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List of Papers

[The arrangement of this list is by chapters, the papers therein appearing chronologically under date of writing. Unless otherwise specified, the correspondence is from or to the Secretary of State or the Department.]

CHAPTER I. THE MARCH REVOLUTION—ABDICATION OF THE EMPEROR—RECOGNITION OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1056 1917 Feb. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Petrograd has been placed under military law owing to disorders. 1
1087[?] Mar. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Duma refuses to obey Emperor’s order to adjourn; Provisional Government organized; regiments join revolutionists. 1
224 Mar. 15 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Transmits statement of Russian telegraph bureau: Duma refuses to disband and appoints Executive Committee which proclaims itself the Provisional Government. 2
1103 Mar. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The Emperor abdicates for himself and son in favor of his brother, the Grand Duke Michael. Revolutionary party controls Moscow. 3
Mar. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Revolutionary demonstrations actuated by bread riots and strikes; control assumed by committee of Duma forming Provisional Government. 3
Mar. 18 From the Russian Ambassador Transmits note from Milyukov, Foreign Minister, in which he pledges respect for Russia’s international undertakings made by the fallen regime. 4
1107 Mar. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Amazing revolution: absolute quiet. Policy of Provisional Government. Request for authority for recognition. 5
234 Mar. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Proclamation of Grand Duke Michael, accepting power on condition that it is the will of the nation as expressed by Constituent Assembly. 6
1110 Mar. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends that the United States extend financial aid to the Provisional Government. 7
274 Mar. 20 From the Consul at Petrograd Detailed account of revolutionary occurrences in Petrograd from March 4–20. 7
1271 Mar. 20 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to state to Foreign Minister that the United States recognizes the new Government of Russia. 12
1120 Mar. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The United States is first to recognize the new Government of Russia. 12
[Page XVI]1124 Mar. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Formal presentation to Council of Ministers and declaration of recognition on part of the United States. 12
[Enclosure] Mar. 25 From the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador Expresses gratitude for proof of friendship extended to new democratic regime in Russia. 13
657 Mar. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia Forwards copy of note of Mar. 25 from the Foreign Minister. 13

CHAPTER II. THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT: PREMIERSHIP OF PRINCE LVOV

Relations with the Councils (Soviets) of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies—Efforts to Check Military and Economic Demoralization—The Questions of Constitutional Reorganization, Land Reform, and Peace—Messages from the American Government and the American Federation of Labor

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1130 1917 Mar. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Provisional Government issues proclamation appealing to citizens, soldiers, and sailors to prosecute war. 15
1127 Mar. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Workmen and soldiers advocate abolition of classes and right of soldiers to disobey their officers. Ambassador suggests that American labor leaders send message. 15
1138 Mar. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The problem of the restoration of discipline in the army. 16
1291 Apr. 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits the President’s message of Apr. 2 to Congress, in which he commends the democratic movement in Russia. 17
1292 Apr. 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from Gompers Forwards messages from the American Federation of Labor, pleading that the Russian masses maintain their liberty rationally. 18
283 Apr. 3 From the Consul at Petrograd Quotes proclamation made by the Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies to the peoples of the world in the hope of provoking revolution in Germany. 18
1299 Apr. 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Announces proclamation of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government. 20
1163 Apr. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Message from the American Federation of Labor is delivered to labor leader Cheidze, to Milyukov, and to the press. 21
287 Apr. 10 From the Consul at Petrograd Excessive demands of labor. Achievements of Kerensky in conciliating rival organs of government. Aims of Provisional Government. 21
[Page XVII]703 Apr. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia New Government gains strength; is endorsed by workmen’s party, which party, with the soldiers, votes to continue the war. 25
1211 Apr. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends loan only with assurance of no separate peace and pledge of government to prosecute war. Appearance of Lenin. 27
295 Apr. 23 From the Consul at Petrograd All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies exerts pressure on Provisional Government and outlines program for Constitutent Assembly. Lenin demands communist dictatorship. 28
1350 Apr. 25 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from Gompers Message from the American Federation of Labor: America’s workers urge constructive efforts in the formation of a free government. 32
Undated [Rec’d Apr. 25] From Baron Rosen to President Wilson (tel.) Fraternal greetings from the Society for Promoting Friendly Relations between Russia and the United States. 32
1235 Apr. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Friendly demonstration of 50,000 people before the Embassy. 33
1362 Apr. 30 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The President’s appreciation of message from the Society for Promoting Friendly Relations between Russia and the United States. 33
297 Apr. 30 From the Consul at Petrograd Denunciation of Lenin by the Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies; confidence in Government expressed by wounded soldiers in convention. 34
1241 May 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Crowd before Embassy extends salutation from free Russia to free America; gives assurance of no separate peace. 37

Reorganization of the Government—Demonstration against the Note of May 3, 1917, to the Allied and American Governments—Resignation of Milyukov and Guchkov—the coalition ministry—opinions of American Consuls on the Situation

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
343 1917 May 3 From the Russian Chargé Transmits Foreign Minister’s note (sent also to Allied countries) stating that Russia will keep her pledges to her allies. Enclosure: Declaration, April 9, of Provisional Government on aims of the war. 38
[Page XVIII]1248 1917 May 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies protests against note of May 3. Opposition thought to be led by Lenin, inspired by Germany. 40
1382 May 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions for all consuls to report on political situation in their districts. 41
1253 May 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Lenin banners destroyed in street demonstrations. Workmen’s committee appeased by explanation of note of May 3. 41
300 May 8 From the Consul at Petrograd Joint meeting of Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies with Provisional Government, former denouncing note of May 3. Manifesto by the Soviet to soldiers takes authority out of hands of officers and Ministry of War. 42
1270 May 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Suggestion that the President reply to note of May 3 and state aims of the war. 52
1286 May 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Resignation of Guchkov, War Minister. 52
1288 May 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Russian press desires the President’s views on objects of the war, peace without annexations or contributions, and relations with Germany. 53
304 May 15 From the Consul at Petrograd Declaration of May 9 by Provisional Government of program and foreign policy. Enclosure: Speech of Minister of War at session of the four Dumas. 53
1289 May 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Resignation of Milyukov as Foreign Minister. Kerensky appointed Minister of War, Tereshchenko, of Foreign Affairs, both favoring prosecution of war. 66
1293 May 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soldiers fraternize with Germans. Workmen’s committee declares that new Russian Government is not bound by secret agreements. Anarchy feared. 66
18 May 18 From the Consul General at Moscow Causes of the revolution: ignorance and lack of patriotism of the masses; activity of Minister de Hartwig in the Balkans, etc. 67
1299 May 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Statement of U. S. aid for Russia at meetings held by Black Sea Fleet in favor of offensive warfare. 73
1303 May 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Lvov declares that peace without annexations or contributions means more than passive defense. 74
May 21 From the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs (tel.) Statement of Russia’s solidarity with the United States in war and in peace aims. 74
[Page XIX]760 May 21 From the Ambassador in Russia Transmits communiqué for press by Foreign Minister declaring his policy to be restoration of peace in union with Allied democracies. 75
306 May 22 From the Consul at Petrograd Reports the resignation of Milyukov and Guchkov. Quotes the platform of coalition ministry. Enclosure: Proclamation issued by the Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies to the armies. 77
May 26 To the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs (tel.) The common aim of Russia and the United States to secure freedom of nations and achieve universal peace. 85

Reception of President Wilson’s Message of May 22, 1917, on the Objects of the United States in the War—The Kronstadt Revolt—All-Russian Congresses of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies, of Peasants, of Cossacks—Opening of the Russian Offensive in Galicia

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1348 1917 May 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) President Wilson’s message on the objects of the United States in the war satisfactory. 86
1456 May 31 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquiry if the President’s message was received and what was disposition. 86
1460 June 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Immediate answer to the President’s message imperative. 87
1354 June 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Minister requests alteration in wording of the President’s message before publication. British and French messages altered. 87
1464 June 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The President’s message was not a reply but an independent communication to be made public if Russian Government does not object. 88
1356 June 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Further explanation as to delay in publishing the President’s message. 89
[Quoted in tel.] June 4 From the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador Asks that certain passages in the President’s message be changed for the sake of effect in Russia. 89
1357 June 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits note of June 4 from the Foreign Minister. 89
1362 June 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Minister desirous that nothing emanating from President Wilson discourage the Russian people. 92
[Page XX]1364 June 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Continuing to request alteration in the President’s message before publication. 93
1369 June 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Minister realizes that message cannot be altered. Date for publication will be cabled. 93
1373 June 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Communicates date set for publication of the President’s message. 94
4958 June 8 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Asks if news agency has forwarded President Wilson’s message to any country, as copies are to be recalled for alterations. 94
1374 June 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Publication date of the President’s message. Revolt in Kronstadt. 95
1375 June 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Petrograd Soviet supports the Provisional Government against the Kronstadt revolutionaries. Protest of Bolsheviks. 95
429 June 9 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Russian Minister in Sweden tells of unsettled conditions in Russia, the Kronstadt affair, and labor disturbances. 96
1472 June 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The President’s message will be given to the press June 10 without alteration. 96
4964 June 9 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) The President’s message released for publication June 10, with no alterations. 97
455 June 13 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Russian peasant congress resolves to stop all supplies to Kronstadt unless it acknowledges Provisional Government. 97
1429 June 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Lenin’s speech before the Congress of Soviets of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies is pronounced by Kerensky the same as that of a German commander. 97
1442 June 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolshevik press advocates demonstrations against the Government. 98
1453 June 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) British Ambassador calls a conference of Allied representatives to consider output of munitions in Russia. 98
1462 July 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Demonstration against the Government is unsuccessful and anarchists are arrested. Russians gain on southeast front. 99
338 July 3 From the Consul at Petrograd Attitude toward prosecuting war shown by conventions of Cossacks and of All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies. Government arrests anarchists. 99
[Page XXI]1531 July 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Impossible to supply information about munitions because purchase and shipments arranged by Russian agents. 106
1472 July 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Conference of Allied representatives consider munition situation grave, owing to poor transportation and labor demands. 106

CHAPTER III. THE AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN SPECIAL MISSIONS

The Root Mission to Russia

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1315 1917 Apr. 14 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires if acceptable to send commission to Russia to consult as to best means of cooperation. 107
1202 Apr. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Officials raise no objection to suggested mission. 107
1366 May 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Purpose of mission: to convey good will to new democracy, and to find best means of cooperating with Russia in prosecution of the war. 108
1396 May 11 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) List of members of mission, headed by Elihu Root. 109
1407 May 16 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Personnel and time of arrival at Vladivostok of Root mission. 109
1304 May 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Office would entertain mission as guests. Inquires if offer should be accepted. 110
1425 May 21 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): for Crane Requests that information be sent daily to Elihu Root on S. S. Buffalo. 110
1428 May 22 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Commissioners are representative of various elements in American democracy. Aim is to cooperate with Russia in war against autocracy. 110
1433 May 24 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Accepts invitation of Russian Government to entertain diplomatic mission. 112
May 24 To the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.) Résumé of conditions in Russia as reported by Ambassador: policy of Provisional Government—general peace but not separate peace. 112
[Enclosure] May 28 From the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador Expresses appreciation of the Root mission and concurs in wish for exchange of views as to means for conducting the war. 113
[Page XXII]1455 May 31 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Prefers that only commissioners and immediate personnel be guests of the Russian nation. 113
781 June 2 From the Ambassador in Russia Transmits note of May 28 from the Foreign Minister. 113
1361 June 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reported that Russian refugees plan attack upon Elihu Root, charging that, as Secretary of State, he refused to certain Russian refugees entrance into the United States. 114
1481 June 12 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) States that in 1908 Elihu Root declined to return Pouren to Russia to be tried for a political offense and quotes the former on extradition. 114
1391 June 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports arrival in Petrograd of Root mission and conference with Railway Commission. 116
1397 June 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The Root mission presented to the Foreign Minister. 116
1400 June 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes his remarks introducing the Root mission to the Council of Ministers. 116
7 June 17 From the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.) His address to the Council of Ministers. 118
8 June 17 From the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.) Reports German propaganda and lack of military discipline. Asks for funds for educational campaign to strengthen army morale. 120
9 June 18 From the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.) Address of welcome to the Root mission by the Foreign Minister. 122
1420 June 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The Root mission welcomed by Russo-American committee. The Railway Commission at work in Petrograd. 125
1431 June 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Admiral Glennon witnesses mutiny at Sevastopol and restoration of discipline. 125
47 June 27 From the Consul General at Moscow Account of visit of the Root mission to Moscow. 125
1 June 27 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): for Root The President sends congratulations on success of mission and warns against speaking of peace terms. 127
12 July 2 From the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.): for McAdoo Favors educational campaign to offset German propaganda and has published the speeches of the President and himself. 128
13 July 2 From the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.) Reports visits of commissioners to military and naval fronts. Urges counter attack on German propaganda. 128
[Page XXIII]1543 July 7 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The President approves in principle educational campaign suggested by Root mission. 129
3 July 7 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): for Root Visit to China and Japan inadvisable in view of disturbed conditions. 129
16 July 10 From the Ambassador on Special Mission to Russia (tel.) Results obtained by the Root mission. 129
July 10 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Viscount Motono asks that the Root mission visit Japan. 130
July 11 To the Chargé in Japan (tel.) A special mission may be sent to Japan, as it is inadvisable for the Root mission to serve in double capacity. 130
1580 July 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): for Root Congratulations on success of mission. 130
August From the Special Diplomatic Mission to Russia Report upon conditions and Russia’s ability to continue the war, with recommendations of U. S. assistance. 131
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 27] From the Special Diplomatic Mission to Russia Supplementary report: Plans for an educational campaign to strengthen the morale of the civil population and army. 147

