tel.) Announcement of Horvat’s cabinet and nonpartisan government for Siberia. 273
35 July 7 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Czecho-Slovaks take Nikolsk. Allied and American consuls request passage for Czechs through Manchuria. 264
July 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan will present machine guns and mounted batteries to Czechoslovak Army. 265
250 July 8 From the Consul at Vladivostok Transmits communication to the Allied consuls from the Czechoslovak National Council on the position of their troops in Russia. 265
July 8 Memorandum Discussion with the Japanese Ambassador of the Siberian program determined upon by conference at the White House. 267
[Quoted in tel.] July 8 From the Consul at Harbin via Peking (tel.) Removal of Horvat to the Maritime Province. Discussion of political activities involving the Chinese Eastern Railway. 274
206 [26?] Undated [Rec’d July 9] From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Reports armed prisoners proceeding westward to oppose the Czechoslovaks. 268
July 9 To the President- Interview with British, French, and Italian Ambassadors regarding Allied action in resisting attacks upon Czecho-Slovaks. 269
[Page XXXIV]254 July 9 From the Consul at Vladivostok Forwards text of proclamation of July 6 announcing Vladivostok temporarily under protection of the Allied and Associated powers. 270
July 9 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Requests instructions on attitude to be taken toward transportation of Czech troops over the Chinese Eastern Railway. 271
4408 July 9 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes appeal to President Wilson of Russian political organizations in Paris for aid in expelling Germans from Russia. 272
July 9 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes telegram of July 6 from the Consul at Harbin. 273
July 9 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes telegram of July 8 from the Consul at Harbin. 274
[Quoted in tel.] July 9 From the Consul at Harbin via Peking (tel.) Chinese attitude toward Horvat’s troops and toward management of railways. 278
[Quoted in tel.] July 10 From the Harbin Consulate via Peking (tel.) Formation of the provisional government of autonomous Siberia. 278
July 11 From the British Ambassador Presents telegram from British Foreign Secretary regarding increase of British forces at Vladivostok. 274
[Quoted in tel.] July 11 From the Consul at Harbin via Peking (tel.) Horvat’s plan to establish Grand Duke Michael as constitutional monarch. 279
July 12 From the British Ambassador Presents telegram from British Foreign Secretary urging support by the U.S.S. Brooklyn for the Czechs at Vladivostok. 274
July 12 From the British Ambassador Presents telegram from British Foreign Secretary stating purpose of steps taken at Vladivostok. 275
July 12 From the British Ambassador Presents telegram from British Foreign Secretary quoting his message to France on Allied protection of Vladivostok. 275
July 12 From the Assistant Secretary of State Interview with the Italian Ambassador on an inter-Allied expedition in Siberia. 275
2466 July 12 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Members of Social Revolutionary Party appeal through United Press for Allied intervention. 276
July 12 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Advice of Allied representatives to Horvat on his new government and the passage of Czechs through Manchuria. Message from Harbin Consulate, July 10. 277
July 12 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes message of July 9 from Harbin. 278
July 12 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes message of July 11 from Harbin. 279
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Harbin Consulate via Peking (tel.) Difficulties between Czecho-Slovaks and Horvat in the Maritime Province. Aid to Horvat from Japan. 280
[Page XXXV] July 13 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes undated telegram from Harbin, respecting difficulties between Czecho-Slovaks and Horvat. 280
July 13 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): to Moscow Request for specific information regarding armed forces in Siberia. 281
July 13 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reports that Japan considers occupying Manchuria and controlling the Chinese Eastern Railway. 281
2194 July 15 To the Ambassador in France Reply to appeal of Russian political organizations in Paris. 281
45 July 15 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) An estimate of the Siberian government and of relations in Siberia of Czecho-Slovak and Horvat forces. 282
July 15 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) German and Magyar prisoners in Central Siberia force the issue with the Czecho-Slovak Army. 283
July 15 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Desires the approval of China for passage of Czecho-Slovak troops over the Chinese Eastern Railway. 283
791 July 16 From the British Ambassador Seeks U. S support in request that Japan furnish destroyers to assist in patrol of Vladivostok Harbor. 284
July 16 From the French Ambassador U. S. aid sought in credit established for support of Czechoslovak troops in Siberia. 284
2150 July 16 From the Chargé in China Effect of Horvat’s proclamation of a new Siberian government on the Czecho-Slovak movement westward. 285

American Proposals for Military Action, July 17, 1918: Discussion with the Japanese and British Governments—Chinese Request for Participation—Rivalry of Local Organizations

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 July 17 To the Allied Ambassadors American plans in respect to military intervention in Russia, assistance to the Czecho-Slovaks, and economic aid. 287
51 July 17 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Reports strength and movements of various forces in Siberia. 290
July 17 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Proposed U. S. and Japanese contingents and economic mission to assist Czech troops 292
July 18 To the Chargé in in China (tel.) Disapproval of China’s taking control of Chinese Eastern Railway during Russia’s present distress. 292
52 July 18 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Representatives of provisional government of autonomous Siberia favor Allied military intervention. 293
[Page XXXVI]262 July 19 From the Consul at Vladivostok Transmits declaration of July 8 of the provisional government of autonomous Siberia, asking for recognition. 293
July 19 From the Foreign Minister of the Siberian government (tel.) Suggests the common establishment of a new front against Austro-German forces in Russia and Siberia. 296
July 19 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Inquires if Japan wishes to correct Horvat’s statement that he has Japanese support. 297
[Quoted in tel.] July 19 From the Vice Consul at Samara via Moscow Reports political situation in Volga-Ural region, and urges publication of Allied purposes. 317
July 20 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Requests instructions regarding attitude toward proposed participation by China in military operations in Siberia. 298
July 20 From the Chargé in China (tel.) China decides to participate in military operations at Vladivostok 299
July 20 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Official assurance that China has no intention of depriving Russia of its control of Chinese Eastern Railway. 299
July 23 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Conversation with Chinese Minister: China desires to participate with Allies in action in Siberia. 299
July 23 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Interview with Foreign Minister on military occupation of Manchuria and support of Horvat. 300
July 24 To the President Increase by Japan of its forces to be sent to Vladivostok. Copy of Japanese declaration enclosed. 301
61 July 24 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Jenkins reports on Bolshevik activities at Khabarovsk. 302
July 24 From the Chargé in China (tel.) China dissents from Japanese plan to patrol the Chinese Eastern Railway. 303
July 25 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Conversation with Chinese Minister on Japan’s policy in Siberia. 303
July 26 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State China advised to assume control of that portion of Chinese Eastern Railway within its territory. 304
July 26 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State China desires to participate in Allied military activities. 305
July 26 To the Chargé in China (tel.) China alone should guard the Chinese Eastern Railway. 305
July 27 From the British Ambassador Presents Balfour’s note enclosing copy of draft proclamation to the Russian people of Allied policy in Russia. 305
[Page XXXVII] July 27 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Discussion with the Japanese Ambassador of statement of special position with respect to Siberia. 306
July 27 From the Chargé in China, (tel.) Inquires if attitude toward Horvat should be modified in view of his monarchists tendencies. 307
July 27 From the Chargé in China (tel.) China consents that the Czechoslovak Army use the Chinese Eastern Railway. 308
July 28 From the French Ambassador Financial assistance by France, Great Britain, and the United States for the Czecho-Slovak troops in Siberia. 308
8 July 29 From the Consul General at Irkutsk Account of the seizure of Irkutsk from the Bolsheviks by the Czechoslovaks, and the latter’s control of the Siberian Railway. 309
July 29 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Attitude toward Chinese control of railroad within Manchuria and contingent of Chinese troops at Vladivostok. 314
65 July 29 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Siberian provisional government requests public declaration of Allied purposes and recall of Allied officers now with Horvat. 315
July 30 From the British Embassy Presents Balfour’s memorandum of July 29 answering the American statement of July 17 relative to intervention in Russia. 315
July 30 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Instructions not to modify attitude toward Horvat’s political activities. 317
43 July 30 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Quotes report of July 19 from the Vice Consul at Samara. 317
July 30 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese Embassy reports disorders at Khabarovsk and Nikolaevsk and the dispatch of torpedo boats to the latter. 318
July 31 From the members of the Czecho-Slovak Nat’l Council to its President Report on condition of the Czechoslovak Army and request for supplies and reinforcements. 319
70 July 31 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Strong showing of Bolsheviks in election for Vladivostok city council. 320
71 July 31 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Desires to know Department’s attitude toward Czechs, Siberian government, and Horvat. 321
July 31 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Inquiry regarding Bolshevik control of city election and rivalry of anti-Bolshevik organizations. 321
Aug. 1 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Attitude of Japan toward U.S. plan of action in Siberia. 321
Aug. 1 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Serious situation of the Czechoslovaks in westward movement and inadequacy of forces at Vladivostok. 322
[Page XXXVIII] Aug. 1 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Purpose to safeguard Russian interests and territory but not to support any one faction. 323
Aug. 2 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Department’s attitude toward Siberian governmental organizations. Material assistance offered Czechs. 323

Japanese and American Public Statements Regarding Military Action, August 2 and 3, 1918—British Statement, August 8, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Undated [Rec’d Aug. 2] From the Japanese Ambassador Japan will act with the United States and the Allies in sending troops to Siberia and will respect the territorial integrity of Russia. 324
Aug. 3 To the President. Japanese Ambassador reported the agreement of his government with U.S. proposals, reserving the question of increase of troops. 325
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 3] From Admiral Knight to the Secretary of the Navy (tel.) Czechs on Ussuri front reported outnumbered. British and French troops to be sent to their assistance. 326
76 Aug. 3 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Explanation of Bolshevik vote in recent city election and of request for Japanese war vessels at Nikolaevsk. 327
Aug. 3 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.); to Great Britain, France, Italy, and China U.S. public statement of the objects and extent of its military and economic action in Russia. 328
Aug. 5 To the Chargé in China (tel.) German force, reported within Manchurian border, will necessitate Chinese action. 329
Aug. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japan’s declaration regarding intervention made public. Official assurance of acceding to U.S. suggestion of limitation of troops. 330
Aug. 6 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Conversation with Chinese Minister: Chinese troops prevented Bolsheviks from crossing the border in pursuit of Semenov. 330
80 Aug. 6 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) No foreign military officers are with Horvat at present. 331
Aug. 6 From the Chargé in China (tel.) China is preparing to dispatch troops to Vladivostok without opposition from Japan. 331
79 Aug. 6 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Arrival of Horvat with cabinet and guard; Siberian government suggests coalition. 332
81 Aug. 7 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Can not report strength of Siberian government without investigation in western Siberia. 332
[Page XXXIX]5236 Aug. 7 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) American Red Cross will furnish clothing for Czecho-Slovak troops. Inquires if France contemplates similar assistance. 333
Aug. 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Suggests wisdom of limiting U.S. troops for Vladivostok to number originally planned. 333
883 Aug. 8 From the British Chargé Text of British statement to the Russian peoples giving assurance of aid and respect for national sovereignty. 333
Aug. 8 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Denial of report of German force in Manchuria. Operation of military convention between China and Japan. 334
Aug. 8 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) The Department has not replied to the request for recognition of the provisional government of autonomous Siberia. 335
Aug. 9 From the Russian Ambassador Forwards message from provisional government of autonomous Siberia regarding its origin, policies, and popular support. 335
Aug. 9 From the British Chargé Forwards Balfour’s message quoting telegram from H. M. S. Suffolk regarding critical situation of the Czechs in Siberia. 337
Aug. 9 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Denial of rumor that U. S. forces for Vladivostok will be augmented. 337
Aug. 10 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Misconstruction in translation of U. S. declaration of Aug. 3 of policy in Russia antagonizes Russians. 338

