File No. 861.00/1447

The Consul General at Moscow ( Summers ) to the Secretary of State 1


303. Jenkins reports from Chita fighting Manchurian frontier Bolsheviks and Semenov, who has ten thousand men, endeavoring reestablish order. It is thought he can accomplish this without Allied assistance. From Jenkins’s reports, Germans evidently endeavoring to embroil America and Japan. Reports that anarchists are gaining strength and that Bolsheviks are levying heavy contributions on business houses. Estimates eight thousand Austrian prisoners, Chita, who are joining Red Guard to fight Japanese and capitalism in general.

Macgowan reports large number prisoners armed and with machine guns going east; destination and purpose not clearly explained. It is noteworthy that these prisoners come from as far west as Omsk. They seem to have pursued the same policy towards their officers as Bolsheviks arresting or imprisoning them. This will inevitably result increased anarchy.

Nielsen 2 from Samara reports many cars cotton loaded en route Moscow and being shipped by German firms. Little cotton will be planted this year as growers fear confiscation. International Harvester men report armed prisoners guarding supplies, munitions along railways.

No reports Ray at Rostov.

Illegal and forcible contributions forcing all foreign and native industries to close business. Railways demoralized everywhere. In Moscow serious dissension amongst Bolsheviks. Having destroyed all the nation’s resources they naturally have no income and are resorting to illegal contributions, confiscation and other methods to raise funds. This policy naturally borders on the program of the anarchists who are rapidly gaining strength and who are openly asserting their power. In many respects they are more conservative than Bolsheviks, due no doubt to monarchist elements working with [Page 490] them. The Russkiya Vedomosti, one of the most influential conservative papers, closed for publishing an article by Savinkov attacking Lenin’s complicity Germans. Numerous internal struggles have been frustrated. Manufacturers and other organizations called to-day to protest against treaty of peace and policy of Bolsheviks. There is no doubt that the present régime can no longer count upon support of workmen, peasants or bourgeoisie whose sympathies are still with the Allies though it is doubtful whether they can render any further military resistance unless Allied aid is sent as nucleus around which they will rally. The country will not support the Bolsheviks further in the organization of a new army and German control will be welcomed if the present anarchy continues.

In an interview to-day … [a high Soviet official] states that’ Russia has made no treaties regarding boundaries Ukraine, that Russia does not consider itself in state of war [with] Ukraine, and that Soviets will immediately withdraw all troops from this section to avoid giving Germany excuse carrying on further military operations and occupying further territory. He further states that Germany will be obliged to occupy further territory Russia as soon as conditions western front admit in order to control grain supplies and prepare for world shortage foodstuffs. He expects Moscow to be occupied in May. Regarding new army, he considers resistance to Germans impossible and will give them excuse advance. He thinks government will be compelled move beyond Volga and there reconstitute their forces.

Careful estimate [of] results of peace treaty show that Russia has lost 34 per cent inhabitants, 32 per cent agricultural land, 85 per cent beet-sugar land, 54 per cent industrial undertakings, 89 per cent coal mines, and practically all cotton and oil supplies. At Nikopol alone there are 55 million tons iron ore already mined which is threatened. While the advance in southern Russia has been suspended owing to operations western front, German control this section already effective.

  1. Sent via the Consulate at Vladivostok.
  2. Orsen N. Nielsen, Vice Consul at Moscow, on special detail at Samara.