The Bakhmeteff Mission to the United States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1231 1917 Apr. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Russia plans to send mission to the United States with Boris Bakhmeteff as chairman. 153
1367 May 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The United States will welcome a commission from Russia. 154
354 May 9 From the Russian Chargé Transmits memorandum of mission from Russia, stating its object and that it will confer on matters pertaining to the war. 154
May 28 To the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Instructions to report personnel, date of departure, etc., of the Bakhmeteff mission. 155
213 May 31 To the Russian Chargé Assurance of welcome for the commissioners. 155
June 1 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Reports personnel and date of sailing of Bahkmeteff mission. Anxiety allayed regarding attitude of Stevens railway commission. 156
June 15 From the Secretary of Embassy (tel.) Arrival of Bakhmeteff mission at Seattle; its personnel; its aims as described by the chairman. 157
[Page XXIV]

CHAPTER IV. THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT: PREMIERSHIP OF KERENSKY

The Ministerial Crisis of July 1917—Resignation of the Cadet Ministers—The Bolshevik Demonstration—Breakdown of the Offensive—Formation of the Kerensky Ministry—The National Conference at Moscow—The Fall of Riga

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1519 1917 July 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Cadet Ministers resign: causes, concessions to Ukraine, or wish to be relieved of responsibility for present situation. 159
1521 July 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolshevik demonstration follows Kerensky’s order to discipline two regiments. Trotsky advocates violent measures. 159
1528 July 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Petrograd the scene of engagements between Bolsheviks and loyal troops. Government now in control. 160
1531 July 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quiet prevails in Petrograd, guarded by troops from the front. 161
1532 July 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Other Ministers resign; Lvov remains Premier. Evidence shows Bolsheviks received German money. All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies is stronger than Government. 161
1534 July 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolsheviks, surrendering strongholds after disorders, term the incident a proof of their power. 162
1536 July 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky demands that workmen be disarmed. Secret manufacture of arms is reported. 163
1538 July 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Lvov resigns as Premier in favor of Kerensky. Leading Bolsheviks, including Lenin, arrested and certain regiments disbanded. 163
1545 July 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Minister states that Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies yields to Provisional Government. Capital punishment restored in army. 164
349 July 24 From the Consul at Petrograd Lack of power by Provisional Government. Results of Bolshevik uprising to overthrow Government and defeat its war policy. 164
1551 July 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Minister reports the situation at the front and the arrest of Bolsheviks. Plans for Moscow conference. 170
1564 July 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky empowered to appoint new Ministry. Bolsheviks prosecuted. Many desire Kerensky to be dictator. 170
1570 July 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) New Ministry will be composed of socialists and non-socialists and will be supported by Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies. 171
[Page XXV]1584 Aug. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Minister states railroads will adopt advice of American Railway Commission. Kornilov is made commander in chief of army. 171
Aug. 3 From the Russian Ambassador Foreign Minister gives assurance of continuing the war in spite of difficulties during reconstruction of army and government. 172
1597 Aug. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky resigns because opposed to dictation by Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies. Kornilov grows in public esteem. 174
1603 Aug. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) In selecting new Ministry, Kerensky will refuse dictation by his party. Food scarcity prevails and danger of riots. 175
1605 Aug. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Members of Ministry named. A committee will be charged with the conduct of the war. 175
1600 Undated [Rec’d Aug. 7] From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) After all-night session of representatives of Duma, Ministry, Cadets, and Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies, Kerensky is given power to form Ministry without reporting to Soviet. 174
Aug. 9 From the Secretary attached to the Russian Embassy to the Counselor for the Department of State Sends copy of telegram from Foreign Minister announcing new cabinet and its independence from the Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies. A Committee of National Defense is planned. 176
1651 Aug. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) At postponed Moscow conference called by Government, criticism of Government expected. 177
Aug. 24 From the President of the United States to the President of the Russian National Council Assembly (tel.) Greetings to the Moscow conference of people of the United States, confident of ultimate triumph of democracy. 177
1663 Aug. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Meeting of national conference at Moscow, called by Government, Kerensky presiding. Assistant Minister of War resigns. 178
1666 Aug. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Report of events in the first day’s session of the national conference at Moscow. 178
1673 Aug. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Further report on Moscow conference: Kornilov well received; Cadets will support Provisional Government. 179
1685 Aug. 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Firmer policy in army discipline; death penalty restored in ranks. 179
Sept. 5 From the Russian Ambassador Presents Foreign Minister’s account of the Moscow conference: effort toward unity of parties; no doubt of continuing war. 180
[Page XXVI]1706 Sept. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Advises Kerensky that he must restore discipline in army. Socialists demand removal of generals. Kerensky appeals for support of officers. 181
1713 Sept. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolshevik uprising is threatened. Kornilov complains he is not given power to enforce discipline in army. 181
Sept. 8 From the Consul General at Moscow Effects of the fall of Riga. Economic conditions. 182
1722 Sept. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Exodus from Petrograd in anticipation of German approach. Retreat of Russians at Riga. 186

The Kornilov Episode—The Democratic Conference at Petrograd—The Second Kerensky Ministry—Joint Note of the Allied Governments, October 9, 1917—The Preliminary Parliament (Council of the Republic)— Kerensky’s Press Interview on Russia’s Part in the War

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1726 1917 Sept. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports demand that Kerensky resign and that Kornilov be made dictator. Latter moves on Petrograd, claiming Government is agent of Germany. 186
1734 Sept. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied chiefs’ offer of good offices between Kerensky and Kornilov declined. Reported Sweden offers to mediate between Russia and Germany. 187
1738 Sept. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kornilov surrenders. Objections of Ambassador to press statement of Kornilov affair. 188
1745 Sept. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Action of Allied chiefs is published. Reasons given for Kornilov’s failure. Workmen armed against Kornilov retain guns. 190
1747 Sept. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky refuses party advice in forming Ministry. Army officers are killed by soldiers. 190
1753 Sept. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky refuses to yield to Soviet and appoints Cadets to Ministry. War committee of five appointed. Soviet plans armed opposition. 191
1759 Sept. 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) New Ministry to contain Cadets in spite of Soviet protests. Army is loyal to Government. 191
Sept. 16 From the Consul at Odessa (tel.) Laborers and soldiers take over power at Odessa, declaring for peace. 192
1760 Sept. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Provisional Government proclaims republic. Kerensky maintains his position against Soviet. 192
Sept. 18 From the Russian Ambassador Presents Foreign Minister’s account of the Kornilov episode, including a statement that the Government will prosecute the war. 193
[Page XXVII]724 Sept. 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from Gompers Message from American Federation of Labor to Russia, advising patience, and urging union of democracies against autocracy. 194
1774 Sept. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky is commander in chief. In interim before new cabinet, committee of five governs. 194
1797 Sept. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Changes in Ministry as a concession to Soviet. Trotsky’s attack on Kerensky. Proposed removal of Government to Moscow. 195
1804 Sept. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky and Tereshchenko will resign if Soviet dominates Ministry. Lenin elected delegate to conference by Petrograd Soviet. 195
1808 Sept. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits draft of note from Allied Governments to Russia urging that military situation be remedied. Requests instructions as to signing. 196
1751 Sept. 28 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes message from Stockholm on state of anarchy in Russia and requests views. 198
1813 Sept. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Triumph of Kerensky over Bolsheviks in national conference at Petrograd. Discussion of personnel of Ministry. 199
1822 Sept. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Meeting called to protest against. America’s treatment of Alexander Berkman. 199
1823 Sept. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Requests facts of Berkman’s crime and prosecution, and comments on Bolshevik propaganda. 200
1824 Sept. 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Coalition Ministry formed in accord with sentiment of conference; Kerensky victory, Bolshevik defeat. 200
1754 Oct. 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquiry concerning joint note of Allied Governments will be answered at earliest moment. 201
1826 Oct. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) At protest meeting resolutions adopted demanding of the United States release of Goldman and Berkman. 201
1834 Oct. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolsheviks withdraw from conference. Committee demands a Pre-Parliament to which Ministry shall be responsible. 202
1836 Oct. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Deplorable conditions attributable to returned exiles, majority from America (among them, Trotsky), and to German propaganda. 202
1842 Oct. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Ambassadors will present joint note after new Ministry is announced. U. S. Ambassador not yet authorized to unite therein. 203
1843 Oct. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Conference adjourns leaving differences to be adjusted by Pre-Parliament. 204
[Page XXVIII]53 Oct. 7 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the War College Staff (tel.) Disintegration of Government; demands of socialists; plans for Pre-Parliament; situation on Riga front. 204
1767 Oct. 8 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Message from U. S. Chamber of Commerce to Provisional Government applauding democratic Russia. 205
1848 Oct. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Pre-Parliament assembles; Bolsheviks in minority. 206
1852 Oct. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Joint Allied note, revised, presented to Kerensky. U. S. Ambassador does not join in note. 207
1853 Oct. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky encouraged by approval of his Ministry. Trotsky elected president of Petrograd Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies. 208
1869 Oct. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends aid for Russia. Prominent Russians, confident of future, advocate continuance of war. 209
1885 Oct. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Removal of Government to Moscow discussed. 210
1893 Oct. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Pre-Parliament opens; Kerensky not received with enthusiasm; Trotsky protests against Government. 210
1905 Oct. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolshevik outbreak expected; workmen have arms. Peasant delegate to Allied conference, Paris, declares the main question is peace. 211
Oct. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia Transmits text of Kerensky’s appeal to the people for support: the Government’s program; plans for the Constituent Assembly. 211
1922 Oct. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolsheviks preparing outbreak, which Government announces intention to suppress. 214
[Quoted in tel.] Oct. 27 From the Minister in Denmark to the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Germany is anxious to make separate truce with Russia if only for exchange of prisoners. 216
1808 Oct. 29 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Establishment, under direction of Committee on Public Information, of cable service with Russia. Educational activities planned. 214
1931 Oct. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Pre-Parliament continues in session. Trotsky advocates force to depose Government. 215
1509 Oct. 30 From the Minister in Denmark (tel.) Quotes telegram which he sent Oct. 27 to the Ambassador in Russia. 216
1935 Oct. 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Believes that Bolsheviks will make no demonstration. 216
[Page XXIX]1941 Nov. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) In session of Pre-Parliament Milyukov attacks Bolsheviks and the instructions given delegate to Paris conference. 216
1821 Nov. 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) American Federation of Labor declines to call international conference of workmen and socialists. 217
Nov. 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky’s press interview. Department’s disapproval of newspaper headline, “Russia quits the war.” 217
1825 Nov. 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to ascertain reliability of press interview with Kerensky regarding Russia’s inactivity in war. 218
1945 Nov. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolsheviks make unsuccessful attempt to start demonstration. Guards sent to all foreign missions. 219
1949 Nov. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Foreign Minister may represent Russia at Paris conference. British and Italian Ambassadors apologize to Kerensky for joint note. 219
1954 Nov. 6. From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Minister of War removed. Bolshevik papers suppressed. Kerensky addresses Pre-Parliament. 220
1957 Nov. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses Kerensky’s interview on Russia’s part in the war. Suggests sending U. S. troops to Russia for moral effect. 220
1958 Nov. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Verbatim copy of Kerensky’s press interview on Russia’s part in the war; also statement thereon. 221