Proposals for the Political Direction of Intervention and for Augmentation of the Forces: Attitude of the United States—Japanese Activities in Manchuria—Arrival of American and Allied Troops at Vladivostok—Increase of the Japanese Forces—Reply of the Soviet Government to American and Japanese Statements

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Quoted in tel.] 1918 July 8 From the Consul at Tomsk via Vladivostok (tel.) Condition of the Siberian government formed at Tomsk. 342
893 Aug. 11 From the British Chargé Appointment of British High Commissioner in Siberia. 339
Aug. 12 From the French Ambassador Suggests inter-Allied civilian board to safeguard unity of action toward Russian people. 340
894 Aug. 12 From-the British Embassy Great Britain desires the United States to request Japan to dispatch military aid to the Czechs. 341
Aug. 13 From the British Chargé Presents British consular message on critical condition of Czechs and need of supplies. 342
[Page XL]95 Aug. 13 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes report of July 8 from the Consul at Tomsk. 342
Aug. 13 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Reports Japanese forces joining Czechs at Harbin; war prisoners threatening Manchuria Station. 343
Aug. 13 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese activities in Manchuria, with Chinese consent, to oppose Bolshevik troops and German armed prisoners. 343
[Quoted in tel.] Aug. 13 From the Consul General at Irkutsk via Peking (tel.) Czecho-Slovak situation, opposed by armed prisoners, in their advance on Perm. 360
Aug. 14 To the British Chargé Disapproval of suggested changes in plan agreed upon to aid the Czecho-Slovaks. 344
Aug. 14 From the Japanese Ambassador Statement that Japanese troops will cooperate with Chinese in opposing armed prisoners on Chinese frontiers. 345
Aug. 15 To the Japanese Ambassador Strength of American expeditionary force to be sent to Vladivostok. 346
98 Aug. 15 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Recommends extension of plans to aid the Czecho-Slovaks and quotes statements of Girsa and Dietrichs. 346
Aug. 15 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Strength of American expeditionary forces ordered to Vladivostok. 348
Aug. 15 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Agreement between Japan and China to send troops to Manchouli. Delay of Chinese contingent for Vladivostok. 348
914 Aug. 16 From the British Chargé Necessity for definite action on the part of the Allies to restore order in Vladivostok. 349
Aug. 17 From the Russian Ambassador Presents letter of Grebenchikov of the Siberian government desiring shipment of army supplies. 350
Aug. 19 From the British Embassy Presents report from H. M. S. Suffolk, Vladivostok, on the necessity for martial law. 350
Aug. 20 Memorandum Conference with the President: Delimitations of U. S. military action in Siberia with respect to aid to the Czecho-Slovaks. 351
Aug. 20 To the British Chargé Assurance of cooperation of U. S. representatives with the British High Commissioner. 351
107 Aug. 20 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Reception accorded Allied troops at Vladivostok. 352
Aug. 21 To the British Chargé Judgment is reserved for the present respecting transportation to France of Czecho-Slovak troops. 352
[Page XLI] Aug. 21 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Conversation with the Chinese Minister: Japanese occupy Chinese Eastern Railway zone and obstruct Chinese passage to Vladivostok. 353
109 Aug. 22 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Allied consuls are notified that Siberian governments at Omsk and Vladivostok are parts of the same organization. 354
Aug. 23 From the British Embassy Presents message from British Ambassador in France regarding the formation of an Allied police force in Vladivostok. 354
112 Aug. 24 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Differences between Horvat’s following and Czech and Allied commanders. 354
Aug. 26 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Increase of Japanese forces at Vladivostok and in Manchuria. 355
Aug. 26 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Foreign Minister makes detailed explanation of Japan’s movements in Siberia. 356
Aug. 27 From the Japanese Ambassador. Encloses his statement of Siberian situation requiring additional troops to aid Czecho-Slovak forces. 357
4278 Aug. 27 From the Minister in Switzerland Transmits Soviet Foreign Commissar’s reply to U. S. and Japanese statements regarding intervention in Russia. 358
115 Aug. 29 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Requests instructions in regard to acting on commission for settlement of political and economic questions. 360
Aug. 30 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes telegram of Aug. 13 from the Consul General at Irkutsk. 360
Aug. 30 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Instructions not to participate in police operations in Vladivostok. 361
Aug. 31 To the British Chargé Consideration will be given to the British proposal to establish order in Vladivostok. 361
2220 Aug. 31 To the French Ambassador Declines chairmanship of a U. S. representative on inter-Allied civilian board. 362
116 Aug. 31 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Zemstvo turns over powers to provisional government of autonomous Siberia. 363
4196 Aug. 31 From the Chargé in the Netherlands (tel.) Rumor that the Entente have bargained for Japanese assistance offering Dutch East Indies as compensation. 363
Sept. 3 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) The U. S. Government deems cooperation in political action unwise and will not appoint a high commissioner. 364
[Page XLII]

Special Mission of Ambassador Morris to Vladivostok: His Recommendation that an American Force be Sent to Omsk—Westward Movement of the Czecho-Slovaks from Vladivostok: Reverses on the Volga—Formation of a Government by Constituent Assembly Delegates at Samara: Conference at Ufa with Other Organizations

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Sept. 2 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Czech movement westward threatened by Bolsheviks at Ufa. 364
Sept. 4 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Further Bolshevik conquests reported along west front; artillery under German direction. 365
Sept. 4 From the French Ambassador Explanation of duties of proposed inter-Allied civilian board, disclaiming any interference in Russian political affairs. 365
Sept. 4 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Special mission of Ambassador Morris to Vladivostok to report best method of assisting the Russian people. 366
124 Sept. 5 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Czechs assisted by Russian forces in western Siberia. 367
Sept. 5 To the Chargé in China (tel.): to Harris Report from Irkutsk requested regarding Russian military forces which are cooperating with Czechs. 367
Sept. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese operations to clear Amur region of war prisoners. Movement of Allied forces to Manchouli. 368
2008 Sept. 5 To the Chargé in the Netherlands (tel.) Rumor denied that Dutch East Indies will be awarded to Japan for her aid to Russia. 368
Sept. 7 (6?) From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Czechs and Siberians move westward to attempt capture of Perm. 369
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Consulate at Moscow via Irkutsk Reports the strength of the Red Army and German order to halt the Czech advance. 369
Sept. 7 (6?) From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes undated report from the Consulate at Moscow. See supra. 369
55 Sept. 7 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Reports general situation improving since entrance of Allies into Siberia. 370
Sept. 8 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Preparations to sail for Vladivostok on Red Cross mission. 371
128 Sept. 9 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Introduction at Vladivostok of Japanese paper currency resented by Russians. 372
Sept. 9 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) U. S. policies and their limitations in respect to military and economic action in Siberia. 372
Sept. 10 To the Russian Ambassador Approves act of Russian Embassy in furnishing shoes for Czechoslovaks through American Red Cross. 374
[Page XLIII][Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Vice Consul at Samara via Irkutsk Reports military and political situation at Kazan, Simbirsk, and Samara. 374
70 Sept. 10 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes undated report from the Vice Consul at Samara. See supra. 374
78 Sept. 12 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes Czecho-Slovak declaration to All-Russian Assembly at Chelyabinsk in regard to formation of central power in Russia. 375
77 Sept. 12 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Czech and Russian Armies forced to evacuate Kazan. 377
135 Sept. 12 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Red Army and German Army units advancing against Czechs on Volga front, necessitating return of Czech forces. 377
Sept. 13 From the Chinese Minister Forwards memorandum on dispatch of Japanese troops to Manchouli. 378
82 Sept. 13 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Omsk government desires Allies to enter Siberia and assist in regaining Russia from Germany. 378
[Quoted in tel.] Sept. 13 From the Consul General at Irkutsk via Peking (tel.) Czechs at Samara in desperate need of supplies. Ekaterinburg threatened by Bolsheviks and Austro-German prisoners. 379
Sept. 13 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Quotes telegram of Sept. 13 from the Consul General at Irkutsk. 379
Sept. 13 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Reports strength of Czech and Russian Armies; increasing power of Omsk government; and activities of armed prisoners. 379
85 Sept. 14 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Omsk government seeking recognition. Convention at Ufa attempting to form all-Russian government. 380
91 Sept. 15 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes message from Pavlu, of the Czech National Council, on the situation at the Volga and Ekaterinburg fronts. 381
Sept. 16 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Conversation with the Italian Ambassador on the appointment of an Italian high commissioner to Siberia. 382
147 Sept. 16 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes Czech commander at Chelyabinsk reporting desperate situation on Volga and seeking Allied reinforcements. 383
Sept. 17 Memorandum of the Third Assistant Secretary of State Russian Ambassador seeks military supplies and financial help, especially for the government at Omsk. 384
Sept. 18 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.): for Morris from McCormick Committee formed to secure and distribute supplies to the Czechoslovak forces. 385
[Page XLIV]108 Sept. 21 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Formation of a government by the ail-Russian assembly at Ufa and outline of its policies. 385
1051 Sept. 23 From the British Chargé Suggestion that British general train Russian officers and men. 386
114 Sept. 23 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Résumé of political and military conditions in Siberia. 386
Sept. 23 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Report on military situation and recommendation that U. S. force under General Graves winter at Omsk. 387
Sept. 24 From the Chargé in China (tel.) Official of the Siberian government urges Allied military support even if recognition is withheld. 390
165 Sept. 25 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Agreement of Siberian government with Horvat, latter to be its commissioner for the Far East. 391
Sept. 25 To the Chargé in China (tel.) Instructions to request China’s consent to the moving of U.S. forces to some point on the Chinese Eastern Railway. 391

Declaration Restricting American Operations, September 26, 1918—Formation of the All-Russian Provisional Government at Ufa: Fusion with the Siberian Government at Omsk—Further Increase of Japanese Forces