CHAPTER V. THE NOVEMBER REVOLUTION—THE BOLSHEVIK “COUP D’ÉTAT,” NOVEMBER 7, 1917—THE STRUGGLE FOR CONTROL

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1961 Nov.7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolsheviks control Petrograd. Kerensky leaves to join troops. 224
1962 Nov. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolsheviks are supported by soldiers; propose new government and peace with Germany. 224
959 Nov. 8 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Trotsky asserts Provisional Government no longer exists. Pre-Parliament is declared dissolved. 225
53 Nov. 8 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Government of Moscow taken over by Bolsheviks and conservative newspapers suppressed. 226
1964 Nov. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Winter Palace, where Ministry thought to be in session, surrenders. Soviet announces that it controls Russia. 226
[Page XXX]963 Nov. 9 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Soviets of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies proclaim Soviets supreme. Political propaganda permitted at the front. Former Ministry arrested. 227
1968 Nov. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) All Ministers except Kerensky imprisoned. Petrograd Soviet of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Deputies name Lenin, Premier, and Trotsky, Foreign Minister. 227
1970 Nov. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky advances with troops on Petrograd. Bolsheviks take over State Bank and Foreign Ministry. 228
1972 Nov. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Release of all Ministers except two. Kerensky’s nearer approach to Petrograd. 229
972 Nov. 11 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Committee of Safety and Petrograd City Duma versus Bolsheviks. Expectation that Kerensky will march on Petrograd. 229
977 Nov. 12 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) It is reported from Russia that Kerensky is in control and the Bolsheviks defeated. 230
1619 Nov. 12 From the Minister in the Netherlands (tel.) Refusal of Russian diplomatic missions in western Europe to recognize Bolshevik government. 230
1974 Nov. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Various reports regarding movement by Kerensky and troops toward Petrograd. 230
1978 Nov. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The struggle for control between Kerensky and Bolsheviks. Telegraph employees’ strike. Refusal of railway union men to operate during civil war. 231
[Quoted in tel.] Nov. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia to the Minister in Sweden Reports that Bolsheviks have sent peace proposal to all countries at war. 235
983 Nov. 14 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Disorderly fighting in Petrograd; intrenchments against Kerensky’s advance. 232
1983 Nov. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky’s forces near Petrograd; Bolshevik committee in command of city. Fighting in Moscow. 232
408 Nov. 16 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Department inquires regarding welfare of Americans in Russia. 233
1985 Nov. 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Bolshevik soldiers overcome resistance in Petrograd and Moscow. Americans advised to leave Russia. Kerensky defeated, now fugitive. 233
59 Nov. 17 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Moscow government seized by Bolsheviks, supported by garrison and workmen. Russia’s helplessness is Germany’s opportunity. 234
1006 Nov. 17 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Transmits Ambassador Francis’s letter reporting that Bolsheviks have sent peace proposal to all countries at war. 235
[Page XXXI]1011 Nov. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.): from Representative at Torneå Kerensky, defeated, again escapes. General Kaledin controls Don Cossack region, thereby holding coal and bread supplies. 236
1020 Nov. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.): from Representative at Torneå Report that Kerensky will advance against Petrograd and that new revolutionary government is without support. 236
1024 Nov. 19 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.): from Ambassador Francis Bolsheviks attempt to take over State Bank. Lenin made virtual dictator by Soviet committee. Peasant soldiers oppose Lenin. 237
2001 Nov. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Conference of Allies and Americans requested by Russians in order that peace aims may be announced. 238
1038 Nov. 21 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Secretary to Kerensky states he was defeated through railway-union ultimatum and that Bolshevism is controlled by Germany. 239
85 Nov. 22 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Anarchy in Moscow. German propaganda. Protection of Americans and other foreigners. 240
Nov. 27 From the Russian Ambassador Presents copy of unsigned telegram on general situation in Russian War Office and Army and participation of Russian delegates in Allied conference at Paris. 240

CHAPTER VI. THE ARMISTICE WITH THE CENTRAL POWERS—APPEALS FOR GENERAL PEACE NEGOTIATIONS

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
967 1917 Nov. 10 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Report from Russia that Soviet desires immediate peace without annexations or indemnities, will give land to peasants, and publish secret treaties, declaring them void. 242
Nov. 18 From the Special Representative, London, (tel.): for the President It is urged that Allies make peace offer, basis no annexations or indemnities; Germany’s refusal would be to Russia’s advantage. 243
[Quoted in tel.] Nov. 20 From the Commissar of the People for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador Proposal of armistice on all fronts and opening of peace negotiations. 244
2004(?) Nov. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviets propose three months’ armistice. Germans believed to be established in Petrograd and Moscow. 243
2006 Nov. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Forwards note of Nov. 20 from the Foreign Commissar 244
[Page XXXII]2007 Nov. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied and American representatives agree to request Governments not to reply to Soviet peace proposals; certain military attaches to protest against armistice as violating London agreement. 245
2024 Nov. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Trotsky’s comments upon U. S. war aims and formal order to soldiers to arrange armistice after refusal of General Dukhonin to do so. 248
1864 Nov. 24 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department’s attitude, expressed to France, toward proposed Allied agreement not to recognize independently any new Russian Government. 248
1627 Nov. 26 From the Minister in Denmark (tel.) Germany’s proposal of separate peace with Russia considered an attempt to appropriate Russian supplies with aid of Lenin. 248
2032 Nov. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Trotsky’s address declaring Russia is not bound by old treaties and proposing a general armistice. 248
2034 Nov. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits Trotsky’s statement on proposals for a general armistice handed to Allied and American military missions and attachés. 250
2037 Nov. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet negotiations to arrange armistice with Central powers and order to cease firing. General Dukhonin tries to rally the country. 251
2039 Nov. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet postpones opening of armistice negotiations to await word from Allied powers and declares alternative will be separate peace. 252
2040 Nov. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Forwards proposal of Foreign Commissary: Germany has consented to open negotiations for armistice and Allied Governments are again asked to take part. 253
1875 Dec. 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to make no reply to communications from Soviet government on peace negotiations. 254
Undated [Rec’d Dec] From the Russian Ambassador Suggests Allies make declaration to Russian people of aims of war and of reasons against truce at present. 254
Dec. 2 From the Special Representative, Paris, (tel.): for the President also The Allies will consider war aims with Russia when she has a stable government. Importance of the United States declaring unselfish motives. 255
Dec. 3 From the Special Representative, Paris, (tel.): for the President British Foreign Secretary considers Russo-German armistice as contrary to treaty with Allies and of benefit to Germany only. 256
2006 Dec. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Petrograd press on U. S. attitude toward Prussia. Trotsky removes Russian diplomats averse to Soviet government. 257
[Page XXXIII][Quoted in tel.] Dec. 6 From the Commissar of the People for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador Postponement of peace negotiations that Allies may have time to define their attitude. 258
2072 Dec. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Forwards note of Dec. 6 from the Foreign Commissar. 258
200 Dec. 11 From the Consul General at Moscow Reports the circulation among German soldiers of an appeal by Soviet officials which Germany denounces. Quotes German protest. 259
2099 Dec. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Armistice negotiations resumed, Trotsky declaring that responsibility for separate armistice rests on Allies who refuse to announce their peace terms. 260
224 Dec. 18 From the Consul General at Moscow Quotes terms of the armistice agreed upon between Bolshevik Russia and the Central powers. 260

CHAPTER VII. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SOVIET POWER

Attitude of the American and Other Governments toward the Bolshevik Regime—Interviews of the American Military Attaché and Red Cross Representative with Trotsky—Decrees Abolishing Private Ownership of Real Estate—The Beginnings of Civil War—Elections to the Constituent Assembly—The Kalpashnikov Incident

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1917 Nov. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Northern army reported starving and leaving trenches. Germany has wireless connection with Russia. Lenin orders soldiers to negotiate armistice. 264
2025 Nov. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Attempt is made to overthrow Lenin. Ambassador refuses guard for Embassy and recommends that the President pledge aid to Russia for clothing and food. 265
[Enclosure] Nov. 25 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the Chief of the Russian General Staff States attitude of the United States regarding embargo on exports to Russia as described in press dispatch. 266
Undated From the Military Attaché in Russia to the War Department Forwards copy of letter of Nov. 25 to the Chief of the Russian General Staff. 266
2027 Nov. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Elections for the Constituent Assembly, the authority toward which all Russia has been looking. 267
[Page XXXIV]2029 Nov, 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky requests release of Russians interned in England for socialistic propaganda, and hints reprisal. 268
89 Nov. 26 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Famine at front, anarchism, and German propaganda plunging country into chaos. Advises protest against present regime; rights of foreigners affected. 268
[Enclosure] Nov. 27 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the Chief of the Russian General Staff States attitude toward a general peace and U. S. policy of noninterference with politics in Russia. 269
Undated From the Military Attaché in Russia to the War Department Forwards copy of letter of Nov. 27 to the Chief of the Russian General Staff. 269
91 Nov. 27 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.): from Bullard to Creel Unwise to recognize de facto government of Bolsheviks but reasons for refusal should be given in a public statement. 270
2820 Nov. 28 From the Special Representative, Paris, (tel.): for the President also Statements in American press that Russia should be treated as an enemy should be stopped. 271
2041 Nov. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Elections for Constituent Assembly. Attitude of British Ambassador toward recognition of Soviet government. 272
Nov. 30 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the War College Staff (tel.) Protests against armistice Trotsky considers as interference. Attitude of British Ambassador. U. S. Attaché recommends patience. 272
1871 Nov. 30 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to send information concerning volunteer Russian army. 273
1873 Nov. 30 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Unwise to suggest conference with committee from Constituent Assembly. 274
1874 Nov. 30 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Conference of Allies and Americans to announce peace aims is impracticable. Instructions not to participate therein. 274
2043 Nov. 30 From the Ambassador in Prussia (tel.) British Ambassador asks for authority to arrange modus vivendi with Soviet. Former Cabinet Ministers appeal for support of Constituent Assembly. 274
2049 Dec. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Trotsky’s comments on U. S. protest against separate peace and his threats to intern British subjects in Russia. British Ambassador abstains from recognition. 275
[Page XXXV]882 1917 Dec. 1 To the Ambassador in France (tel.): for Colonel House No truth in report that officials of this Government have voiced sentiments hostile to Russia. 276
1653 Dec. 1 From the Minister in Denmark (tel.) Suggestion that the United States make representations against recognition of Bolshevik regime by neutral nations. 277
1095 Dec. 1 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes W. F. Sands on Russian conditions, including German intrigue and possible restoration of the Tsar. 277
2050 Dec. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) U. S. Military Attaché recommends to Trotsky provisos in armistice to prevent transfer of German troops to other fronts and liberation of prisoners. 279
Dec. 1 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the War Department (tel.) Reports his interview with Trotsky relative to forthcoming negotiations for armistice. 279
2052 Dec. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Address sent to President Wilson by Russian army committee desiring that Paris conference state war aims of Allies. 280
2053 Dec. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) No move made toward requesting conference with committee from Constituent Assembly. 281
2054 Dec. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions will be followed to abstain from participation in conference to announce peace aims. 281
2056 Dec. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) British Admiral foresees danger and urges concentration of Allied nationals at Archangel. 281
2057 Dec. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Unofficial visit of U. S. Military Attaché to Trotsky to discuss armistice provisions. Soviet press account of interview. 282
1106 Dec. 3 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Swedish press reports of departure of Russian delegates for Brest Litovsk and account of U. S. Military Attaché’s visit to Trotsky. 283
2061 Dec. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): from Davis to Mott Recommends immediate statement by Allies of peace terms and immediate action by the United States toward peace. 284
2062 Dec. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Doubtful success of efforts to organize army. Trotsky’s endeavors to secure recognition by Allied missions. 284
2063 Dec. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) British Ambassador foresees reprisals if Russian socialists not released in England. Japanese Ambassador states views on intervention. 285
1723 Dec. 4 From the Minister in the Netherlands (tel.) Netherland Minister at Petrograd refused to receive communication from Bolshevik government. 286
[Page XXXVI]1113 Dec. 4 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Advisability of Allies’ using good offices with neutral powers against recognition of Bolshevik government. 286
410 Dec. 5 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Russian representatives in Norway do not accept Bolshevik government. Norway will not recognize Soviet régime until the great powers do so. 286
2067 Dec. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Agreement of Allied missions not to recognize Soviet government; rumors concerning Constituent Assembly. 287
2857 Dec. 6 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Russian Ambassador in France tells of instructions from Trotsky relative to the armistice with Germany. 287
1126 Dec. 6 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Interview between U. S. Military Attaché and Trotsky has caused much comment in Sweden. 288
1883 Dec. 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The President desires that U. S. representatives withhold all direct communication with the Bolshevik government. 289
Dec. 7 To the Young Men’s Christian Associations The handling of diplomatic questions in Russia should be left entirely in the hands of the Ambassador. 289
436 Dec. 7 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Instructions to ascertain attitude of Sweden toward recognition of Bolshevik government. 290
Dec. 7 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Russian Ambassador in Japan may be dismissed by Trotsky but Japanese Foreign Minister will continue to recognize him. 290
2074 Dec. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports views concerning stability of Soviet power. Announcement relative to Constituent Assembly published by Kerensky and other former Ministers. 290
2080 [?] Dec. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses newspaper report of relations of American Red Cross with Russian political leaders and use of money paid by Americans. 291
1891 Dec. 8 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department prefers to have recommendations on political situation come from Ambassador. 292
2081 Dec. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Résumé of events from Nov. 7, the beginning of the revolution and flight of Kerensky. 292
2083 Dec. 10 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports that Soviet is under control of German General Staff and that Kornilov and others are assembling troops in the south. Activities of American Railway Commission. 295
116 Dec. 11 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Nationalization of factories will cause losses to Russian and foreign owners and curtail producduction, to Germany’s profit. 297
[Page XXXVII]6009 Dec. 11 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); mutatis mutandis, to France Instructions to report regarding policy to be adopted by Great Britain in Russian situation. 297
1159 Dec. 11 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Sweden will not recognize Bolshevik government before acknowledgment by Constituent Assembly. The Netherlands and Norway also unwilling to do so. 297
2088 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Constituent Assembly meeting postponed by Lenin. Armistice negotiations to be resumed. 298
1895 Dec. 12 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The U.S.S. Brooklyn has been at Vladivostok since Nov. 25. 287n
203 Dec. 12 From the Consul General at Moscow By decree abolishing private ownership of real estate, landed property is handed over to committees to be used for public institutions. 299
7934 Dec. 12 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Attitude of British Government toward recognition of Lenin’s regime and toward other factions in Russia. 299
1166 Dec. 12 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Denmark will not recognize Bolshevik government at present. 300
118 Dec. 12 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Socialist-Revolutionists are in majority in elections. Recent decrees abolish courts, confiscate property, etc., and repudiate loans. Nationalization of factories affects foreign interests. 300
2091 Dec. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky asserts that chief of American Red Cross in Russia praises Soviet government and states America will furnish supplies. 301
2092 Dec. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Council of Commissars declare Cadet Party counter-revolutionary and arrest their central committee. Ambassador recommends appeal to Russian people for stable government. 301
1171 Dec. 13 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Swedish press reports whole districts throughout Russia organized against Soviet government. 302
2100 Dec. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky discusses attitude of Allies and the United States toward Russia. 303
2107 Dec. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Forwards note of Foreign Commissariat announcing it will refuse permits since embassies refuse to visa passports. 303
212 Dec. 15 From the Consul General at Moscow Report on political conditions in the first half of December including armistice negotiations, radical decrees, and measures to prevent convening of Constituent Assembly. 304
[Page XXXVIII]7980 Dec. 15 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) If the United States takes steps to prevent recognition of Bolshevik regime by neutral powers, Great Britain will lend support. 316
1906 Dec. 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department approves Ambassador’s course and relies on his judgment in regard to remaining in Petrograd. 316
1689 Dec. 15 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) No government has recognized Bolshevik regime at Petrograd. 316
Dec. 15 To the diplomatic representatives in European countries, Japan, China, and Siam (tel.) Instructions to have no official relations with Russian diplomatic officers who recognize or are appointed by Bolshevik government. 317
2117 Dec. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky’s visit to French Ambassador concerning presence of French officers with Ukrainian Army. Soviet interference with Constituent Assembly. 317
2113 Dec. 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Armistice made with Germany; German commissioners may come to Petrograd. Discussion of courier service. 318
1910 Dec. 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department prefers no action at present regarding appeal to Russian people for stable government. 319
1917 Dec. 20 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Red Cross members in uniform are included in instruction to U. S. representatives to withhold direct communication with Bolshevik government. 319
8035 Dec. 21 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Negotiations for release of interned Russians in England in exchange for free exit from Russia of British subjects. 319
2128 Dec. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports of Cossack activities; differences at Russo-German peace conference; Soviet demand for release of comrades from U. S. prisons. 320
1924 Dec. 22 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Suggestion that chiefs of mission of belligerent countries at Petrograd confer regularly. Instructions to take no action with Bolshevik government concerning couriers. 320
2132 Dec. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The Kalpashnikov incident: Trotsky charges Ambassador is in plot to aid Kaledin; Ambassador’s denial. 321
2939 Dec. 23 From the Ambassador in Franco (tel.) France will not recognize Bolshevik government but will act in minor questions through its consuls. 322
2133 Dec. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Release of comrades in U. S. prisons demanded in anarchistic meeting, with threats against Ambassador. 322
[Page XXXIX]2134 Dec. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Trotsky’s speech on peace terms. Delegates appointed to appeal to socialists of other countries not to fight longer. 323
1931 Dec. 24 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Questionnaire sent to consuls regarding political and military conditions, food supply, etc. 324
2138 Dec. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Outlines situation and suggests opening relations with Soviet in order to prevent Germany from acquiring Russian resources. 324
2144 Dec. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Ambassador’s statement and text of telegrams refuting charge of his implication, with Kalpashnikov, in plot to aid Kaledin. 326
1938 Dec. 27 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department’s appreciation of Ambassador’s purpose to remain at his post. 329
2154 Dec. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Further explanation of the Kalpashnikov incident. 329
[Quoted in tel.] Dec. 28 From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador Transmits text of memorandum regarding policy of Allies in Russia which was agreed upon at Paris conference, Dec. 22. 330
1946 Dec. 29 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) As to establishing relations with Soviet, Department desires continuance in course pursued in past. 330
8090 Dec. 29 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Transmits memorandum of Dec. 28 from the Foreign Office. 330

Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly—Assumption of Definite control by the all-Russian soviet congress-proclamation of the Soviet Republic—The “Sisson Documents”

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2205 1918 Jan. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Date set for convening of the Constituent Assembly. Trotsky may attempt to lay upon it responsibility for separate peace. 331
1343 Jan. 8 From the Ambassador in Italy(tel.) Belgium considering relations with Bolsheviks; Italy opposed to such a move. 332
1803 Jan. 9 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Statement made by Prince Cantacuzene of political, economic, and military conditions in Russia. 332
2212 Jan. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses advisability of recognizing the Finnish, Ukrainian, Siberian, and Soviet governments. Ukrainian delegation admitted to peace conference; Finnish independence recognized by Soviet government. 335
[Page XL] Jan. 9 From the British Ambassador Summary of the Bolshevik movement prepared by the British Embassy at Petrograd. 336
Jan. 9 From the British Ambassador Great Britain will keep in touch unofficially with Bolshevik government by means of British agent now sent to Petrograd, and by new agent of Bolshevik government in London. 337
1823 Jan. 14 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Establishment of relations by one of the Allies with Bolshevik government considered best way to combat German intrigue. Suggestion that the United States best suited to undertake task. 337
Jan. 14 From the Consul General at Moscow to the Ambassador in Russia Political and military conditions, food supply, Bolshevik power, etc., in central Russia, the Ukraine, and in Cossack territories. 338
2241 Jan. 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Progress of peace negotiations. Preparations by Soviet for demonstration when Constituent Assembly meets. Socialist-Revolutionist meeting. 349
1998 Jan. 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Great Britain concurs in plan for regular conferences of chiefs of Allied missions in Petrograd, but holds that missions may take independent action, in which Department acquiesces. 350
2252 Jan. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Meeting of Allied and American chiefs of missions to discuss their attendance at opening of Constituent Assembly. 350
2253 Jan. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Opening of Constituent Assembly: street disorders; Cadet members absent; Socialist-Revolutionists in majority. 351
2255 Jan. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Dissolution of Constituent Assembly forced by Red Guards and sailors. Its president criticizes Soviet government for not concluding peace. 352
2256 Jan. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Anarchists reply to Ambassador’s protest against Soviet arrest of Rumanian Minister by counter-protest against prosecution of their comrades in the United States. 353
2259 Jan. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Central Committee of Commissars states it dissolved Constituent Assembly both because it was influenced by bourgeoisie and did not admit that all power rests with Soviets. 354
2260 Jan. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Warning given of rumored attack on Embassy planned by anarchists. 354
[Page XLI]2261 Jan. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Retiring of Allied chiefs to Stockholm or Christiania suggested, but opposed on ground that leaving would promote German interests. 355
165 Jan. 22 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Bolsheviks suppress newspaners, and in street fighting put down demonstrations in favor of Constituent Assembly. 355
Jan. 22 From the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Japanese Foreign Minister inquires as to U. S. attitude if Russia should send Soviet envovs to the United States and if a Russo-German peace were made. 355
2274 Jan. 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Belgian Minister urges public statement against separate peace. Individual Americans in relation with Bolshevik headquarters. 356
1365 Undated [Rec’d Jan. 24] From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Rumanian, American, and French Ambassadors are denounced in Russian press for condemning-violence against Rumanian Legation. 357
2287 Jan. 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Food scarcity. Opposition of factory workers to Soviet. Conditions in the Ukraine. 358
2292 Jan. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Repudiation of national debt rejected by Constituent Assembly but adopted by All-Russian Soviet Congress; its enforcement in hands of Council of Commissars. 358
2293 Jan. 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky criticizes the United States and makes specific charges against Allies of unfriendly acts. 359
2294 Jan. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Assumption of control by the All-Russian Soviet Congress, supplanting Constituent Assembly. 360
1406 Jan. 29 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Quotes chief of U. S. Military Mission in Russia on probable length of Bolshevik regime and assistance advisable if military-operations are revived. 360
Jan. 29 To the Ambassador in Japan (tel.) Answers Japanese Foreign Minister’s queries concerning attitude of United States toward Bolshevik envoys and toward Russo-German peace. 361
2303 Jan. 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Status of peace negotiations at Brest. Soviet hope of starting social revolution in Central empires. Scarcity of food. 362
1423 Jan. 31 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Italian Chargé at Petrograd states conditions in Russia are appalling, due to food scarcity and violence. 362
2310 Jan. 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet states strikers in Germany demand peace on Soviet terms, also general peace along lines of President Wilson’s message. 363
2038 Feb. 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department relies on judgment of Ambassador with regard to staying in Petrograd. 363
[Page XLII]2039 Feb. 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Inquires if Ambassador recommends moderation of U. S. attitude towards Bolshevik regime in order not to place Embassy staff in personal danger. 364
2316 Feb. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports Soviet domination spreading; German strikes; Rumanian uprisings. If negotiations end without separate peace, may recommend relations with Soviet. 364
2325 Feb. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) All-Russian Congress of Soviets proclaims its policies on peace, land, public loans, secret treaties, and self-determination of peoples. 364
3138 Feb. 3 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Opinion of Russian Ambassador in France as to German power in Russia, Japanese intervention in Siberia, and independence of Finland. 366
2043 Feb. 4 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to send to Department weekly résumé of situation. 367
2333 Feb. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet government’s refusal to release funds of missions until recognition enables them to draw on Russian funds in other countries. 368
2336 Feb. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Germans purchase large interest in Russian banks. Danish and Siamese Legations invaded by Soviet authorities. 368
2346 Feb. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) By formal decree Russian calendar to be changed Feb. 14 to accord with western calendar. Russian Patriarch excommunicates Bolsheviks. 369
6491 Feb. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); mutatis mutandis, to France Inquires if report is true that passports of envoys of Bolshevik government have been visaed by British representatives. 369
2349 Feb. 8 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Believes that anarchistic threats against Embassy should not affect Department’s policy; has evidence that Lenin and Trotsky are in German pay. 370
8588 Feb. 9 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) British authorities have visaed passports for Bolshevik representatives. 370
3177 Feb. 9 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Report is correct that France visaed passports of Soviet representatives. 371
2354 Feb. 9–13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits contents of the Sisson documents tending to prove German plan to sow disorganization in Entente countries including Russia. 371
167 Feb. 11 From the British Embassy British unofficial relations with de facto Bolshevik government will protect Rumanian interests. 378
[Page XLIII]3165 Feb. 11 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) Instructions to repeat to London for attention of Foreign Office telegram on the political situation in Russia as observed by the Russian Ambassador in France. 379
2059 Feb. 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrangements for marines to guard Embassy at Petrograd. 379
2365 Feb. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) International revolutionary propaganda; the Sisson documents; military situation in the Ukraine, Finland, Baltic provinces, and south Russia. 380
2061 Feb. 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to report on conditions arising from public ownership of factories, etc. 380
2065 Feb. 14 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.); repeated to Great Britain, France, Japan, and China Instructions for somewhat closer and informal touch with Bolshevik authorities, avoiding official recognition. 381
2074 Feb. 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to obtain further evidence in regard to the Sisson documents. 381