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Quoted in tel.] 1918 Sept. 20–21 From the Consul at Omsk via Irkutsk Arrest and forced resignation of officials of the Siberian government at Omsk. 392
118 Sept. 25 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes message of Sept. 20–21 from the Consul at Omsk. 392
121 Sept. 25 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Detention by Czecho-Slovaks of men suspected of arresting Siberian government officials. 392
Sept. 26 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Rejection of proposals to establish U. S. forces at Omsk or create lines from Siberia to Archangel. 392
Sept. 26 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); to France, Italy, Japan, China; to Masaryk U. S. policies and their limitations in respect to military and economic action in Siberia and north Russia. 394
2243 Sept. 27 To the French Ambassador Applications through Masaryk for U.S. assistance to Czecho-Slovaks have been received. 395
Sept. 28 From the Chargé in China (tel.) China consents to the presence of U. S. troops in the Chinese Eastern Railway zone. 396
[Quoted in tel.] Sept. 29 From Czech National Council via Vladivostok Appeal for Allied aid for the Czechoslovak Army. 402
[Page XLV] Sept. 30 From the Russian Ambassador Regrets U. S. decision to restrict military operations to the region east of the Urals. 396
Sept. 30 From the Italian Ambassador Italy will not appoint a high commissioner to Siberia. 397
14 Sept. 30 From the Consul at Odessa (tel.) Difficulties between the regional Duma and officials of the Siberian government. Dependence on Allied help. 397
134 Undated [Rec’d Sept.30] From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Czechs and Russians opposing Bolsheviks at Samara need supplies and Allied aid. 398
Oct. 1 To the British Chargé Suggests that advice of Czech commander be sought in proposed military training of Russians. 399
1092 Oct. 1 From the British Chargé Suggestion of convention to deal with economic or political issues of the Associated powers in Siberia. 399
183 Oct. 2 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes letter of Sept. 29 from Girsa, of the Czech National Council. 402
5281 Oct. 2 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Suggests that the United States supply clothing to the volunteer Russian, Polish, and Jugo-Slav troops. 403
1099 Oct. 3 From the British Chargé Forwards Balfour’s telegram of Oct. 2, replying to U. S. statement of Sept. 26 and giving British reasons for aiding military forces in Russia. 403
Oct. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Discussion of financial aid to the Omsk government by France, Great Britain, and the United States. 404
Oct. 6 From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Appeal for at least 100 U. S. soldiers in Urals to encourage Czecho-Slovaks. 405
Oct. 7 From the Russian Ambassador Formation by the National Conference at Ufa of an all-Russian government. Enclosure: text of act. 405
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 8] From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Evacuation of Samara and its consequences to the Allies. 409
Oct. 9 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Nature and extent of U. S. military and economic assistance to Russia and the Czecho-Slovak forces. 410
Oct. 10(?) From the Consul at Nanking (tel.) Views upon necessity for U. S. military support of Czecho-Slovak and Russian forces. 411
Oct. 15 From the French Ambassador Recommends encouragement to the Ufa Directory. Enclosure: draft of reply to request for recognition. 412
Oct. 17 To the Russian Ambassador The United States is not prepared to recognize political movements at Ufa or elsewhere in Russia. 413
Oct. 18 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Summary of political situation in Siberia and suggested policy. 414
[Page XLVI] Oct. 19 From the Consul at Nanking (tel.) Renewed recommendations for U.S. troops. 415
1165 Oct. 23 From the British Chargé Suggests concentration of German and Austrian war prisoners in Manchuria under U. S. guard. 415
Oct. 23 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Acknowledges receipt of recommendations on policy in Siberia. 416
Oct. 23 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Instructions to report on conditions in Siberia and on the Volga front and to authorize consuls to assist local governments. 417
Oct. 25 From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Fusion of provisional Siberian government with all-Russian Directory. 418
Oct. 27 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Refusal by Japan of British request for additional forces in Siberia. 418
159 Oct. 31 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes Ambassador Francis’s appeal to Poles to throw off German yoke. Czecho-Slovak attitude thereto. 419
157 Oct. 31 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Reports activities of Semenov at Chita and of Japanese at Chita and in Manchuria. 419
Nov. 1 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Views on the vitality of the governments at Omsk and Ufa and on U. S. policy in Siberia. 420
Nov. 2 From the Russian Ambassador Forwards message from officials of the Ufa Directory appealing to President Wilson and the Allied powers for aid. 421
164 Nov. 3 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Reports military and political conditions in Irkutsk, Omsk, Ufa, and Chita. 423
Nov. 4 To the British Chargé Plans for control by Japan and the United States of war prisoners in the Maritime and Amur Provinces. 424
166 Nov. 4 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Bolshevik uprising in Tomsk quelled by Siberian troops. 424
2280 Nov. 5 To the French Ambassador U. S. policy of nonrecognition of political groups at Ufa and elsewhere in Russia and plans for economic aid. 425
170 Nov. 6 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes formula governing relations of the British and French high commissioners with the all-Russian Directorate at Omsk. 426
Nov. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reported occupation by Japanese troops of every entrance into Siberia and Manchuria. 427
Nov. 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Reported alliance of Japanese General Staff with Cossack leaders independent of Horvat and the Siberian government. 428
[Page XLVII] Nov. 11 From the Russian Ambassador Forwards message from Omsk regarding the fusion of the Siberian government with the all-Russian Directorate. 428
14 Nov. 12 From the Consul at Nanking (tel.) Report on political conditions and suggestions for reconstructive work in Siberia. 429
Nov. 12 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Money stringency in Siberia. Military conditions in Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Ekaterinburg, and Perm. 431
275 Nov. 13 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Russians protest against landing of Japanese troops at Possiet Bay and other Russian harbors. 432
352 Nov. 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Requires explanation of his message to Poles regarding advance of Allied and American troops into Russia. 432
185 Nov. 16 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Criticism of Jameson’s report in regard to Russian attitude toward the United States. 432

Representations of the American Government against the Size of Japanese Forces and the Degree of Control Assumed in Manchuria and Siberia, November 16, 1918—The Establishment of Kolchak as Supreme Governor at Omsk November 18, 1918—Refusal of Semenov to Recognize Kolchak’s Authority

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2856 1918 Nov. 16 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); to France and Italy Instructions to inquire if Great Britain shares U. S. views regarding Japan’s activities in Siberia. 433
Nov. 16 Italy To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Representations against size of Japanese forces and monopoly of control in Manchuria and Siberia. 433
193 Nov. 18 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Arrest by Cossacks of Social Revolutionary members of the all-Russian Directory. 435
194 Nov. 19 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Kolchak is made dictator by the all-Russian government at Omsk. 435
Nov. 20 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Interview with Foreign Minister on presence of Japanese troops and control of railways in Manchuria and Siberia. 436
282 Nov. 21 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Kolchak as supreme governor replaces Directorate. Far Eastern hostility toward American Y. M. C. A. and Red Cross. 437
Nov. 22 From the Russian Embassy Quotes Sookine’s message on coup at Omsk, after which Kolchak was made supreme governor. 438
1316 Nov. 22 From the British. Chargé Urges that the United States and Japan undertake to guard all enemy prisoners in Siberia. 439
[Page XLVIII]198 Nov. 22 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Release from prison of Social Revolutionary members of the all-Russian Directorate. 440
5955 Nov. 22 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) France’s attitude toward Japanese monopoly of control in Siberia. 440
197 Undated [Rec’d Nov. 22] From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Attitude toward Kolchak of Czecho-Slovak and Russian forces in western Siberia. 441
291 Nov. 23 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Refusal of Semenov to recognize Kolchak’s authority. 442
201 Nov. 24 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) U. S. policy restricting military aid justified. Effort in west Siberia to join forces with Denikin. 442
Nov. 24 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Reports opposition at Ekaterinburg to Kolchak government. 443
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 25] From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Kolchak, his character and plans; opposition of Semenov; support of Gaida. 443
204 Nov. 25 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Policy of Kolchak to effect junction with Allies in western and southern Russia. Ivanov’s intercepted telegram. 444
206 Nov. 26 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Political conditions in Irkutsk. 446
296 Nov. 26 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Quotes alleged U. S. official approval of Kolchak’s appointment. 446
207 Nov. 27 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.). Statement of all-Russian provisional government, assuming all financial obligations of Russia. 447
Nov. 27 From the Consul at Harbin (tel.) Dependence of Kolchak on American and Allied support. Attitude toward Kolchak of Semenov and Japanese. 447
209 Nov. 28 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Relations of Kolchak with Denikin, Dutov, Semenov, Japan, and the Czech National Council. 448
2422 Nov. 28 From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.) Italy agrees with U. S. views regarding Japanese activities in Siberia and Manchuria. 449
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Vice Consul at Chita via Omsk Conflicting relations of Kolchak, Horvat, and Semenov. 450
213 Nov. 29 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes undated message of the Vice Consul at Chita. See supra. 449
3 Nov. 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Explanation of his message of encouragement to the Poles. 450
216 Dec. 1 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Future plans of Czecho-Slovak forces. Strength of Bolshevism in Siberian cities. 451
Dec. 3 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) The U. S. Government has expressed no views on Kolchak’s appointment and made no loan to Omsk government. 453
[Page XLIX] Dec. 5 From the Russian Embassy Forwards Sookine’s telegram from Omsk regarding Kolchak’s efforts to achieve national reconstruction. 453
Dec. 5 From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Semenov agrees to submit to Kolchak. 454
Dec. 6 From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Semenov seeks authority in eastern Siberia; Japanese influence charged. 454
221 Undated [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Situation in Siberia improving, developments favoring Kolchak. 455
226 Dec. 9 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Japan’s policy in supporting Semenov in the Far East. 456
4436 Dec. 9 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.) Foreign Secretary’s observations on U. S. statement of Nov. 16 regarding size of Japanese forces and monopoly of control in Siberia. 456
Dec. 9 From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Relations of Semenov with other Cossack leaders, and activities of Japanese. 457
229 Dec. 10 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Condition of Czecho-Slovak Army. Recommendations for U. S. aid to Russia. 458
337 Dec. 12 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Wireless message of U. S. loan to Liberia was incorrectly reported as to Siberia. 460
Dec. 13 From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Limit set by Japanese for operation of Kolchak troops against Semenov. 460
Dec. 14 From the Russian Chargé Forwards telegrams from Omsk: (1) Kolchak’s complaint against Semenov and Japanese; (2) Foreign Minister’s hope of U.S. aid against Japanese aggression. 461

Representations of the American Government against Japanese Support of Semenov, December 16, 1918—Continuance of the Conflict—Reduction of the Japanese Forces

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Dec. 16 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Representations against Japanese policy preventing united Russian government in Siberia. 462
3471 Dec. 17 To the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.); to France and Italy Instructions to acquaint Foreign Minister with U. S. representations to Japan regarding activity in Siberia. 463
253 Dec. 24 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Bolshevik uprising near Omsk. Attempt on Semenov’s life in Chita. 463
259 Dec. 26 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Perm captured by Siberian troops. 464
Dec. 28 From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Revolt by Semenov against Kolchak’s forces at Verkhneudinsk. Bolshevik uprising near Kansk. 464
[Page L][Quoted in tel.] Dec. 28 The Japanese Foreign Minister to the American Ambassador Announces withdrawal of Japanese troops from Siberia as far as preservation of order will permit. 465
Dec. 28 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Quotes Japanese memorandum of Dec. 28. 464
Dec. 29 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Modification of Japan’s Siberian policy to accord more nearly with that of the United States. 465
268 Dec. 30 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Military situation on the Ufa front. Results of the Siberian army’s victory at Perm. 466
387 1919 Jan. 1 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Reports result of city elections at Vladivostok. 467

CHAPTER II. THE NORTHERN REGION

Opposition in Archangel to the Soviet régime—German threat through Finland to the Murman Railway—Shipment of arms and stores to the interior of Russia—British requests for the dispatch of American forces to Murmansk—Arrival of a French warship—Landing of armed forces—Allied cooperation with the Murmansk Soviet—Arrival of an American cruiser—German and Soviet demands for withdrawal of Allied and American forces—Agreement of July 6, 1918, with the Murmansk Soviet—Argument of the Consul at Archangel against intervention