Resumption of Hostilities by the Germans—Removal of the American Embassy to Vologda—President Wilson’s Message to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets. March 11, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2387 1918 Feb. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Resumption of hostilities by the Germans; fall of Dvinsk. 382
Feb. 19 From the Assistant Secretary of State French Government informs the Bolsheviks indirectly that if they resist Germany, France will help them, and inquires if the United States will do likewise. 383
2395 Feb. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Germans reported moving toward Petrograd; Ambassador considers leaving with staff. 383
2400 Feb. 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Germans advance toward Petrograd; Soviet government demoralized. Ambassador urges that the United States assume control of Vladivostok and British and French of Murmansk and Archangel to protect supplies. 384
197 Feb. 22 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Attempt to install in Russia a democratic régime has resulted in anarchy German domination would be preferable. Intervention the only remedy. 385
2402 Feb. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) German advance: French and British assist Red Guard to destroy railroad. Food scarcity, rumors of anarchism. 386
[Page XLIV]201 Feb. 23 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Owing to German advance on Moscow and Petrograd, many Americans leaving for Samara. 386
2410 Feb. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Peace terms make Russia a German province. Renews recommendation for possession of Vladivostok, Murmansk, and Archangel. Part of Embassy staff moves to Vologda. 387
562 Feb. 25 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.): for Ambassador Francis Instructions concerning measures to safeguard staff and archives from falling into enemy hands. 387
2416 [?] Feb. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) U. S. Embassy and certain missions to remove to Vologda; British and other missions to Finland or Murmansk. Japanese and Chinese troops in Manchuria. 388
Feb. 27 From the Consul General at Stockholm (tel.): from Consul Tredwell, Petrograd Sends train east with Americans, Japanese, and Chinese, including staffs of Embassies. Ambassadors remain in Petrograd. 388
Mar. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports arrival at Vologda, where awaits developments. Many Russians prefer Germans to Soviet. 389
Mar. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Japanese attitude toward sending of troops to Siberia. Request for British troops in north Russia. Anti-Bolshevik sentiment in northern villages. 390
Mar. 4 From the British Chargé Copy of message from British Foreign Office to their agent in Petrograd offering aid to the Bolshevik government against Germany and discussing Japanese intervention. 390
Mar. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Military Attaché sent to Petrograd to confer with Soviet government regarding assistance if Russo-German peace not ratified. 392
Mar. 6 From the British Chargé Copy of message from British Foreign Office to their representative in Russia regarding lines of action which Soviet can take, including appeal for help from Japanese. 392
236 Mar. 7 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Resumption of hostilities in Russia by the Germans despite peace signed. Refusal of Bolsheviks to demobilize Red Guard. 393
Mar. 9 [?] From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) All-Russian Congress of Soviets may support ratification of peace with Germany as result of threatened Japanese invasion of Siberia. 394
238 Undated [Rec’d Mar. 9] From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Press indicates Allied intervention in Siberia against German domination. 395
[Page XLV] Mar. 11 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Transmits President Wilson’s message to the Soviet Congress, Mar. 11, expressing sympathy at this time when German power has turned back Russian struggle for freedom. 395
6 Mar. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet officials declare it will be necessary to resist German advance. Tokyo press states no Japanese invasion without Allied approval. 396
Mar. 12 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.); the same to France, Italy, Russia, Japan, and China In response to Japanese inquiry concerning attitude of Allied powers toward Russia since signature of the Brest Litovsk peace, the United States replies it regards Russia still as an ally, although there is at present no Russian government. 397
7 Mar. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky’s inquiries regarding support which Allies would give in case of non-ratification of peace treaty or against Japanese invasion. 397
Mar. 12 To the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Instructions regarding removal of Consulate and commendation of work accomplished. 398
251 Mar. 15 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Resolution adopted by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets in reply to President Wilson’s message of Mar. 11. 399
257 Mar. 15 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) The All-Russian Congress of Soviets represents only a small portion of Russian people; delegates chosen by Bolshevik leaders. 400
10 Mar. 15 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Approves the Ambassador’s decision to stay at Vologda unless circumstances prevent. 401
1720 Mar. 17 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Brest Litovsk peace treaty ratified by All-Russian Congress of Soviets; repudiated by Socialist-Revolutionists. Soviet ambassador to be sent to Berlin. 401
17 Mar. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Suggests that if American and Chinese troops enter Russia with Japanese, opposition less. Gives to press declaration that America does not recognize separate peace and is still ally of Russia. 402
13 Mar. 19 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) President Wilson’s message to Russian people and address to Congress adequate answer to Trotsky’s inquiries as to U. S. support. 402
278 Mar. 20 From the Council General at Moscow (tel.) Trotsky’s statement that alliance with the United States is impossible, and comment on relations between the United states and Japan. 403
[Page XLVI]

CHAPTER VIII. THE CONCLUSION WITH THE CENTRAL POWERS OF THE PEACE OF BREST LITOVSK, MARCH 3, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1232 1917 Dec. 27 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Russian delegation at Brest Litovsk proposes basis for peace negotiations. 404
2166 Dec. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) If the United States declines to take part in peace negotiations, a communication should be sent to Russian people in explanation. 405
2163 [?] Dec. 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Fowards text of Trotsky’s address to the peoples and governments of Allied countries inviting them to share in peace negotiations. 405
244 1918 Jan. 1 From the Consul General at Moscow Report on political situation in late December; appropriation for international propaganda; peace negotiations, including German proposals and Ukrainian declaration. 408
2172 Jan. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet officials claim to have discovered conspiracy of Germans and decide to sever peace negotiations. 418
2173 Jan. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Meaning of Trotsky’s note to the peoples of Allied countries. Advantages for Germany of peace with Russia. 418
2178 Jan. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Resolution adopted by Soviet Central Executive Committee and other bodies, calling upon workmen of all countries to support Russian peace terms. 419
2180 Jan. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Peace negotiations resumed. Germany claims that the Baltic provinces desire to become German, to which Soviet takes issue. 421
2187 Jan. 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): for the President Only hope for Russia’s remaining in the war is failure of separate peace negotiations. Requests that the President appeal to Russian people. 422
2202 Jan. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) German peace commissioners refuse to adjourn to neutral ground as suggested by Trotsky. 424
26 Jan. 6 From the British Embassy British Ambassador at Petrograd reports German insistence on occupation of Baltic provinces. 425
2204 Jan. 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Further discussion of peace demands. Presence of Germans in Petrograd. 425
1973 Jan. 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) President Wilson’s speech to Congress, stating war aims and attitude toward Russia, to be conveyed unofficially to Trotsky and otherwise circulated. 426
2225 Jan. 12 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Circulation in Russian and German of President Wilson’s speech to Congress. 426
[Page XLVII]2229 Jan. 13 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes his New Year greeting to Russian people, in which he commends President Wilson’s address to Congress as outlining the peace Russia desires but now endangered by Germany. 427
1346 Jan. 21 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Political and territorial questions, including status of Aland Islands, discussed at peace conference. 427
2294 Jan. 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Trotsky’s departure for Brest to sign separate peace. Approval by All-Russian Soviet Congress of negotiations. 428
2358 Feb. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Brest negotiations terminated. Demobilization order signed by Trotsky and Russian delegation, also by Bolshevik Ukrainian delegation. 428
2385 Feb. 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) German statement that armistice is terminated; Soviet protest. Capture by Germans of Revel and Dvinsk. 429
2393 Feb. 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet offers to accept peace terms demanded at last conference. Resistance impossible if Germans advance. 429
1552 Feb. 22 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Council of Commissars protest against action of German troops after war declared ended, but must consent to German peace terms. 430
2061 Feb. 22 From the Minister in the Netherlands (tel.) Quotes portion of Kühhnann’s Reichstag speech discussing peace treaty signed with Ukraine and peace negotiations with Russia. 430
2405 Feb. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits text of German peace proposal of Feb. 21 to Soviet government. 432
2409 Feb. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet Central Executive Committee approves German peace terms and notifies Berlin. 433
1612 Mar. 4 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Peace treaty signed at Brest Litovsk, Germany refusing to stop military operations until peace signed. Turkey gains territory and petroleum center. 434
1624 Mar. 5 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Soviet Central Executive Committee calls meeting to discuss ratification of peace treaty. Division among Soviets on subject. 434
Mar. 12 To the French Ambassador The United States agrees in principle with protest against. Russo-German peace, but prefers not to join in iteming to uncertain conditions in Russia. 435
259 Mar. 16 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Peace terms ratified. 436
[Page XLVIII]2159 Mar. 19 From the Minister in the Netherlands (tel.) Speech of Hertling in the Reichstag regarding ratification of Brest Litovsk peace, and the status of the Baltic provinces. 436
8633 Mar. 25 From the Ambassador in Great Britain Transmits statement concerning Russia and the German peace made public by the Supreme War Council held in London. 438
1762 Mar. 25 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) German Government’s comment on Ambassador Francis’s statement to the Russian people on Russo-German peace. 439
301, 303, 304, and 309 Mar. 30 and Apr. 2 From the Consul General at Moscow (tels.) Transmits text of treaty between Russia and the Central powers, signed at Brest Litovsk Mar. 3, with supplementary agreements and appendices. 442
57 Apr. 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discusses Russian reply to German protest against Ambassador’s statement, which contained appeal to the Russian people to continue the war. 439
1107 Apr. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia Encloses copies of Ambassador’s appeal to Russian people to continue the war, and of Soviet Government’s reply to inquiry of German Government in the matter. 440
399 Apr. 22 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Transmits Turkish-Russian agreement supplementary to the treaty of Mar. 3. 471
1321 Aug. 23 From the Chargé in Sweden Transmits extracts from Swedish press giving statistics of Russia’s losses in the Brest Litovsk peace. 476

CHAPTER IX. THE ACTION OF THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS FOR RELEASE OF TFIE RUMANIAN MINISTER FROM ARREST

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
2230 1918 Jan. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Rumanian Minister and Legation arrested; Diplomatic Corps called to meet at U. S. Embassy. 477
2231 Jan. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Diplomatic Corps will go in body to make demand of Lenin for immediate release of Rumanian Minister Diamandi. 477
2233 Jan. 14 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Joint visit of heads of missions to Lenin, to protest violation of diplomatic immunities, and to demand liberty of Rumanian Minister and staff. 477
2238 Jan. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Detailed narration of arrest and release of Rumanian Minister, also of violation of Italian Embassy Attempt on life of Lenin. 478
[Page XLIX]2240 Jan. 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Press states U. S. Ambassador condoned arrest of Rumanian Minister. Quotes letter of former to latter refuting such charge. 480
1999 Jan. 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department approves Ambassador’s course resulting in release of Rumanian Minister. 481
2014 Jan. 23 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to confer with French colleague and report what steps practicable in view of reprisals against Rumanians in Russia. 481
2309 Jan. 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) As Rumanian Minister has been expelled from Russia, further protest appears useless. 482

CHAPTER X. THE SOVIET REPUBLIC

Informal Relations with Soviet Authorities—Questions of Recognition and Intervention—Attitude toward Diplomatic Officers of the Provisional Government—The German Advance into Russia