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2228 1918 Jan. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Anti-Bolshevik authorities at Archangel. Federation of northeastern provinces favoring semiauton-omous policy. 468
232 Mar. 4 From the British Embassy Necessity for occupation of Murmansk. Dispatch of a British cruiser. 469
2107 Mar. 9 To the Ambassador in Russia Robins requested to report conditions at Murmansk as noted by Wardwell. 469
5 Mar. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied forces landed at Murman organizing to defend Murman Railway from threatened German attack. 470
Mar. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) 1 Reports shipments from Archangel 1 to interior of munitions ordered by Red Guard. 470
Mar. 14 From the First Secretary of the British Embassy Forwards Balfour’s request for dispatch of an American warship to Murmansk. 470
45 Mar. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Cooperation of British and French with Murman Soviet. Presence of U. S. warship recommended. 471
[Page LI]49 Mar. 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) French cruiser at Murmansk; German-Finnish threat to Murman railroad; shipment of supplies from Archangel to interior. 471
[Quoted in tel.] Apr. 13 From Admiral Sims to the Secretary of the Navy (tel.) Instructions which have been issued to Allied and American naval officers in northern Russia. 488
121 Apr. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrival at Archangel of food ships from England. 472
492 May 8 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) German ultimatum to Soviet authorities, requiring evacuation of British and French troops from Murman. 472
May 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Urges Allied intervention in north regardless of Soviet reply to German ultimatum. 473
504 May 9 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Conditions of German ultimatum to the Soviet government. 473
185 May 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Finnish attack on Murman Railway repulsed with aid of British. Local Soviet cooperating with French forces. 474
192 May 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Destruction of Russian vessels and wireless station by German submarines. Murman Railway cut by Finns. 474
205 May 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrival at Murman of U. S. cruiser; importance of maintenance of this region by Allies. 474
May 26 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Four-cornered struggle for power in northern region. 475
May 29 From the British Ambassador Presents Balfour’s urgent request for U. S. forces at Murmansk. 476
576 May 29 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Quotes report that the district Soviet desires the Allies to remain in Murman. 476
June 1 From the Consul at Archangel to the Ambassador in Russia Argument against Allied intervention in Russia and in favor of economic assistance. 477
June 3 Memorandum Approval of the dispatch of U. S. troops to Murmansk. 484
[Quoted in tel.] June 3 Admiral Sims to the Secretary of the Navy (tel.) British plan of operation in north Russia. 488
180 June 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The Olympia is under British orders at Murmansk. 485
269 June 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied plan of campaign in northern Russia. 485
[Quoted in tel.] June 16(?) The Soviet Foreign Commissar to the Consul at Moscow Protest against the presence of war vessels in Russian ports. 486
[Page LII] June 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Chicherin’s protests of June 16 (?) against the presence of Allied and American war vessels in Russian ports. 486
June 21 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Soviet statement that arrival of warships at Archangel will be considered the beginning of military operations. 486
C–20–220 June 22 From the Secretary of the Navy Forwards communications from Admiral Sims dated Apr. 13 and June 3. 487
Op 36 297 June 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Civil authorities at Archangel arrested by Soviet; Black Sea Fleet ordered back to Sevastopol by Germans. 488
[Enclosure] June 26 From the Ambassador in Russia to the Consul at Archan Draft of statement from consuls at Archangel expressing surprise at prohibition of Allied warships. 503
304 June 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Martial law declared at Archangel. Council of Commissars consider declaration of war against Entente and Japan. 489
1 July 6 The Commander of the U.S. S. Olympia to Admiral Sims Agreement of July 6 between the Murmansk Soviet and the Allied and American representatives. Resolution of June 30. 489
212 July 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet request that U. S. ships leave Russian ports is to be disregarded. 495
324 July 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Crisis precipitated by murder of German Ambassador. 496
July 9 To the Secretary of the Navy Approves plan for military operations in northern Russia. 496
329 July 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied and American representatives agree not to comply with Soviet demands for removal to Moscow. 496
76 July 15 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Archangel Soviet orders resistance to British and French and charges violation of Russian sovereignty. 497
77 July 15 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Attitude of Archangel toward arrival of Allied forces. 497
27 July 19 From the Consul at Archangel Complaint by local authorities of British acts or violence; investigation. 498
28 July 20 From the Consul at Archangel Agreement for assisting Archangel with food supplies. 499
29 July 22 From the Consul at Archangel Interview with People’s Commissar regarding the capture by Bolsheviks near Archangel of Allied soldiers, sailors, and officer. 500
1120 July 22 From the Ambassador in Russia Power of local Soviet at Archangel. Enclosure: his letter to Consul, June 26. 502
[Page LIII] July 30 To the Consul at Archangel: for Francis (tel.) A small U. S. force will be sent to Murmansk. 504
July 31 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Foreign Commissariat declares no vessel will be permitted to land on shores of the White Sea. 505

Occupation of Archangel by Allied Forces, August 2, 1918—Overthrow of the Soviet and Formation of the Supreme Government of the Northern Region—Relations with the Allied and American Diplomatic Representatives and Military Authorities—Arrival of American Troops, September 4, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
343 1918 Aug. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Ambassador withdraws to Murmansk. Requests that coming of U. S. troops be expedited. 505
344 Aug. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports political situation in Murmansk and Archangel. 505
345 Aug. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Overthrow of local Soviet and unopposed landing of Allied forces at Archangel. 506
83 Aug. 4 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Formation of Supreme government of northern region. 507
864 Aug. 5 From the British Embassy Notice of occupation of Archangel by British troops and urgent request for U. S. forces. 507
88 Aug. 6 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Text of proclamation of Aug. 3 of the Supreme government of the northern region. 508
89 Aug. 6 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Orders issued by the new government. 509
31 Aug. 6 From the Consul at Archangel Arrest of Consuls by adventurers. Bolshevik evacuation of Archangel and its occupation by Allied forces. 509
356 Aug. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Northern government claims to represent all parties except Bolsheviks and pro-Germans. 512
Aug. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia Northern government uses Zemstvo and city Duma organizations as basis. 512
366 Aug. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied expedition awaiting U. S. reenforcements; opposing troops are apparently under German direction. 513
369 Aug. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Chaikovski’s reply of Aug. 25 to Department’s declaration on Russian relations. 514
1207 Aug. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia Outlines specific undertakings in which he proposes to encourage U. S. troops. 515
[Page LIV]374 Aug. 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) U. S. troops needed at Archangel to allay friction between new government and Allied military authorities. 516
379 Sept. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Report on conditions in Archangel under the Supreme government of the northern region. 517
381 Sept. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrival of American troops at Archangel. 519
385 Sept. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Difficulties in fulfilling the terms of the Murman agreement of July 6. 519

Coup d’état” of September 5, 1918; Restoration of the Deposed Government through Efforts of the American Ambassador—Protest of the American Government against the Conduct of the British Commander in Chief—Plan of the Reinstated Ministers to Resign in Favor of the Samara Government: Efforts of the American Ambassador to Dissuade Them

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
386 1918 Sept. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Overthrow of new government and arrest of officers; efforts of U. S. Ambassador toward restoration. 521
387 Sept. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied statement disclaiming responsibility for coup d’état. 523
388 Sept. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied and American Ministers and commander assume control until government is restored. 523
253 Sept. 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recites instructions sent to the Ambassador in Japan to proceed to Vladivostok and report conditions. 525
389 Sept. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Return of kidnaped Ministers. Popular support of Supreme government of the northern region. 525
390 Sept. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reinstatement of Ministers. 526
41 Sept. 10 From the Consul at Archangel Report of political situation in Archangel previous to kidnaping of members of Supreme government. 527
391 Sept. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Activities of U. S. forces in the northern region. Friction between civil and military authorities. 532
1313 Sept. 12 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Instructions to protest to Great Britain against interference by General Poole with the civil authorities at Archangel. 533
396 Sept. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Plan of the reinstated Ministers to resign in favor of the Samara government. 534
397 Sept. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes his speech before the Zemstvos stating Allied plans to remedy the food shortage. 535
[Page LV] Sept. 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Approval of Ambassador’s action and instructions concerning policy. 536
399 Sept. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Efforts to dissuade northern government from abdicating. Recommendation for an American recruiting station. 536
1899 Sept. 15 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): the Secretary of War to the President Suggests that the United States decline to divert forces from western front to Murmansk. 538
403 Sept. 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Departing government of northern region vests authority in a governor general who must report to Samara government. 539
1214 Sept. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia Further details regarding kidnaping of Ministers. 531
1982 Sept. 18 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Great Britain will correct the bad impression made at Archangel by military interference with local officials. 540
410 Sept. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Opposition to the northern government. Allied victory on the Dvina. 541
432[?] Sept. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits appeal of President Chaikovski to President Wilson for military aid. Additional U. S. and Allied troops arrive. 541
267 Sept. 21 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) British commissioner Lindley has been informed of the British and U. S. Governments’ views of the friction at Archangel. 542
416 Sept. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Installing of Durov as governor general and departure of Ministers. Arrival of flour from Montreal 542
420 Sept. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) All-Russian government, Samara, is not yet established, hence Supreme government, Archangel, will not now abdicate. 543

Proposal for Increasing the American Forces at Archangel and Extending the Operations: Refusal of the American Government, September 26, 1918—Reorganization of the Local Government: Subordination to the All Russian government at Omsk—disapproval of the ambassador’s Plan to Recruit an American-Slavic Legion—Replacement of the Commander in Chief—Disaffection among the American Soldiers and among the Local Russian Recruits

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Sept. 25 From the French Ambassador French proposal for increasing U. S. forces at Archangel and extending operations. 544
274 Sept. 26 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) U. S. decision to send no additional troops to northern Russia. 546
[Page LVI]426 Sept. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reorganization of local government with an executive of four, including Durov and Chaikovski. 547
428 Sept. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Representatives of the Siberian government outline its jurisdiction and purposes. 547
276 Sept. 27 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) A state of war does not exist between the U. S. Government and the Bolsheviks. 548
427 Sept. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Amnesty for those implicated in the coup d’état. Formation of an executive council. 548
431 Sept. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Formation of Russian army encouraged. Dependence of northern Russia on the Siberian Railway 549
430 Sept. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Plan to recruit American-Slavic legion to be transferred to the Russian authorities. 550
284 Oct. 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Disapproval of plan to recruit an American-Slavic legion. 551
444 Oct. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Landing of additional British troops at Murman. Estimate of value of U.S. troops in northern Russia. 551
449 Oct. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Selection of ministry for government of northern region submitted for approval of ambassadors. 552
451 Oct. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Organization of American-Slavic legion deferred; assistance will be given northern government in promoting mobilization. 553
456 Oct. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Conference with delegation of commercial interests in respect to support of Supreme government. 553
464 Oct. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends presence of U. S. cruiser at Archangel for the winter. 555
465 Oct. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports Bolshevik successes and campaign of terror. Recommends Allied capture of Petrograd and Moscow. 555
Oct. 14 To the Secretary of the Navy Approval of signature of the agreement of July 6 between Allied and American representatives and the Murmansk Soviet. 556
478 Oct. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Replacement of commander in chief at Archangel. Results of city elections. 557
308 Oct. 16 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Approval of agreement with the Murmansk Soviet. 558
1230 Oct. 16, 18 From the Ambassador in Russia Archangel elections. Murmansk Soviet dissolved and governor general appointed. 558
491 Oct. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Disaffection among French and U. S. troops. 559
[Page LVII]495 Oct. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Assistance in Russian mobilization by British commander Ironside. 560
497 Oct. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Proposed visit of Tereshchenko to the United States. Reported Russo-British organization to settle northern Russia. 560
510 Oct. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends appointment of Russian Minister of War, ranking all Allied generals. 561
322 Oct. 24 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Authorizes visas for Tereshchenko and Martyushin to visit the United States. 562
520 Oct. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports cooperation of President Chaikovski and British commander. 562
525 Oct. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Declaration of subordination of Archangel provisional government to all-Russian government at Omsk. 563
331 Oct. 31 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Any change from British command of Allied forces would require consideration of Supreme War Council. 564
532 Oct. 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Mutiny amongst mobilized Russian troops. 564
540 Nov. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Dissatisfaction among Russian recruits allayed by segregation of troops. 564
548 Nov. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Change of officers expected to effect peaceful settlement of difficulties of newly mobilized Russian troops. 565
343 Nov. 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions as to policy for Rear Admiral McCully, commander of U. S. naval forces in northern Russia. 565
560 Nov. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Ambassador authorizes address to U. S. soldiers pointing out duty of assisting Russia. 566

Retention of American and Allied troops in North Russia after the Armistice with Germany—Local Attitude toward the Kolchak Government at Omsk

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
572 1918 Nov. 13 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Obligation of the United States to protect Russia from Bolshevik reprisals and exploitation by creditor nations. 567
582 Nov. 18 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Discussion of Russia’s right to representation at coming peace conference. 568
585 Nov. 18 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Appointment of General Ironside as commander in chief in northern Russia. 569
[Page LVIII]1302 Nov. 20 From the British Chargé Statement by British representative of the value of Allied declaration of policy in north Russia. 569
3906 Nov. 21 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.) Quotes proclamation by President Chaikovski warning of the menace of Bolshevism. 570
Nov. 27 To the British Chargé The President and Secretary of State will confer with the Allies in Paris on the Russian question. 571
610 Nov. 29 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Will submit his Thanksgiving Day address to U. S. soldiers. 572
611 Nov. 29 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Text of Thanksgiving Day address to U. S. soldiers giving reasons for service in Russia. 572
625 Dec. 2 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Effect of the Siberian coup d’état upon the northern government. Reactionary tendencies. 573
386 Dec. 4 To the Chargé in Russia (tel.) The signing of the armistice with the Central powers does not change the Russian situation. 574
648 Dec. 10 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Quotes Balfour’s statement of British post-war policy in Russia. Additional British troops arrive at Murmansk. 575
654 Dec. 11 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Reports mutiny of Russian regiment when ordered to the front. 575
658 Dec. 12 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Quotes text of declaration of Allied representatives forbidding disturbance of public order in occupied areas. 576
664 Dec. 17 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Reports situation satisfactory at Archangel. 577

CHAPTER III. SOUTHEASTERN RUSSIA AND THE CAUCASUS

Nationalist and Anti-Bolshevik Movements: the Don Cossacks under Kaledin, the Southeastern Federation, the Trans-Caucasus, the Volunteer Army under Alexeev and Kornilov—Attitude of the American and Allied Governments toward “de facto” Political and Military Authorities

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Enclosure] 1917 Oct. 19 From the Consul at Tiflis to the Ambassador Political and military situation in Transcaucasia. 578
69 Oct. 19 From the Consul at Tiflis Forwards copies of his despatch of Oct. 19 to the Embassy. 578
179 Nov. 8 From the Consul General at Moscow Conference of the Southeastern federation. 580
Nov. 9 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Bolshevik movement gaining ground in the Caucasus. Financial aid requested for resistance. 580
Nov. 18 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Urges immediate credit to defeat Bolsheviks and separate peace, and to withhold grain and coal region from Germany. 581
[Page LIX] Nov. 23 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Asks financial support for Trans-Caucasus government, which will unite with Southeastern federation. 582
[Quoted in tel.] Nov. 25 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Recommends recognition of government of Trans-Caucasus. 582
Nov. 26 To the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Department can not encourage tendencies to sectionalism in Russia by financial support. 582
2864 Nov. 27 To the Ambassador in France (tel.): for Colonel House Quotes telegram from Consul, Tiflis, recommending recognition of government of Trans-Caucasus. 582
2870 Nov. 28 To the Ambassador in France (tel.): for Colonel House Inquires general attitude toward recognition of de facto government of Trans-Caucasus. 583
Dec. 2 From the Special Representative (tel.) Discusses policy to be pursued by the United States in regard to the Transcaucasian movement. 583
Dec. 4 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Plea for support of southern governments to prevent resources being utilized by Germany. 584
Dec. 5 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Government at Tiflis is obliged to accept Turkish proposal of negotiations for armistice. 585
1134 Dec. 6 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Caucasus authorities send mission to British Legation at Teheran to negotiate for funds to continue the war. 586
104 Dec. 6 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Alexeev and Kaledin organize Volunteer Army. U. S. support requested. 587
Dec. 11 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Conference with chairman of the Southeastern federation in respect to its abilities to control all Russia’s supplies. 588
Dec. 12 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Bolshevik uprising in Rostov reported crushed. National Assembly to be convened. 589
Dec. 13 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Prime Minister makes urgent appeal for funds for Transcaucasian government to prevent Bolshevik control. 589
125 Dec. 15 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Investigation of Don section authorized, the Don and Ukraine being deciding factors in Russian situation. 590
Dec. 15 To the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Department hopes shortly to give definite instructions regarding aid to Trans-Caucasus. 590
6051 Dec. 17 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Quotes telegram from Jassy requesting funds to finance organization in defense of Russian and Rumanian fronts. 591
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the U. S. Delegate to Inter-Allied Council via London Advises against financial aid to governments of southern Russia. 591
[Page LX]7999 Dec. 18 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Quotes and approves undated statement of U. S. delegate to Inter-Allied Council. See supra. 591
Dec. 18 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Consul takes steps to check Bolshevik movement and recommends U. S. loan. 592
129 Dec. 18 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Report on Bolshevism at Odessa, Rostov, and Kiev. Importance of movement under Kaledin in the south. 593
[Enclosure] Dec. 18 The Consul at Tiflis to President of Southeastern federation Suggests measures for securing order in the Caucasus. 607
Dec. 19 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Requests that certain instructions be given Consul at Tiflis on the subject of financing southern groups. 594
Dec. 19 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Reports armistice concluded between Turks and Russians on the Caucasus front. 594
8037 Dec. 21 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Military efforts in southern Russia viewed as the only Russian resistance to Germany. British financial support. 595
2942 Dec. 23 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Summary of resolutions adopted Dec. 23 by the Supreme War Council in regard to Allied policy in Russia. 596
2955 Dec. 27 From the Ambassador in France (tel.): from Discussion of general theory of action in Russia and Rumania. 597
Dec. 28 Crosby To the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Instructions to keep Department informed. 600
139 Dec. 29 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Reports political conditions, stating that the only Russian power capable of resisting Germany is in south Russia. 601
140 Dec. 31 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Requests instructions and funds for protection of Americans in case of necessity. 604
1918 Jan. 5 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Authorization of funds for sending indigent Americans out of Russia case of necessity. 604
147 Jan. 7 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Only combined southern forces with Allied support will be able to prevent Germany’s controlling resources of Russia. 604
Jan. 8 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Reports political conditions and increasing military strength in the Caucasus. 605
Jam 8 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Instructions to keep Department informed of situation. 606
82 Jan. 9 From the Consul at Tiflis Forwards copy of his letter of Dec. 18, 1917, to the President of the Southeastern federation. 606
[Page LXI][Enclosure] Jan. 14 From the Consul at Moscow Report on the Volunteer Army. 613
Jan. 15 From the British Embassy Resistance to Central powers depends upon union of separate factions in Russia, including the Bolsheviks. 608
[Enclosure] Jan. 26 From the Consul at Moscow via Petrograd Report on the movement in the Don country in support of order and the continuance of the war. 609
1036 Feb. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia Forwards report of Jan. 26 from the Consul at Moscow. 609
262 Feb. 7 From the Consul General at Moscow Forwards text of constitution of the Southeastern federation. 615

Bolshevik, Turkish, and German Advances—Formation of the Independent States of North Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan—The Cossack Organization under Krasnov—Revival of the Volunteer Army: Succession of Denikin as its Commander—Formation of a Governmental Commission Attached to the Army—Recognition by it of the Supreme Authority of Kolchak

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Feb. 12 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Bolshevik, Turkish, and German advance. Lack of support checks development of Southeastern federation. 618
Feb. 13 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Death of Kaledin. Closing of Persian frontier to Allied forces. 619
8667 Feb. 14 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.): from Crosby Denial of rumor that Great Britain has territorial ambitions in the Caucasus and Persia. 619
Feb. 15 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Resumption of offensive by Turks against Armenian troops. 620
187 Feb. 16 From the British Embassy Alleged subsidizing of Georgia by American citizens with view to autonomy. 621
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Consul at Moscow to the Consul General Reports Bolshevik successes in the Don owing to prevalence of Bolshevism among the younger Cossacks. 621
182 Feb. 18 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Quotes undated report of the Consul at Moscow. See supra. 621
Feb. 18 To the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Department relies on Consuls to take necessary measures to protect U. S. citizens, property, and archives. 622
Feb. 20 To the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Inquiry regarding report of Americans who propose to subsidize Georgia. 622
301 Mar. 19 From the British Embassy Information from the Caucasus on the political and military situation. 622
Mar. 30 To the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) The United States is not in position to support active military operations on the Caucasus front. 623
[Page LXII]7116 Apr. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Armenians in danger of extermination. Plan to equip an army of Armenians and Georgians. 623
372 Apr. 18 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) British report of Mohammedan aggression and massacre of Armenians in the Caucasus, and of German capture of Kharkov. 625
402 Apr. 22 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) German aims in south Russia: requisitioning of supplies; junction with Turkish forces in the Caucasus. 626
454 May 1 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Further report of disorders in the Caucasus and northern Persia. 628
505 May 9 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Peace negotiations between Turkey and the government of the Caucasus. 629
528 May 17 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Announcement by Caucasian tribes of their formation of an independent state; protest by Soviet Russia. 629
529 May 17 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) German absorption of the Caucasus. Peace conference at Batum. 630
52 May 28 To the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Requests plans for defense of Trans-Caucasus furnished by Smith. 631
593 June 2 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Notice of the fall of the Transcaucasian republic and of the independence of Georgia. Turkish ultimatum. 631
[Quoted in tel.] Undated From the Consul at Tiflis via Moscow Reports the fall of Batum and the resolution of the Georgian Diet to continue the war. 631
609 June 7 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Quotes undated report of the Consul at Tiflis. See supra. 631
June 16 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Turkish occupation of Transcaucasia and the formation of independent states under German or Turkish protectorates. 632
June 18 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Temporary submission of the Caucasus to Bolshevik control. Report of number of German forces in the Don. 633
June 26 Statement of the Georgian Information Bureau The political situation in Georgia and Transcaucasia with relation to the Bolsheviks and Central powers. 634
July 15 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Military conditions at Baku. Boundaries of Armenia, as reported recognized by Germany and Turkey. 637
Sept. 11 From the Consul at Tiflis (tel.) Gains in the Kuban Province by Cossacks and Alexeev. Attempt to unite Russian political parties. 638
[Enclosure] Sept. 14 From the Georgian Delegate to the Minister in Norway Announcement of May 26 of the independence of Georgia and memorandum on its relations with Russia and Turkey. 639
978 Sept. 28 From the Chargé in Norway Transmits note of Sept. 14 and enclosure from the Georgian delegate. 639
[Page LXIII]14 Oct. 1 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) German support has preserved the Bolshevik regime. German aid to the Ukraine and to Krasnov. 642
[Quoted in tel.] Nov. 14 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Communication from the governmental commission attached to the Volunteer Army, requesting Allied intervention. 644
585 Nov. 18 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) Shifting of British military officials in Russia. 643
588 Nov. 19 From the Chargé in Russia (tel.) British efforts toward Turkish evacuation of the Caucasus and support of Denikin. 644
6238 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Nov. 14 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 644
[Quoted in tel.] Dec. 12 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Quote governmental commission of the Volunteer Army on Russian representation at the peace conference. 645
6346 Dec. 18 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Dec. 12 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 645
Dec. 26 From the Russian Chargé Forwards telegram from Russian Ambassador in France quoting Sazonov (and Volunteer Army) in support of Kolchak. 647