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
22 1918 Mar. 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reports arming of war prisoners at Irkutsk. Trotsky requests American officers as army inspectors and operating men and equipment for railroads. 483
Mar. 20 From the Chargé in China (tel.): from Ambassasador Francis Reports that he is functioning from Vologda, the only Allied Ambassador in Russia. Requests information as to movements of Japanese and Chinese troops. 484
280 Mar. 20 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) German advance in the south secures immense supplies. Practically no opposition; few Russians will fight under present regime. 484
279 Mar. 20 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) The Patriarch of Russia condemns peace treaty. American attitude will influence peasants. 485
27 Mar. 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviets organize army (Red Guard) and desire to aid world-wide social revolution. Soviets ask that the United States receive economic commission. 485
19 Mar. 23 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet leaders who have asked for military assistance suspected of acting on German orders to divert Entente efforts. 486
21 Mar. 23 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The United States is unable to extend direct aid to Russia but desires Ambassador to reflect U. S. good will. 487
38 Mar. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discussion of Sisson documents and organization of new Russian army; value of assistance to help the army turn against Germany. 487
[Page L] Mar. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) French, Italian, and Serbian missions arrive at Vologda. Press states the United States will resume commercial relations with Russia despite repudiation of debts. 488
303 Mar. 31 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Reports that Austrian prisoners join Red Guards; forced contributions close businesses; and railroads are demoralized. Estimates losses to Russia by peace treaty. 489
52 Apr. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) In case of evidence of German control of Russian army would advise immediate intervention by the Associated Governments. Serbian troops are leaving Russia. 490
1806 Apr. 2 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) The German advance into Russia and capture of Odessa. Russo-Rumanian agreement. Exchange of ratifications, Mar. 30, of Russo-German peace treaty. 491
41 Apr. 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to learn source of press statement that the United States agrees to resume commercial relations with Russia. 492
7128 Apr. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) The United States grants Russian Ambassador (of Provisional Government) full cable privileges. Inquires as to British attitude. 493
69 Apr. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Assistance of Allied military officers for new Russian army. Discussion of Japanese intervention. 493
9351 Apr. 4 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Great Britain no longer grants to old Russian Embassy privilege to telegraph in cipher. 494
48 Apr. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Ambassador to remain in Russia so long as he can reflect friendly purpose of the United States. 494
49 Apr. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions not to protest relative to repudiation of loans nor to promise military support. 494
7159 Apr. 6 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Inquires why British suppress code telegrams between Russian Embassy here and Russian Embassy in Paris. 495
315 Apr. 7 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Report of economic and political conditions; seizure of properties by Germans; hope for Allied intervention. 495
9388 Apr. 8 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Foreign Office will look into suppression of telegrams between Russians in Washington and Paris. 496
438 Apr. 15 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Anarchism: its growth under protection of Soviet government and attempt to check it. 497
100 Apr. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Conflict occurs between Soviet government and anarchists with arrest of latter. Ambassador recommends aid for railways. 497
[Page LI]101 Apr. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Transmits telegram on economic and political situation from chief of American Red Cross in Russia to Red Cross official, Paris. 499
407 Apr. 16 From the British Ambassador Plan for military assistance to Russia as urged by British representative at Moscow, together with preliminary guaranties. 499
367 Apr. 17 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) The German advance into Russia. Bolshevik press comments upon relations between Japan and the Allies. 501
9569 Apr. 18 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Discussion of suppression of telegrams between former Russian diplomatic officers. 502
388 Apr. 20 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Informal protests to authorities in matter of forced contributions and arrests of managers of American firms. 503
78 Apr. 23 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The head of the American Red Cross in Russia is requested to send certain messages through the Embassy or Consulate. 503
119 Apr. 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discussion of German advance and Japanese intervention. Bolshevik endeavor to create dissension between Japan and the United States. 504
421 Apr. 26 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Quotes portion of Lenin’s address in which he declares Soviet is dependent upon support of wage-earners in other countries. 504
126 Apr. 26 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Denial of knowledge of conference to promote better relations between Allies and Soviet government. 505

Arrival of German and Turkish Ambassadors in Russia—Soviet Request for Recall of the French Ambassador

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
431 1918 Apr. 27 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Transmits substance of letter of credence of German Ambassador Mirbach and reply thereto; also that of Turkish Ambassador. 505
434 Apr. 27 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Press comments on German power in Russia. German and Turkish military gains in Russia. 507
132 Apr. 29 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Public statement to refute false reports concerning U. S. policy in Russia. 508
439 Apr. 29 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Quotes radiogram to French Government by Foreign Commissar Chicherin, asking recall of French Ambassador. 509
440 Apr. 29 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Endeavors of Lenin to separate Japan and the United States and to isolate France by attack on French Ambassador. Argument against recognition. 510
[Page LII]99 1918 Apr. 30 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Alleged conference to promote better relations between Allies and Soviet government not known to Department. 511
134 Apr. 30 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Discussion of demand for recall of French Ambassador. Plans for maintaining U. S. Embassy in Russia. 511
453 May 1 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Lenin’s speech before Central Executive Committee respecting present aims of Soviet government. 512
451 May 1 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Quotes text of radiogram from Foreign Commissariat to Germany: Protest against advance upon Russian territory by German troops assisted by Ukrainians and Finns. 512
136 May 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet awaits recall of French Ambassador. Communication sent by Socialist-Revolutionist Party to French Socialists protesting against Soviet foreign policy. 513
452 May 1 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Germans buy controlling interests in Russian businesses, confiscate goods; yet have difficulty in obtaining grain from peasants. 514
139 May 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Crisis approaches in attitude of Soviet toward foreign missions. German invasion of Russian territory versus Allied intervention. 515
22 May 1 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the War Department (tel.) Approaching crisis between Allies and Russia owing to German pressure and loss of influence by United States. Recommends diplomatic representation in Moscow and Allied intervention. 516

Question of Intervention: Recommendation of the American Ambassador, May 2, 1918—Statements of American Policy—Interference with the Dispatch of Code Telegrams of Allied and American Representatives—Russo-German Controversies—Reports of Conditions; Speeches of Lenin—Activities of Anti-Bolshevik Parties—The Recall of Raymond Robins, Red Cross Representative

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
103 1918 May 2 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) No effective military support possible, but no objection to military attachés’ lending appropriate assistance. 517
460 May 2 From the Consul General at Moscow (tel.) Report of conditions near Vitebsk, Vyazma, Bryansk, and Petrograd. 518
140 May 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) States that the time for intervention has arrived and outlines German influence in Russia. 519
[Page LIII]23 May 3 From the Military Attaché in Russia to the War Department (tel.) Coded telegrams forbidden without approval of Foreign Commissariat. 522
146 May 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) His cipher messages to Department refused. 522
149 May 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Chicherin declares that stopping of cipher telegrams caused by misunderstanding. Japanese Chargé advocates Allied intervention. 523
22 May 7 To the Consul at Moscow (tel.): for Robins The recall of Raymond Robins, chief of American Red Cross in Russia. 523
108 May 8 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Statement of U. S. policy toward Russia, which will remain unaltered so long as Russia does not accept German domination. 524
115 May 9 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.): for Robins Recall of Raymond Robins, chief of American Red Cross in Russia, delayed for three weeks. 525
160 May 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Recommends preparations for intervention, referring to British opinion on intervention and German demands of Soviet that Allies evacuate Murman. 525
512 May 12 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Russo-German commissions provided for by Brest treaty begin work at Moscow. Press opposes German demands. Famine reported. 527
3871 May 12 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Report on Russian conditions and recommendation of Japanese intervention by head of French military mission. 528
520 May 15 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Lenin continues effort to embroil the United States and Japan. Soviet representative at Berlin quotes Germany’s promise to treat Russia as a neutral. 529
128 May 16 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Requests Ambassador’s comment on Military Attaché’s telegram advocating intervention and representation at Moscow. 529
173 May 16 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Departure from Russia of Raymond Robins, chief of American Red Cross. Unofficial advocacy of recognition by various Americans in Russia. 530
177 May 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Lenin in speech criticizes aims of warring countries and declares proletariat will rule world. 532
175 May 17 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Ambassador Mirbach’s statement to justify infringements of Brest Litovsk peace treaty. 533
[Page LIV]536 May 18 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Russo-German controversy relative to sinking of Russian fishing boats by German submarine. Provision for Soviet Ambassador at Berne. 534
181 May 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Central Cadet Committee refuses German support, although many Russians would accept it to rid country of Bolsheviks. Central Siberian Soviet is organized. 535
182 May 18 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Kerensky may go to England and America to ask Allied intervention. 536
185 May 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Endeavors to prepare way for Soviet request for Allied intervention. Policy would be aided by arrival of supplies and railway men. 536
186 May 21 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Although Russian people desire Allied intervention, formal request impossible. Urges cooperation with British and French in holding Murman. 537
194 May 23 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) German influence over Soviet government officials. Relations of Robins and Lenin. German attempt to dispossess Allies of Murman. 538
551 May 24 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Soviet government protests to Germany respecting aggressions and suggests commission to settle uncertainties arising under Brest Litovsk treaty. 539
199 May 24 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet request repeated for recall of French Ambassador. Russian Patriarch states views on Soviet. Mirbach offers German aid to conservative Russians. 540
549 May 24 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Socialist-Revolutionist Party in secret congress favors ending Bolshevik dictatorship and accepting Allied intervention. 540
552 May 24 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Germany would compel Soviet to force British and French troops out of Murman. Germany maintains right to submarine operations in Arctic Ocean. 541
202 May 25 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Statement of Secretary of State concerning U. S. policy in Russia given to press together with Ambassador’s statement on subject. 542
210 May 27 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) The return of Robins to Moscow would indicate U. S. support of Soviet government. Chicherin apologizes for interference with cipher telegrams. 543
213 May 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Military Attaché regrets having sent to Department message of diplomatic nature. Modus vivendi being established with Moscow. 544
[Page LV]215 May 28 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet government grants to U. S. Consul at Vladivostok privilege of sending code messages. Soviet endeavors to sow discord among Allies. 544
535 [?] May 28 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Mirbach aids group of moderates and reactionaries in effort to replace Bolsheviks and subserve German interests. 545
576 May 29 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Mirbach’s negotiations with Cadets and others to reestablish order under a civil director. Russian hope for Allied intervention. 545
577 May 29 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Exchange of prisoners between Russia and Germany. 546
231 May 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Sends his press statement on policy of U. S. Government in Russia regarding the Brest peace, Russian internal affairs, and aid given. 547
6230 May 31 From the Consul General at London Transmits pamphlet entitled, The Bolshevist Revolution: Its Rise and Meaning, by Litvinov. 547
3535 June 1 From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.) Archives of Russian Legation in Switzerland are sequestered by Swiss Government. Asks instructions regarding possible interview with Soviet representatives. 548
152 June 1 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Raymond Robins, American Red Cross representative in Russia, called home by Red Cross. 549
238 June 2 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Activities of Czechs disturb Soviet government, which sends troops to disarm them. Soviet government weak but faced by no organized opposition. 549
239 June 3 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Suggested instructions for Allied and American Ambassadors concerning recognition of duly elected government, should present regime collapse. 550
2030 June 4 To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.) Instructions to have no relations with Bolshevik representatives. 551

Temporary Return of the American Ambassador to Petrograd—Nomination of a Soviet Ambassador to the United States—Development of Russo-German Disputes—Attitude of Bolshevik and Anti-Bolshevik Elements toward German and Allied Intervention

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1 1918 June 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet government nominates Litvinov as plenipotentiary at Washington. 551
2 June 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Returning temporarily to Petrograd, finds city famine stricken. Railroad engineer reports it is impossible to operate railroads under Soviets. 552
[Page LVI]5 June 6 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Allied naval officers at Murman recommend recognition of Soviet government: dangers of such step. 552
612 June 7 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Press statements of continued military activity in Russia by Germans and of German attempts to force Allies from Murman coast. 553
616 June 8 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Lenin advocates seizing grain from “rich” peasants. German policy said to be creation of separate governments in Russia. 554
617 June 8 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Mirbach’s complaints of propaganda by Soviet government against Germany and Foreign Commissar’s reply. 555
8 Undated [Rec’d June 9] From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Report of lamentable conditions in Petrograd brought about by separate peace. 556
2262 June 10 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Conditions in Russia: food is scarce, workmen demand bread from peasants; freight traffic is clogged; workmen are leaving Bolshevik party. 558
4151 June 10 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) Requests reason for stopping cipher telegram from Russian Ambassador in France to Russian Ambassador at Washington. 559
258 June 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Statement of principles of combination for reerection of Russia, outlining limited monarchy. Reasons for intervention. Soviet order to Czechs to disband. 559
177 June 12 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) In the event Soviet regime falls, the United States will recognize a government representative of the people of Russia and chosen by them. 561
4530 June 13 To the Ambassador in France (tel.) No record of cipher telegram from Russian Ambassador in France said to have been stopped by U. S. censor. 561
181 June 13 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to make no reply for the present to nomination of Soviet ambassador to the United States. 562
192 June 18 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) U. S. naval commander took no part in recommending recognition of Soviet régime. 562
193 June 19 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions to grant visa to Kerensky if he applies for one. 562
249 June 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Political opinion in Petrograd. Formation of combination to save Russia with help of Allies or of Germany. 562
285 June 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Germans offer to overturn Bolshevik regime if combination group, who favor Allies, will make German alliance and compel Allies to leave Russia. 563
[Page LVII]286 June 19 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Reported that Soviet government has accepted proffered German aid against Czechs and that German army will occupy Moscow. 564
289 June 20 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Soviet government expects no reply to notes demanding that war vessels leave. German offer of assistance against Czechs refused. 564
663 June 22 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Renewed movement for cooperation with Germany. Rumors of German aid against Czecho-Slovaks. Soviet efforts to obtain grain from Ukraine. 565
668 June 25 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Soviet, under German threat, orders Black Sea Fleet to Sevastopol but some crews destroy ships rather than obey. 566
8459 June 27 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Kerensky’s visit to America inadvisable at present time. 567
June 29 From the Assistant Secretary of State to Mr. Miles of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs Tereshchenko and other prominent Russians, as well as Kerensky, propose to visit the United States. 567
July 2 From the Assistant Secretary of State to Mr. Miles of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs The Secretary of State believes it wiser for distinguished Russians not to visit the United States at present. 568
1117 July 4 From the Ambassador in Russia Soviet representative tries to learn whether the Allies and the United States will intervene. Ambassador encloses his statement of July 4 to the Russian people. 568
210 July 6 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Résumé of military and political information from various parts of Russia. 571