CHAPTER IV. THE UKRAINE AND THE CRIMEA

Establishment of a Ukrainian Government—Relations with the Soviet Government, the Central Powers, and the Allies—The Treaty of Brest Litovsk with the Central Powers, February 9, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1519 1917 July 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The granting of concessions to the Ukraine led to resignation of Cadet Ministers. 648
Nov. 14 From the Consul at Odessa (tel.) Revolutionary committees of Odessa cooperate to maintain order. 648
Nov. 20 From the Consul at Odessa (tel.) Movement for annexation of Odessa to the Ukraine. 648
2090 Dec. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes message from citizens of Kiev to Allies deploring separate peace. 649
Dec. 12 To the Consul at Odessa (tel.) Instructions to report conditions as affecting army, food supplies, and sentiment for separate peace. 650
[Quoted in tel.] Undated Foreign Secretary of Ukraine to representatives of Associated powers (tel.) Announces independence of the Ukraine and negotiations for armistice. 650
2094 Dec. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes undated telegram from the Foreign Secretary of the Ukraine. See supra. 650
2104 Dec. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Ukrainian policy as stated by the Secretariat of State. 651
[Page LXIV]2117 Dec. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) French Ambassador explains to Trotsky the presence of French officers with Ukrainian army. 652
Dec. 18 From the Consul at Odessa (tel.) Conditions at Odessa in respect to the army, food supplies, and separate peace. 653
1200 Dec. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Reports ultimatum from Soviet Russia to the Ukraine, threatening a state of war. 653
1918 Jan. 7 From the French Ambassador Independence of the Ukraine recognized by France. 655
2041 Jan. 11 To the French Ambassador Re recognition of the Ukraine and acknowledgment of separate governments in Russia. 655
2227 Jan. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Report by Jenkins on the situation in the Ukraine. Admission of Ukrainian delegation at Brest Litovsk. 656
1992 Jan. 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The United States is not yet disposed to recognize independent governments in Russia. 657
248 Jan. 16 From the Consul General at Moscow Résumé of Jenkins’s reports on conditions in the Ukraine with respect to the army, Austrian propaganda, land, etc. 657
[Quoted in tel.] Jan. 18 From the Ministers of Associated powers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Interchange of statements with Ukrainian delegation regarding the Ukraine’s relations with the Allied powers. 660
3074 Jan. 22 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Jan. 18 from Ministers of Associated powers at Jassy. 660
[Quoted in tel.] Jan. 23 From the Ministers of Associated powers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Ukraine can not resist German pressure for peace and for resumption of economic relations. 663
18 Jan. 24 From the Minister in Rumania (tel.) Ukraine will sign separate peace with the Central powers. 663
3100 Jan. 26 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Jan. 23 from the Ministers of Associated powers at Jassy. 663
[Quoted in tel.] Jan. 27 From the Ministers of Associated powers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Interview with General Shcherbachev regarding the Ukrainian peace treaty at Brest Litovsk. 664
3106 Jan. 28 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Jan. 27 from the Ministers of Associated powers at Jassy. 664
432 Apr. 27 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Text (in part) of the treaty of peace of Feb. 9 between the Ukraine and the Central powers. 665
607 June 7 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Continuing text of treaty of peace of Feb. 9 between the Ukraine and the Central powers. 666
[Page LXV]

Capture of Kiev and Odessa by the Bolsheviks and Subsequently by the Austro-German Forces—Austro-German Occupation of the Ukraine and the Crimea—Establishment of the Skoropadski Government in the Ukraine, April 29, 1918—The Crimean Government of Sulkevich—Exploitation of these Regions by the Central Powers—Appeal of the Ukrainian National Council to President Wilson, October 15, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Feb. 21 From the Consul at Odessa (tel.) Bolsheviks, aided by the fleet, control Odessa. 671
Mar. 1 From the Consul at Kiev Occupation of Kiev by Bolsheviks and approach of Austro-German forces. 672
260 Mar. 13 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Odessa is occupied by Austro-German troops. 676
1755 Mar. 23 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Establishment of independent Taurida republic in the Crimea. 676
[Quoted in tel.] Mar. 27 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) German possibilities, political and economic, in the Ukraine. Necessity for Allied military action. 677
[Quoted in tel.] Apr. 2 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Development of Austro-German occupation of southern Russia; quantity of food supplies seized. 678
313 Apr. 4 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) In reply to Soviet demand, Germany prescribes Ukrainian boundaries. 677
3522 Apr. 4 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Mar. 27 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 677
3523 Apr. 4 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Apr. 2 from Allied Ministers at Jassy. 678
[Quoted in tel.] Apr. (?) From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Evidences of transformation of the Ukraine into a German colony. 679
3635 Apr. 16 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Apr. (?) from Allied Ministers at Jassy. 679
1944 Apr. 25 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Protest of Soviet Russia against the advance of German and Ukrainian troops in the Crimea. 679
1991 May 2 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Controversy between the Rada and the German commander in the Ukraine over regulations on tilling of land. 680
2463 May 5 From the Minister in the Netherlands (tel.) Press report of German Vice Chancellor’s statement on German measures in the Ukraine to effect delivery of wheat. 681
3801 May 5 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) German wireless report on provisions transported from the Ukraine to Austria-Hungary and Germany. 682
493 May 8 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Proclamation of Apr. 29 of Skoropadski, on becoming hetman of the Ukraine. 682
[Page LXVI]2514 May 9 From the Minister in the Netherlands (tel.) Ukrainian report of Apr. 26, protesting arrest of members of the Rada, read before the German Reichstag. 683
500 May 9 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) German statement of intentions in the Crimea and protest of Soviet Russia in reply. 684
2059 May 11 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Soviet Russia’s order against operations of German-Ukrainian troops on her soil. Peace negotiations. 686
525 May 16 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Pro-German tendency of Ukrainian cabinet owing to lack of Allied support. 687
530 May 17 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Composition of Ukrainian cabinet. 688
2120 May 18 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Communications between Russian and Ukrainian officials, arranging for peace negotiations at Kiev. 689
541 May 22 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Résumé of speech of Ukrainian Foreign Minister before Cadet Party, Kiev, on relations with Germany. Press criticism. 689
578 Undated [Rec’d June 3] From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Ukrainian demands made in the peace negotiations at Kiev. 691
2243 June 6 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Skoropadski’s views on the union of the Ukraine with neighboring territories and on the land question. 692
644 June 17 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Summary of provisions of truce signed June 12 by Russians and Ukrainians at Kiev. 693
643 June 17 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Attitude of Ukrainians toward their government and toward German occupation. 694
658 June 19 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) German activity in Crimea. Organization of Sulkevich government. 695
Aug. 4 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Political conditions in the Crimea. Exhaustion of Crimea’s supplies by troops of the Central powers. 696
2615 Aug. 8 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Attitude of Ukrainian peasants toward Germans; increase of German troops of occupation. 697
[Enclosure] Oct. 15 From the Ukrainian National Council to President Wilson Appeal for defense of Ukrainian independence. 697
4855 Oct. 17 From the Minister in Switzerland Transmits note of Oct. 15 from Ukrainian National Council to President Wilson. 697
5558 Nov. 3 From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.) Appeal of Poles in the Ukraine and elsewhere for protection against Bolsheviks upon withdrawal of German troops. 698
5687 Nov. 9 From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.) Appeal of business organizations in the Ukraine to President Wilson to safeguard order. 698
[Page LXVII]

Declaration of the Intention of the Allied Governments to Maintain Order in the Ukraine—Landing of Allied Troops at Odessa—Establishment of the Directory by Petlyura

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Quoted in tel.] 1918 Nov. 21 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Urges sending of Allied troops to Ukraine to protect military stores and preserve order. 699
6008 Nov. 25 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Nov. 21 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 699
6028 Nov. 26 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Ukrainian manifesto to the people to join in the reconstitution of Russia upon a federal basis. 700
[Quoted in tel.] Nov. 27 From the Allied Ministers [at Jassy] via Paris (tel.) The Ukrainian government will take part against the Bolsheviks. Requests Allied military aid. 702
243 Dec. 7 To the Minister in Rumania (tel.) The Czecho-Slovak National Council is recognized as a de facto government. 700
[Quoted in tel.] Dec. 7 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Declaration of the intention of the Allied Governments to maintain order in Russia. 701
[Quoted in tel.] Dec. 7 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Further statement concerning the declaration of intention of the Allied Governments to maintain order. 702
6205 Dec. 10 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Dec. 7 from Allied Ministers at Jassy. 701
6218 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Dec. 7 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 702
6240 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of November 27 from Allied Ministers [at Jassy]. 702
Dec. 12 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) British and French troops will assist in restoring order in the Ukraine. 703
3347 Dec. 16 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Siege of Kiev by troops of the Ukrainian National League. 703
17 Dec. 19 From the Minister in Rumania (tel.) Report on the strength of the Bolshevik army and the military situation at Kiev. 703
23 Dec. 21 From the Minister in Rumania (tel.) Petlyura heads the republican army fighting for independence of the Ukraine. 705
3377 Undated [Rec’d Dec. 22] From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Reports from Kiev of attempts to restore order. 705
3424 1919 Jan. 2 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) The fall of Skoropadski’s government; the program of Petlyura. 705
[Page LXVIII]

CHAPTER V. BESSARABIA

The Moldavian Republic: Military Support by Rumania—Announcement by the Soviet Government of a State of War with Rumania: Expulsion of the Rumanian Minister and Sequestration of Rumanian Gold—Agreement between Rumania and the Soviet Government, March 9, 1918—Union of Bessarabia with Rumania, April 9, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
202 1917 Dec. 28 From the Minister in Rumania (tel.) The Moldavian republic of Bessarabia is formed. 707
1918 Jan. 25 From the Rumanian Minister Rumanian troops are placed at the disposal of the Moldavian republic. 707
2293 Jan. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky announces a state of war with Rumania. 708
2300 Jan. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Expulsion of Rumanian Minister from Russia. 708
[Quoted in tel.] Jan. 30 From the Ministers of the Associated powers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Rupture of diplomatic relations between Rumania and Soviet Russia and seizure of Rumanian funds. 709
3122 Feb. 1 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Jan. 30 from the Ministers of the Associated powers at Jassy. 709
25 Feb. 1 From the Minister in Rumania (tel.) Discussion of proposed separate peace between Rumania and the Central powers. Rumanian intervention in Bessarabia. 710
Feb. 2 From the Rumanian Minister Conflict in Rumania between Bolshevik and Rumanian troops following military aid by the latter to the Ukrainians. 711
2323 Feb. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet seizure of gold stored by Rumania in the Kremlin at Moscow. 711
Feb. 5 To the Rumanian Minister Appreciates difficulty of Rumanian situation in consequence of Bolshevik hostility. 712
2345 Feb. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires if Consul, Moscow, may join colleagues in protesting against sequestration of Rumanian gold at Moscow. 712
Feb. 12 To the Rumanian Minister Acknowledges note relative to military intervention by Rumania in the Moldavian republic of Bessarabia. 712
2060 Feb. 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions for separate protest against Soviet sequestration of Rumanian funds. 713
[Quoted in tel.] Feb. 19 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Owing to attitude of Soviet Russia, Rumania will be forced to conclude peace with Germany. 713
3220 Feb. 20 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Feb. 19 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 713
[Page LXIX][Quoted in tel.] Feb. 22 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Arrest of Rumanians by Bolsheviks in Odessa. 714
3241 Feb. 23 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Feb. 22 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 714
[Enclosure] Feb. 24 From the Moldavian republic via Paris (tel.) Announces the proclamation on Feb. 6 of its independence. 715
Mar. 6 From the French Ambassador Forwards French telegram quoting message of Feb. 24 from the Moldavian republic. 714
2101 Mar. 19 To the French Ambassador The question of recognition of the Moldavian republic should be deferred. 715
46 Mar. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from Robins Proposed participation by the United States on a commission for mediation between Russia and Rumania. 717
[Quoted in tel.] Apr. 5 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) Discussion of Soviet Foreign Commissar’s proposal of Allied aid in mediation with Rumania. 718
3545 Apr. 7 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Apr. 5 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 718
[Quoted in tel.] Apr. 9 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) The union of Bessarabia with Rumania is imminent. 718
3568 Apr. 10 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Apr. 9 from the Allied Ministers at Jassy. 718
68 Apr. 10 From the Minister in Rumania (tel.) Proclamation of union of Bessarabia with Rumania. 719
337 Apr. 11 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Text of Russo-Rumanian treaty of Mar. 9. 716
[Quoted in tel.] Apr. 12 From the Allied Ministers at Jassy via Paris (tel.) The union of Bessarabia with Rumania is in agreement with the program of the Entente. 719
3595 Apr. 13 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Quotes telegram of Apr. 12 from Allied Ministers at Jassy. 719
72 Apr. 18 From the Minister in Rumania (tel.) German attitude toward the union of Bessarabia with Rumania. U. S. attitude. 720
1920 Apr. 20 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Refusal of Ukrainian Central Rada to recognize Bessarabia’s union with Rumania. 720
397 Undated [Rec’d Apr. 27] From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Soviet Russia’s views on Rumanian treaty with Central powers and annexation of Bessarabia. 721
1999 May 3 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes Chicherin’s protest to Rumania against the annexation of Bessarabia. 722
[Page LXX]

CHAPTER VI. FINLAND

Indefinite Relations with the Russian Provisional Government—Autonomy Law Passed by the Diet, July 18, 1917—Dissolution of the Diet; Elections of October 2, 1917—Labor Disturbances in Protest Against Bourgeois Control

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
314 1917 June 2 From the Consul at Petrograd Desire of Finland for autonomy; relations with the Russian Provisional Government. 723
480 June 23 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Resolutions of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, demanding independence for Finland. 726
352 July 31 From the Consul at Petrograd Finnish declaration of the supreme authority of the Seim; its dissolution by the Russian Provisional Government. 726
[Enclosure] Oct. 5 From the Consul at Helsingfors to the Ambassador in Russia Report of activity of the old Diet and of pro-German feeling among the Finns. 729
[Enclosure] Oct. 12 From the Consul at Helsingfors to the Ambassador in Russia Report of elections in Helsingfors for the new Diet. 730
Oct. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia Forwards letters of Oct. 5 and 12 from the Consul at Helsingfors. 728
995 Nov. 16 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Press report of socialist coup d’état in Finland followed by general strike. 731
1003 Nov. 17 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Conditions in Finland under socialist régime; assistance of Russian forces. 731
Undated [Rec’d Nov.23] From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Struggle between bourgeois Diet and socialists. 732
1107 Dec. 3 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Finland will accept food from Germany if it is not supplied from America. 732

Proclamation of Independence, December 4–6, 1917: Attitude of the American and Other Governments—Recognition by Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and France, January 4–10, 1918—Seizure of Power by the Red Guards; Civil War with the White Guards Under Mannerheim—Swedish Occupation of the Åland Islands—Request for American Recognition by Commissioners of the White Government; Counter-Representations by the Delegate of the Red Government—Appeals for Food

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1917 Dec. 4 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Finland is proclaimed a republic. U. S. recognition is desired. 733
1133 Dec. 6 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Press report of Finnish proclamation of independence and need of food. 734
Dec. 10 From the Finnish Commissioner Presents Finnish note urging that deputation be received by the United States because of scarcity of provisions. 734
[Page LXXI]1175 Dec. 13 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Sweden inquires concerning the attitude of the Associated powers toward the recognition of Finland. 735
2102 Dec. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Disapproves recognition of Finland, but not the visit of the delegation, and recommends shipment of food. 735
1899 Dec. 14 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.); to Sweden Deputation to state Finland’s case will be received but no position is assured regarding recognition. 736
1907 Dec. 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Department’s message to Legation, Stockholm, regarding recognition of Finland. 736
1186 Undated [Rec’d Dec. 15] From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) When a lawful Russian government recognizes Finland, Great Britain will also. 737
1193 Dec. 20 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Report of the situation in Finland by the Consul at Haparanda. 737
1224 Dec. 24 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) A Finnish delegation is sent to Stockholm to secure recognition and military aid. 738
1245 Dec. 29 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes the reply of the King of Sweden to request for recognition of Finland. 739
1251 Dec. 31 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) The Finnish government is sending delegations to all European governments and to Washington. 739
1269 1918 Jan. 3 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Sweden will recognize the independence of Finland. 740
Jan. 5 From the Assistant Secretary of State French attitude toward the recognition Of Finland; reported Bolshevik attitude. 740
451 Jan. 8 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Norway will recognize the independence of Finland. 740
2208 Jan. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Approves French suggestion that the United States and the Allies recognize Finland’s independence. 741
1809 Jan. 11 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Finland’s independence is recognized by Denmark. 741
Jan. 11 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Finland’s independence is recognized by Norway. 741
1984 Jan. 11 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Doubts advisability of recognizing Finland at present. 742
2217 Jan. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) France has recognized the independence of Finland. 742
8270 Jan. 15 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Requests instructions regarding attitude to be adopted toward Finnish representative. 742
1992 Jan. 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The United States is not disposed to recognize independent governments until the will of Russia is expressed. 743
[Page LXXII]8360 Jan. 23 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Great Britain hesitates to give formal recognition of Finland’s independence. 743
13 Jan. 24 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Presents reasons for U. S. recognition of Finland. 743
1389 Jan. 28 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Spread of Bolshevik control in Finland. 744
1408 Jan. 29 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Red Guard controls Helsingfors; bourgeois guard holds the north country. 744
Jan. 29 To the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Instructions to use discretion in respect to remaining in Helsingfors. 745
Jan. 30 Memorandum of the Assistant Secretary of State British formal recognition of Finland is postponed. 745
17 Jan. 30 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Socialists, Red Guards, and Russian soldiers overwhelm the bourgeois government. 746
1410 Jan. 30 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Discussion of assistance by Sweden to Finland in restoring order. 746
19 Jan. 31 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Situation at Helsingfors. 746
5527 Feb. 1 From the Consul General at London Finnish delegate to proceed to the United States to request recognition of Finland’s independence. 747
20 Feb. 2 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.): The reinforcement of Finnish Red Guards by Petrograd troops. 747
1455 Feb. 7 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Capture of Torneå by White Guards. Arrival of Rumanian Legation from Petrograd. 748
531 Feb. 8 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Instructions to report on stability of present Finnish government. 748
Feb. 12 To the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) U.S. position upon the recognition of Finland and assistance in food supplies. 749
1479 Feb. 12 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Views opposing the present recognition of Finland. 749
6559 Feb. 13 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) U. S. Minister at Stockholm recommends shipments of foodstuffs to north Finland. 750
1503 Feb. 15 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Views of S. A. Korff, on the civil war between Finnish Red Guards and White Guards. 750
1504 Feb. 15 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Sweden requests the Soviet representative to induce Russian soldiers to leave the Aland Islands. 751
1523 Feb. 18 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Statement from Finnish Legation that war in Finland is caused by Russian troops and agitators. 752
[Page LXXIII]1533 Feb. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Activities of Sweden with reference to the occupation of the Aland Islands. 752
536 Feb. 19 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Policy of the Norwegian Government toward Finland. 753
2390 Feb. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.). Report of the Consul at Haparanda on the control by Mannerheim of northern Finland. 753
1541 Feb. 21 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Agreement of Swedes, Russians, and Finns to leave the Aland Islands, Sweden to take temporary possession. 754
1522 Feb. 22 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) German assistance to Finnish White Guards against Red Guards. 754
Feb. 27 Memorandum. Conversation with Commissioners Reuter and Ignatius of the White government relative to the recognition of Finland. 755
571 Feb. 28 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.): for the Finnish Legation From the Finnish Commissioners to the White government, Finland: U. S. reply to request for recognition. 756
Undated [Rec’d Mar. 1] From the Finnish Commissioner Sketch of the political history of Finland from 1809 to its present recognition by certain powers. 756
[Enclosure] Undated From Mr. Santeri Nuorteva to the Food Administrator Application for leave to purchase and ship food supplies for Finland. 767
Mar. 9 From Mr. Santeri Nuorteva Counter-representations by the Red delegate. Enclosures: status of the Red government; application to the Food Administrator, supra. 763
Mar. 20 To Mr. Santeri Nuorteva The situation in Finland is receiving consideration. 768

Treaties between Finland and the Soviet Government, March 1, 1918, and between finland and the German government, march 7, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1647 1918 Mar. 8 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Reports some of the terms in the treaty between Finland and Germany. 769
1292 Aug. 10 From the Chargé in Sweden Discusses important articles in the Finnish-German treaties of Mar. 7. 769
[Quoted in despatch] Nov. 14 The Chargé in Russia to the Minister in Sweden Supplying Department with texts of Russian and Finnish treaties made with Germany. 773
1492 Nov. 18 From the Chargé in Sweden Text of secret agreement of Mar. 7 between Germany and Finland, with accompanying correspondence. 771
[Page LXXIV]1258 Nov. 20 From the Chargé in Russia Forwards text of treaty between the socialist republics of Russia and Finland. Quotes telegram of Nov. 14 to the Legation at Stockholm. 772
1392 Dec. 21 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Inquires concerning acceptance by Finland of secret agreement with Germany. 777
Dec. 28 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) German-Finnish agreement was accepted by Finland to remain in force until conclusion of a general peace. 777