Assassination of the German Ambassador, July 6, 1918; Socialist-Revolutionist Revolt—Kerensky’s Proposed Visit to America

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
702 1918 July 6 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Assassination of Ambassador Mirbach. 572
July 7 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Assassination of Mirbach is result of anti-German outburst by left Socialist-Revolutionists, who seize Moscow. 572
July 9 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Socialist-Revolutionist Party admits responsibility for death of Mirbach. Bolsheviks suppress uprisings in Moscow and Petrograd. 573
710 July 12 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Negotiations at Kiev between Milyukov and German military party for establishment of constitutional monarchy to embrace Ukraine and Great Russia. 574
[Page LVIII]711 July 13 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Advocates intervention in Siberia to support Czecho–Slovaks and Siberian government, and to withhold Siberian grain from German use. 575
2676 July 16 To the Consul General at London Criticism of Litvinov’s pamphlet on Bolshevik revolution. Instructions to have no dealings with Bolshevik agents in Great Britain. 576
715 July 16 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Soviet refusal of German request for admission of soldiers to guard German Embassy at Moscow. 577
716 July 17 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Germans withdraw request for own guard for Embassy and accept Soviet guard. Anti-Bolshevik revolt ceases except at Yaroslavl. 577
941 Aug. 9 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Asking instructions in the case of Kerensky who has explained to Embassy his reasons for wishing to visit America. 578
968 Aug. 10 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) British Foreign Secretary believes that reception of Kerensky by officials of Allied Governments would displease many Russians. 579
745 Aug. 13 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Department believes that a visit from Kerensky at this time would be inadvisable. 580
Aug. 26 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Bolshevik territory tends toward absorption in German zone; American and Allied nationals should be evacuated. Reign of terror prevails in Moscow. 580
Sept. 5 From the Consul at Moscow Furnishes report on external relations of the Soviet republic made by the Foreign Commissar, Sept. 2, with comments. 581

CHAPTER XI. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIALIST FEDERATED SOVIET REPUBLIC

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
9 1918 Aug. 20 From the Consul at Moscow Forwards text of constitution of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, July 10, 1918. 587

CHAPTER XII. THE RUSSO-GERMAN SUPPLEMENTARY TREATIES, AUGUST 27, 1918

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
9969 1918 Sept. 27 From the Ambassador in Great Britain Forwards text of Russo-German supplementary treaties. 598
[Page LIX]

CHAPTER XIII. THE REMOVAL OF THE AMERICAN AND ALLIED EMBASSIES FROM VOLOGDA TO ARCHANGEL

[Page LX]
No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[328] 1918 July 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Quotes Foreign Commissar Chicherin’s note urging Allied representatives to remove to Moscow, and reply, declining. 618
707 July 11 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Foreign Commissariat professes to fear outbreak in Vologda and murder by Germans of an Allied ambassador. 619
708 July 12 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Allied chiefs of mission decide not to move to Moscow. British Ambassador urges immediate sending of Allied troops to Archangel. 620
21 [July 19?] From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Summary of situation of Allied missions after Soviet decision for their removal to Moscow. Assassination of the Tsar. 620
24 July 20 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Further account of attempted coercion of Diplomatic Corps for removal to Moscow. 621
336 July 22 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Diplomatic representatives will go to Archangel, as remaining in Vologda would subject them to treatment as hostages. 622
[Enclosure] July 22 From the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador (tel.) Urges the Ambassador to remove to Moscow, stating that to-morrow may be too late. 636
35 July 24 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Foreign Commissariat sets time limit for removal of Ambassadors from Vologda. Allied consuls in Moscow will remain as long as possible. 623
[Enclosure] July 24 From the American Ambassador to the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs (tel.) Departure from Vologda. 636
[Enclosure] Undated From the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador (tel.) Again urges the Ambassador to come to Moscow. 637
[Enclosure] [July 24] From the American Ambassador to the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs (tel.) Diplomatic Corps reiterates request for transportation to Archangel. 637
[Enclosure] July 24 From the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs to the American Vice Consul (tel.) Facilities furnished for departure of Diplomatic Corps from Vologda. 640
38 July 25 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Chicherin suggests that diplomatic relations be kept up through consuls and states that Soviet government protests invasion by Anglo-French troops and Allied support of Czecho-Slovaks. 623
104 July 31 To the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Owing to Soviet interference with cable, Department is without knowledge of removal of Embassy and relies upon judgment of Ambassador. 624
342 July 31 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Arrival at Murmansk and Kandalaksha of heads of missions. Anti-Bolshevik revolution planned at Archangel. 624
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 2] From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Intention to remain in Russia, at location to be determined later. 625
Aug. 3 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Department approves Ambassador’s decision to remain in Russia. 625
350 Aug. 4 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Detailed account of events leading up to departure of Diplomatic Corps from Vologda and arrival at Archangel, Murmansk, and Kandalaksha. 625
Aug. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Return from Kandalaksha to Archangel planned. Constitutional Assembly members proclaim new government of northern region. 629
354 Aug. 7 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Deceitful practices of Soviet representatives. Return of Diplomatic Corps to Archangel. 630
355 Aug. 9 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Diplomatic Corps reaches Archangel. General in command at Arcnangel holds Bolsheviks as hostages. 631
Aug. 15 From the Ambassador in Russia Forwards address to the Russian people by the American and Allied representatives and telegraphic correspondence between the Ambassador and the Foreign Commissar regarding departure of Diplomatic Corps from Vologda. 632

CHAPTER XIV. THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE AMERICAN AND ALLIED MILITARY MISSIONS, CONSULS, AND NATIONALS

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Enclosure] 1918 July 25 From the Consul at Moscow Soviet insistence upon removal of Diplomatic Corps to Moscow. 657
[Enclosure] July 29 From the American Consul at Moscow to the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Requests facilities for the departure from Moscow of members of the American and Allied military missions. 657
[Page LXI][Enclosure] July 29 From the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs to the American Consul at Moscow Advises against departure through Archangel, at present, of members of American military mission. 658
[Quoted in tel.] July 31 From the Consul at Moscow Discussion by the American and Allied representatives with the Foreign Commissar of Lenin’s declaration that a state of war exists between Russia and the Allies. 641
[Quoted in tel.] Aug. 2–3 From the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs to the American Consul at Moscow The Foreign Commissar declines to explain publicly Lenin’s nonpublic utterances regarding a state of war between Russia and the Allies. 642
[Quoted in tel.] Aug. 5 From the Consul at Moscow Reports that Foreign Commissar to-day declares that Allied persons of official character will not be molested, and that British and French citizens were arrested in Moscow as hostages following Allied attack on Archangel. 642
[Enclosure] Aug. 5 From the American Consul at Moscow to the Swedish Consul General Requests that, whenever it becomes necessary for the U. S. Consul to leave his post, the Swedish Consul General take over temporarily the protection of U. S. interests in the district of Moscow. 658
[Enclosure] Aug. 5 From the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs to the American Consul at Moscow Promises the Consul, if he remains, facilities for communicating with his Government. 659
[Quoted in tel.] Aug. 6 From the Consul at Moscow Reports that he can no longer exercise functions, after the violation on Aug. 5 of British and French Consulates General, and will transfer interests to Swedish Consul General. 643
[Enclosure] Aug. 6 From the American Consul at Moscow to the Swedish Consul General States that he is obliged to leave Moscow, the U. S. Consulate General being no longer secure from violation since the violation of the British and French Consulates General. 658
[Quoted in tel.] Aug. 9 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Japanese Consul General able to leave; British and French exposed to reprisals; U. S. Consul remaining to assist associates. 645
2629 Aug. 12 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Transmits reports from Consul Poole at Moscow regarding withdrawal from Moscow of American and Allied consuls, military missions, and nationals; and Chicherin’s note on subject. 641
[Page LXII]2643 Aug. 13 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Soviet demands guaranty that members of military missions will not take part in any act hostile to Soviet; Italians refuse. 644
2652 Aug. 16 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Transmits telegram of Aug. 9 from the Consul at Moscow. 644
2660 Aug. 16 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Difficulties of American and Allied consuls and nationals in securing safe-conducts for departure from Russia. 645
10 Aug. 20 From the Consul at Moscow Detention in Moscow of Allied and American consular corps and military missions. Enclosures: Communications with the Foreign Commissar thereon, and with the Swedish Consul General intrusting U. S. interests in Moscow to him. 646
2734 Aug. 29 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Reports substance of telegrams from Consulate General at Moscow relative to free passage from Russia, through Finland, of American and Allied nationals. 660
2711 Aug. 30 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Bolshevik decree ordering arrest of subjects of Associated Governments. 661
2744 Aug. 30 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Arrangements made by Swedish Minister with Finnish Government for passage through Finland of Allied consulates, missions, and nationals. 662
1 Sept. 3 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Netherland Minister in Russia and U. S. Consul at Moscow protest against lawless course of Soviet government in detention of Allied representatives and nationals. 662
2770 Sept. 3 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Passage through Finland for Sweden of U. S., Italian, and Belgian consulates, military missions, and nationals. 663
1359 Sept. 5 From the Chargé in Sweden Forwards protest of neutral Ministers in charge of Allied interests in Russia against new demands of Soviet government relative to free departure of Allied representatives. 663
986 Sept, 6 From the British Chargé Presents copy of British protest to Soviet against attack on British Embassy and murder of attaché and of appeal to neutrals to denounce Soviet officials as outlaws. 665
1089 Sept. 7 To the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Appreciation of Swedish assistance to U. S. Consulate General and American citizens in the interim before Norway will take over U. S. interests. 666
5 Sept. 9 From the Consul at Moscow. (tel.) Asylum for French and British representatives in U. S. Consulate General (division of Norwegian Legation). Imprisonment of British agent Lockhart. Massacre of Russians by Soviet government. 667
[Page LXIII]2837 Sept. 13 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Swedish Consul General at Moscow reports that Soviet government permits Italian subjects to leave but detains British and French men of military age. 668
2840 Sept. 13 From the Second Secretary of Embassy in Russia (tel.) Report of events at Vologda after departure of Ambassador. Uprising at Yaroslavl. 669
2845 Sept. 14 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Report from Moscow of the number of persons in the American, French, English, and Italian colonies and the number imprisoned. 670
5623 Sept. 14 To the Ambassador in France (tel.): for Consul Poole Instructions for immediate departure from Moscow with any remaining Americans. 671
6 Sept. 15 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Attempts to arrange departure of French and British representatives and U. S. nationals. 671
[1145] Sept. 16 From the Consul General at Christiania (tel.) It is reported from Moscow that Red Guards demand that U. S. Consulate General (division of Norwegian Legation) surrender to them French and British subjects. 672
1581 Sept. 24 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Requests copy of report by Netherland Minister in Russia regarding conditions in Petrograd. 673
9 Sept. 25 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Imprisonment at Tsaritsyn of U. S. Vice Consuls, and arrest at Moscow of Y. M. C. A. official. Departure from Russia of Consul at Moscow. 673
Sept. 28 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Attempt to accelerate through Norwegian Government departure of Americans from Russia. 673
[Enclosure] Oct. 1 From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador Transmits copy of report by the Netherland Minister in Russia on conditions in Petrograd: violation of British Embassy and arrest of British and French subjects. 674
10008 Oct. 5 From the Chargé in Great Britain Transmits note of Oct. 1 from the Foreign Office. 674
1216 Oct. 7 From the Chargé in Norway (tel.) Report through Petrograd of safe departure of British and French citizens from U. S. Consulate General (division of Norwegian Legation). 679
2737 Oct. 12 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.): from White-house Arrival in Stockholm from Moscow of members of American and Allied consular and military staffs; continued imprisonment of other Allied nationals. 679
[Page LXIV]

CHAPTER XV. THE TERROR

Protest of the United States; Attitude of Allied and Neutral Governments—Protests of Neutral Governments and of the Chief of the American Red Cross Commission: Answers of the Soviet Government—Efforts for the Release of Hostages and for Restriction of the Practice of Taking Them