German Military Intervention against the Red Guards; Victory of the White Guards—Advances into Karelia and toward the Murman Railway—New Negotiations with the Soviet Government—British, French, and American Attitude toward the White Government and Representatives of the Former Red Government—Resignation of Mannerheim—Monarchist Movement: Election of Frederick Carl of Hesse, October 9, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
8966 1918 Mar. 8 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Shipments of grain from America to north Finland stopped because of the presence of Germans. 777
1656 Mar. 9 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Finnish proclamation announcing acceptance of German aid in restoring order. 778
Mar. 11 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Passage through Finland refused to American refugees. Landing of Germans at Hangö. 778
1794 Mar. 30 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Press reports the capture of Tammerfors from the Red Guards by Finnish White troops. 779
1804 Apr. 1 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Report on the Finnish situation by Naval Attaché Crosley. 779
10 Apr. 14 From the Vice Consul at Petrograd (tel.) The occupation of Helsingfors is expected. 780
1902 Apr. 16 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Germans take Helsingfors. 780
1904 Apr. 16 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Finland guarantees, during sojourn of German troops, safety of foreigners and foreign representatives. 781
1914 Apr. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Finnish bands, advancing into Karelia and toward the Murman Railway, thought to be in German pay. 781
1916 Apr. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Proposed British agreement with Finland for conditional recognition. 781
Apr. 20 To the British Ambassador The United States in not yet prepared to take action looking to the recognition of Finland. 782
[Page LXXV]726 Apr. 22 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) U. S. attitude toward the recognition of Finland. 782
733 Apr. 25 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes alleged statement of Mannerheim welcoming Germans to Finland. 782
[Quoted in tel.] Apr. 23, 26 From the Consul at Helsingfors via Stockholm (tel.). Reports the quelling of Finnish Red Guards by Germans and the supremacy of the White Guard régime. 783
1950 Apr. 26 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes telegrams of Apr. 23 and 26 from the Consul at Helsingfors. 783
1959 Apr. 27 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Believes alleged statement of Mannerheim welcoming Germans to Finland is authentic. 783
466 May 3 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Soviet denial of participation by Russian troops in fighting in Finland. Reply to German protest against British troops at Murmansk. 784
468 May 4 From the British Ambassador Conditions under which Great Britain will recognize the de facto independence of Finland. 784
May 9 To the British Ambassador Inquires concerning final decision regarding provisional recognition of the de facto Finnish government. 785
May 11 To the President. Presents Finnish request for recognition signed by Commissioners Reuter and Ignatius. 785
[Quoted in tel.] May 13 From the Consul at Helsingfors via Stockholm (tel.) Advises offer of food and provisional recognition to Finland. 786
2081 May 14 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Forwards telegram of May 13 from the Consul at Helsingfors. 786
May 15 From the British Ambassador No reply has been received from Finland regarding the conditions of recognition. 786
Undated [Rec’d May 17] From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Scarcity of food probable cause of Finnish revolution and consequent aid from Germany. 786
May 20 From the President The United States is willing to recognize Finland when it is not controlled by Germany. 788
2134 May 21 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Choice of Svinhufvud as chairman of executive council; motion toward monarchy. 788
565 May 27 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Proposal made by Germany for adjustment of relations between Finland and Russia. 788
209 May 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) “ Soviet inquiry whether U. S. recognition of Finland depends upon severance of relations with Germany. 789
2181 May 28 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Resignation of Mannerheim; German influence in Finland. 789
[Page LXXVI]570 May 28 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Proposed negotiations between Soviet Russia and Finland on the cession to Finland of western Murman. 790
230 May 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports the preparations of the Finnish White Guard with Germans for an attack on Murman. 790
2211 June 1 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) French Legation, Stockholm, warns Finland that France will not recognize any régime established in an illegal way. 791
831 June 7 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Inquires regarding report that Finnish troops, in cooperation with Germans, contemplate attack on Murman Railway. 791
168 June 8 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) No change in U. S. policy regarding Finland. 791
2256 June 8 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Finnish policy toward Karelia and the Murman Railway: British and French attitude. 792
2293 June 12 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes Finnish message to France on the desirability of union of the Finnish and Karelian peoples. 792
2302 June 14 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Mannerheim considers German influence dangerous to Finland’s neutrality. 794
Undated [Rec’d June 15] From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Monarchist coup d’état threatened. German preparations for campaign against Karelia and Murman. 793
2369 June 27 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes Finnish protest to Great Britain against violation of territory claimed by Finland. British reply. 794
915 July 6 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) The United States takes no cognizance of agreement between Finland and Soviet Russia. 796
2457 July 11 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Views of Mannerheim on German domination in Finland. 796
24 July 15 From the Consul at Helsingfors Report on Finland’s present political situation as affecting the Allies and the Central powers. 797
962 July 20 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes Department’s message to London on decision not to send foodstuffs to Finland. 801
887 Aug. 9 From the British Chargé Declaration of British policy in northern Russia as in no way inimical to Finland. 802
362 Aug. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses appeal to Finns to enlist against Germany and encloses draft appeal. 803
70 Aug. 15 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Attempt of monarchists to elect a king. 804
109 Aug. 18 From the Consul at Archangel (tel.) Discussion of the publication of the proclamation by a Finnish leader to the Finns of all countries. 804
[Page LXXVII]73 Aug. 20 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Good effect of British declaration of policy in northern Russia is counteracted by German propaganda. 805
74 Aug. 21 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Proposal that the United States and the Allies offer to feed northwest Finland provided the Germans leave. 806
Aug. 23 To the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Any action relative to recognition of the de facto government should be deferred. 806
76 Aug. 26 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) German training of Finnish army and other activities point to possible hostilities in the Murman. 807
2726 Aug. 27 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Severance of Finnish-Russian peace negotiations. 807
79 Aug. 27 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Evidences of complete German control of the Baltic and of Finland. 807
Aug. 28 To the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) The proposed plan for feeding Finland should be postponed. 808
2754 Sept. 3(?) From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Publication by U. S. Ambassador of manifesto to Finns might be construed as interference. 809
247 Sept. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inadvisability of publishing any expression of opinion regarding the independence of Finland. 809
1082 Sept. 5 To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Publication of Finnish appeal through U. S. Governmental channels is inadvisable. 810
252 Sept. 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Questions advisability of cooperating with members of the former Finnish Red labor government. 810
90 Sept. 11 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Finnish delegation procures the assent of Frederick Carl of Hesse to accept the throne. 810
101 Oct. 11 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Election of Frederick Carl as king of Finland. 811

Withdrawal of German Troops—Formation of a New Government under Mannerheim—Decision of the American Government to Ship Food

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
104 1918 Oct. 20[?] From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Partial withdrawal of German troops. 811
117 Nov. 12 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) New republican government under Mannerheim anticipated; Bolshevik menace. 812
118 Nov. 16 From the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Mannerheim is entrusted with the forming of a new government. Consul advises shipment of food. 813
Nov. 22 To the Consul at Helsingfors (tel.) Decision of the U. S. Government to ship food to Finland. 814
1410 Dec. 24 From the British Chargé German forces are withdrawn from Finland. 814
[Page LXXVIII]

CHAPTER VII. THE BALTIC COUNTRIES

Appeals from Esthonia and Latvia for Support of Independence: Attitude of Great Britain—Declaration of the Independence of Lithuania and Request for Recognition: Attitude of the United States; Recognition by Germany—Movement by the Baltic Germans for a Monarchy in Personal Union with Prussia: Qualified Response by the German Government—Protests by Delegates of the Esthonian Provisional Government: Reception of These Delegates by the British, French, and Italian Governments—Refusal of Visa for an Esthonian Delegate to the United States—Protest of the Lettish National Committee against German Rule; Claim to Independence—British Project for a Lettish Legion: Attitude of the United States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1918 Jan. 28 From the British Chargé Esthonia and Latvia appeal to Great Britain for support at the peace conference of their independence. 815
[Enclosure] Feb. 7 From the Lithuanian National Council via Berne Claim of Lithuania to independence and request for recognition. 818
1017 Feb. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia Appeals from Esthonia to the United States for support at the peace conference of its independence. 816
2355 Feb. 9 From the Chargé in Switzerland Transmits Lithuanian note of Feb. 7. 817
220 Feb. 27 From the British Ambassador British compliance with Esthonian request for provisional recognition pending the peace conference. 819
1772 Mar. 26 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes Germany’s assent to Lithuanian request for recognition as an independent state. 820
1365 Mar. 27 To the Minister in Switzerland: to British and French Embassies Decision regarding recognition of Lithuanian independence should be deferred in view of unsettled conditions. 821
1896 Apr. 15 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Berlin report of movement by Baltic Germans for a monarchy in personal union with Prussia. 821
1361 Apr. 20 From the Chargé in Denmark Transmits memoranda of interviews with Esthonian delegation on the political situation in Esthonia. 822
1931 Apr. 23 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Qualified response of Germany to request of Baltic Germans for monarchy in union with Prussia. 826
[Enclosure] May 3 From the Esthonian Delegation to the American Ambassador in Great Britain Protest against German occupation of Esthonia, request for recognition, and for representation at peace conference. 827
9011 May 10 From the Ambassador in Great Britain Transmits note of May 3 from the Esthonian delegation, also British note granting provisional recognition to Esthonia. 826
596 June 4 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Reports conditions in the Baltic provinces under German military control. 829
[Page LXXIX]2459 July 11 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Esthonian protest to Germany. Authority requested for visit of Esthonian representative to the United States. 831
959 July 19 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) No commitment regarding reception of Esthonian delegate sent to the United States. 831
972 July 24 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Refusal of visa for Ferdinand Kull, Esthonian delegate to the United States. 831
[Enclosure] Aug. 14 From the Esthonian Representative to the American Ambassador in Great Britain Esthonian protest against agreement between Russia and Germany for incorporation of Baltic provinces into Germany. 832
9724 Aug. 19 From the Ambassador in Great Britain Transmits note of Aug. 14 from the Esthonian representative. 831
2748 Aug. 31 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Inquires if Department is disposed to allow some other Esthonian delegate to visit the United States. 832
[Enclosure] Undated From the Lettish National Council to the American Ambassador in Russia Protest against annexation of Latvia to Germany. 833
Sept. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia Transmits undated protest of the Lettish National Council. See supra. 833
1076 Sept. 28 From the British Chargé Inquires U. S. views regarding the formation of a Lettish legion. 836
2935 Oct. 1 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Esthonian views on German outrages and the danger of Red occupation after evacuation of German troops. 836
Oct. 7 To the British Chargé The United States will not join in the announcement to promote the formation of a Lettish legion. 837
2977 Oct. 11 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Withdrawal of request for visa for Kull, Esthonian delegate. 837

The Question of Protection of the Baltic Countries from Bolshevism upon Withdrawal of the German Troops: Attempts to Enlist the Help of the Scandinavian Countries—Postponement of German Withdrawal in the Armistice—Formation of National Governments in Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania—Reservation of Consideration of National Claims by the United States until the Peace Conference—Dispatch of a British Naval Force to the Baltic Sea—German Withdrawal and Bolshevik Advance—Yudenich’s Project of an Anti-Bolshevik Force to Take Petrograd

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2985 1918 Oct. 12 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Departure of German troops from Baltic provinces may be followed by Bolshevik occupation. 838
1215 Oct. 16 To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Germany instigating requests for protection by German troops on pretext of Bolshevik occupation. 838
[Page LXXX]5415 Oct. 26 From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.) Lithuanian desire for Allied aid in forming a government and for withdrawal of German troops. 839
1204 Oct. 31 From the British Chargé Proposes enlisting help of Scandinavian countries to protect the Baltic provinces upon German evacuation. 839
1206 Oct. 31 From the British Chargé Question of recognition of the Esthonian National Council. Enclosure: memorandum on German oppression of Esthonia. 841
3090 Nov. 2 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Russian appeal for the retention of German troops in Russian provinces until replaced by Allied forces. 843
3075 Nov. 5 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Proposal of Scandinavian military assistance to Baltic provinces not favorably received in Denmark. 843
7019 Nov. 8 From the Spanish Ambassador Spain makes representations for retention of German troops in certain Russian territories until order is restored. 844
Nov. 14 From the Lithuanian National Council Statement of Lithuanian desire to form an independent nation in union with the Letts and Lettgalls. 845
1056 Nov. 16 From the Minister in Norway Norway declines to assist in protecting Baltic provinces against Bolshevism. 849
Nov. 18 To the Lithuanian National Council Reservation of consideration of national claims until the peace conference. 849
994 Nov. 25 To the Spanish Ambassador Terms of armistice between the Associated powers and Germany will safeguard order in occupied territory. 850
Nov. 27 From the Consul General at Copenhagen: from Lehrs Formation of national governments in Esthonia and Latvia, 850
322 Nov. 27 To the British Chargé In loyalty to Russia, no premature action will be taken in recognition of the Baltic states. 851
Nov. 29 From the American Esthonian League Reports the formation of an Esthonian government and requests representation at the peace conference. 852
3240 Nov. 29 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Anxiety regarding the spread of Bolshevism in the Baltic countries, Finland, and Scandinavia. 854
3226 Nov. 29 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Dispatch of British naval force to the Baltic in support of Esthonian authorities against Bolshevism 854
3260 Dec. 2 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Form of Esthonian government and its attitude toward Russia and Bolshevism. 855
[Page LXXXI] Dec. 3 To the British Chargé The situation in the Baltic should be considered with the general problem of occupied Russian territory. 856
Dec. 5 To the Lithuanian National Council The Department is not yet prepared to recognize any new government in Lithuania. 856
3289 Dec. 6 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes Esthonian message reporting advance of Bolsheviks toward Revel. 857
3341 Dec. 14 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) ^ General Yudenich’s project of an anti-Bolshevik force to take Petrograd. 857
3347 Dec. 16 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Monarchistic movement under Trepov fails. Bolshevik advance into Esthonia is checked by British squadron. 859
3354 Dec. 17 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes Esthonian appeal for Allied troops to check advancing Bolsheviks. 859
3360 Dec. 18 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Lettish representatives appeal for Allied aid, stating that the retiring Germans deliver the territory to Bolsheviks. 860
6260 Dec. 24 From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.): from White-house For Committee on Public Information: Report of German withdrawal and Bolshevik advance in Lithuania. 861