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
[Enclosure] 1918 Sept. 2 From the American Consul at Moscow to the Netherland Minister Efforts for release of women and children taken as hostages at Ufa. 680
Sept. 2 From the Consul at Moscow Forwards copy of his letter of Sept. 2 to the Netherland Minister. 680
2 Sept. 3 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Campaign of terror is conducted by the Extraordinary Commission against Counter-Revolution. Suggests joint protest by all governments or a military advance. 681
[Enclosure] Sept. 4 From the American Consul at Moscow to the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Effort to restrain Bolsheviks in their campaign of terror. 683
Sept. 4 From the Consul at Moscow Forwards copy of his note of Sept. 4 to the Foreign Commissar. 682
4 Sept. 5 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) The Commissar of Home Affairs urges Soviets to greater deeds of violence against those who oppose Soviet rule. 684
[Quoted in tel.] Sept. 6 and 10 From the Consul General at Irkutsk to the Vice Consul at Samara (tel.) Release of women and children held as hostages. 720
5 Sept. 9 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Massacre of Russian citizens by Bolshevik government continues; many shot in retaliation for attempt to kill Lenin. 685
7 Sept. 15 From the Consul at Moscow (tel.) Terrorism in Petrograd and Kronstadt. Efforts of Red Cross. Imprisonment of Allied nationals, including Czecho-Slovaks. 686
Sept. 20 To all American diplomatic missions (tel.) In view of campaign of mass terror, Department inquires if each government will register its abhorrence of crimes against civilization committed by Soviets. 687
Sept. 21 To the British Chargé Transmits text of circular telegram protesting against terrorism in Russia and expresses condemnation of violation of British Embassy, murder of attaché, and arrest of British representatives and subjects. 688
Sept. 21 To the French Ambassador Transmits, with comments, text of circular telegram protesting against campaign of terror in Russia. 689
[Page LXV]158 Sept. 21 From the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) British Consul, referring to murder of naval attaché at Petrograd and arrest of nationals, proposes Bolshevik leaders in Maritime Province be held as hostages and requests concurrence. 690
2876 Sept. 21 From the Second Secretary of Embassy in Russia (tel.) Reports of slaughter of citizens by Soviet; Italian Consul General’s account. Arrest of British and French representatives. 691
Sept. 23 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs discusses U. S. protest against Russian mass terror, and British proposals of retaliation for murder of attaché. 692
Sept. 24 To the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Only means to check mass terror in Russia is set forth in Department’s circular telegram of Sept. 20. Instructions to repeat circular to Vladivostok. 692
Sept. 24 To the Consul at Vladivostok (tel.) Instructions not to concur in British proposal to take hostages but to await Department’s circular telegram of Sept. 20. 693
5182 Sept. 24 From the Ambassador in France (tel.) France will join in common declaration to Russia. Previously, by radio, France had declared Bolshevik government responsible for atrocities. 693
[Enclosure] Sept. 24 The Swiss Political Department to the American Legation Switzerland, through its Minister, has already signed protest against the reign of terror in Russia. Enclosure: protest of neutrals and German Consul General to Soviet government. 697
Sept. 25 From the Chargé in Siam (tel.) Siam will, in principle, join in protest against destruction of life and liberty in Russia. 693
Sept. 25 To the Minister in Switzerland (tel.) Instructions to send copy of circular telegram of Sept. 20 for presentation to Bulgarian Government. 694
2898 Sept. 25 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) Sweden accords with sentiments of U. S. protest against mass terror; its Minister at Petrograd has joined colleagues in note rebuking barbarity of Soviets. 694
2830 Sept. 26 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Denmark agrees with sentiments of U. S. protest against mass terror but fears that it might change Bolshevik attitude toward neutrals. 695
Sept. 26 From the Minister in Haiti (tel.) Haiti disposed to impress upon Soviet officials the reprobation which their crimes inspire in any civilized people. 695
2913 Sept. 27 From the Chargé in Sweden (tel.) The press reports recall of decree for mass terror, Moscow, Lenin and majority of committee agreeing thereto. 696
[Page LXVI]2054 Sept. 27 From the Ambassador in Italy (tel.) Italy adheres to U. S. protest against mass terror in Russia. 696
1180 Sept. 27 From the Chargé in Norway (tel.) Norway, through its Chargé at Petrograd, has protested to Soviet government against continuance of murders. 696
4667 Sept. 30 From the Minister in Switzerland Switzerland, through its Minister, has already signed the enclosed protest against the reign of terror in Russia. Subenclosure: protest of neutrals and German Consul General to Soviet government. 697
Sept. 30 From the Minister in Nicaragua (tel.) Nicaragua concurs in U. S. protest against mass terror in Russia. 698
Oct. 1 From the Minister in Peru (tel.) Transmits Foreign Office reply: Peru agrees to U. S. protest against mass terror in Russia and would deny asylum to those responsible for it. 698
2399 Oct. 2 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Great Britain agrees in principle with U. S. protest against mass terror in Russia but considers declaration inadvisable until Allied nationals in Russia are out of danger. 699
1570 Oct. 2 From the Chargé in Mexico (tel.) Mexico will consider what attitude it should adopt when its own agents have reported on mass terror in Russia. 699
Oct. 2 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.) Japan will gladly join in U. S. protest against mass terror in Russia. 700
17 Oct. 2 From the Minister in Persia (tel.) The Persian Chargé in Moscow will be instructed regarding protest against mass terror in Russia. 700
Oct. 2 From the Minister in the Dominican Republic (tel.) Quotes Dominican Republic’s reply protesting against terrorism in Russia. 700
Oct. 3 Memorandum by the Third Assistant Secretary of State The Chinese Minister states his Government desires to join the United States in any protests against mass terror in Russia. 701
Oct. 3 From the Swedish Minister Transmits telegrams from Foreign Commissar to Swedish Minister in Russia, threatening reprisals for alleged atrocities against men, women, and children by Czechoslovaks in Samara and Ufa. 701
Oct. 3 From the Minister in Paraguay (tel.) Paraguay disapproves the terrorism practised in Russia. 702
Oct. 4 From the Chargé in Salvador (tel.) Salvador will participate in protest against mass terror in Russia. 702
[Enclosure] Oct. 5 From the Netherland Minister of Foreign Affairs to the American Chargé The Netherland Minister in Russia has already protested against acts of terrorism. 704
[Page LXVII][Enclosure] Oct. 5 From the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the American Legation Sweden has already joined in protest to Soviet government against terrorism. Enclosure: note from Soviet Foreign Commissar to neutral representatives, declaring their note of Sept. 5 to be interference in internal affairs of Russia. 705
2876 Oct. 7 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Danish Foreign Minister suggests that the Allies and the United States associate themselves with protests already made to Soviet government against terror and against violation of British Embassy. 703
2034 Oct. 8 From the Chargé in the Netherlands Transmits note of Oct. 5 from the Netherland Foreign Minister. 703
Oct. 8 From the Minister in Guatemala (tel.) Guatemala protests against reign of terror in Russia. 704
1428 Oct. 9 From the Chargé in Sweden Transmits statement of Oct. 5 from the Swedish Foreign Minister. 705
Oct. 9 From the Minister in Cuba (tel.) Cuba disposed to show aversion toward reign of terror in Russia; inquires as to form of protest suggested. 708
Oct. 9 From the Minister in Venezuela (tel.) Venezuela applauds U. S. sentiment in offering to alleviate the sufferings of the Russian people. 708
Oct. 11 From the Minister in Ecuador (tel.) Ecuador will cooperate with the United States and other republics of America in protesting against outrages in Russia. 709
579 Oct. 11 From the Chargé in Greece (tel.) Greece will join in protest against Russian terrorism. 709
Oct. 15 From the Honduran Minister Honduras, deploring the terrorism in Russia, adheres to U. S. protest. 709
143 Oct. 15 From the Minister in Belgium (tel.) Belgium is willing to join in protest against Russian terrorism, if the United States judges it opportune. 710
Oct. 17 From the Special Agent in Serbia (tel.) Serbia is ready to join the United States in expression of aversion to terrorism in Russia. 710
Oct. 17 From the Chargé in Argentina (tel.) Argentina, in accord with the United States, condemns terrorism in Russia. 711
Oct. 18 From the Minister in Panama (tel.) National Assembly of Panama expresses disapproval of terrorism in Russia and will join the United States in protest. 711
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 22] From the Consul at Moscow Forwards copy of protest from the chief of the American Red Cross Commission in Russia to the Foreign Commissar against extreme measures of class terror adopted by Soviet government. 685
[Page LXVIII]2986 Oct. 22 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.) Since majority of Allied subjects now released from Russia, British Government will join the United States in protest against terrorism. 712
[Enclosure] Oct. 26 From the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the American Legation Bulgaria will join the United States in expressing disapproval of reign of terror in Russia. 717
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 28] From the Consul at Irkutsk (tel.) Efforts for the release of hostages, including women, in Samara and Ufa. 712
535 Nov. 1 From the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Supreme government at Archangel is convinced that all nations will unite in support of U. S. protest against terrorism. 713
Nov. 1 From the Chargé in Great Britain Transmits note of Foreign Commissar to chief of American Red Cross: counter-protest against alleged atrocities committed by anti-Bolshevik forces. 713
2039 Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in Spain (tel.) Quotes Foreign Office note: Spain, through its Chargé in Petrograd, has already protested against acts of violence in Russia. 715
622 Nov. 5 From the Minister in Portugal (tel.) Portugal approves protest against acts of terrorism in Russia. 716
Nov. 7 From the Consul General at Sofia Transmits note of Oct. 26 from the Bulgarian Foreign Minister. 716
1887 Nov. 22 From the Colombian Minister Colombia is willing to join in any statement denouncing terrorism in Russia. 717
3178 Nov. 23 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Denmark desires opinion of the United States regarding advisability of withdrawal of its representatives from Petrograd and Moscow. 718
1242 Nov. 30 To the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Not disposed to influence Denmark with regard to continuing its representatives in Soviet Russia. 719
Dec. 9 To the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes telegram of Nov. 9 from chief of American Red Cross in Russia, commending efforts to procure release of hostages, especially women. 719
272 Dec. 31 From the Consul General at Irkutsk (tel.) Quotes his instructions to Vice Consul at Samara regarding release of women and children held as hostages. 720
[Page LXIX]

CHAPTER XVI. BOLSHEVIK PROPAGANDA

Efforts to Counteract It and Check Its Distribution Through Scandinavian Countries—Withdrawal of Swedish and Danish Diplomatic Officers from Russia

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
460 1918 Jan. 10 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Agent of Bolshevik Party declares intention to spread its doctrines in Scandinavia, England, and the United States. 722
205 Jan. 14 To the Minister in Norway (tel.) Report that Bolshevik government has sent money to Stockholm to use for propaganda in England and the United States. 722
71 Jan. 16 From the British Embassy Inquires what action the United States would propose toward Bolshevik propaganda sent sealed into a country to Bolshevik government’s representative. 722
2045 Feb. 5 To the Ambassador in Russia (tel.) Instructions, to be repeated to consuls, for issuance or refusal of visas. 723
1473 Feb. 11 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Arrival of Bolsheviks in Stockholm to spread propaganda in Sweden, England, and France; supply of funds. 724
6790 Mar. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Instructions not to visa certain passports from Russia to the United States without directions from the Department. 725
2932 Oct. 13 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Bolshevik literature sent to England and France for distribution. 725
2648 Nov. 6 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.) Instructions to report measures taken by England and France to counteract Bolshevik influence. 726
1337 Nov. 13 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Suggestion that neutral governments be invited to break off diplomatic relations with Soviet regime and to control their banking and propaganda. 726
3859 Nov. 20 From the Chargé in Great Britain (tel.) Measures adopted to check spread of Bolshevik propaganda in Great Britain. 727
1383 Nov. 26 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish representatives meet to discuss policy in regard to Bolshevism. 728
1382 Nov. 26 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Great Britain, France, and Italy advise Norway to take steps to prevent spread of Bolshevism. 728
3233 Nov. 27 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Report that Bolshevik agents, under false Swedish passports, will be sent to Holland and Switzerland and possibly to France, Belgium, and occupied territory. 729
1331 Dec. 2 To the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Instructions to repeat to London and Paris, for Colonel House, telegram No. 3233 and all similar reports about Bolshevik activities. 729
3281 Dec. 5 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Withdrawal from Russia of Swedish and Danish diplomatic officers. 730
[Page LXX]3300 Dec. 9 From the Minister in Sweden (tel.) Order for return to Sweden of Swedes in Russia and for withdrawal of diplomatic privileges from Soviet representatives in Sweden. 730
1451 Dec. 14 From the Minister in Norway (tel.) Departure of Norwegian Legation from Russia expected; protest of Norwegian Bolsheviks. 731
3341 Dec. 23 From the Chargé in Denmark (tel.) Discussion of food scarcity in Russia and recommendation for intervention. Effort to spread communistic propaganda in many countries. 731