Mr. Delaplaine to Mr. Evarts.
Vienna, July 5, 1879. (Received July 23.)
Sir: Chevalier von Marx, the president of the police in Vienna, has published a statistical statement of various matters which have come under the observation and control of his department, and his report furnishes valuable facts relative to the sphere of operation of the police, as well as interesting items of information in regard to life in Vienna generally.
The efforts of the police and the results toward prevention of crime and in effecting the detection and arrest of offenders are communicated; also facts in regard to its surveillance in matters of the press, of theatrical and other amusements, of unions and political associations; further, the president of the police presents, under an array of figures, a full view of its action with reference to intervention in numberless occurrences of daily life, to its judicial mediation in harmoniously settling differences and disputes which is constantly claimed by the Vienna population in their private affairs.
The figures and items submitted necessarily exhibit representations of much social misery and distress, which are unfortunately peculiar to all large cities. It is to be regretted that figures and items showing comparison with those of other large cities in Europe do not appear, inasmuch as I believe that similar statements are published in London and Paris, but not in other cities of Europe.
The figures will be presented in the order contained in the report.
The police statistical statement declares, with regard to the number of inhabitants in this capital, that the population has increased through births 41,113, by those who have moved into Vienna 167,389 persons, while it has diminished through deaths 31,888 persons, through removals from the city of 162,851 persons, so that an increase of 13,763 persons has ensued, the result being an augmentation of only 1.3 per cent. This is below the average augmentation usually received of 2 per cent.
The changes of residence by tenants and subtenants are exhibited by the official notifications of entry and removal filed in the special bureau for that purpose. There have been filed in the year 1877 notifications of 804,435 persons entering, and of 684,999 persons removing from their residences. In these notifications there were 1,839 persons, whose presence was ascertained by the police by means of a published warrant of seizure, or specially indicated by official communications. The number of transient visitors, being strangers in Vienna, was not larger in the year 1877 than in preceding year, and less than in the year 1875. It amounted in 1877 to 146,748, in the year 1876 to 146,054, in the year 1875 to 155,957 persons.[Page 75]
The highest figure in number of visitors is shown in the month of August, being 16,499. Why Vienna, that offers to strangers so many attractions and so many objects of interest, should receive so few visitors may be discussed another time, it is stated, in a further report.
Coming now to the returns relative to the action of the police in reference to the press, it is shown that there have been submitted to examination of the division of censure and approved 536 theatrical plays, 13 petitions for theatrical licenses, 1,192 texts of songs for public productions, 1,399 texts for amateur performances.
There have taken place 8 confiscations as being criminal, 47 for violation of ordinances, 20 for grossness; further, 3 for piracy of authorship, 4 on account of slander, as alleged in private complaint.
The statement relative to unions shows that there exists in Vienna 1,395 unions or societies of all classes; of these are 382 charitable, 52 religious, 43 political, and 277 unions having only social amusement as their object. The political unions include 14,161 members. If it were known whether these members are also electors, then the fact might be affirmed that half of the electors entertain a vivid interest in union or club life. But there is naturally no proof of electoral qualification being required from a member of the unions; and as the unions develop far too little energy or activity to allow any of them to attain influence or importance, 91 new unions have been formed, 51 have been voluntarily dissolved, 5 have been dissolved compulsorily; 3,386 assemblies of unions and 323 popular assemblies have taken place.
The figures appear uncommonly great, and find explanation only in this, that also the workingmen’s assemblies in reading-rooms are included.
The bureau for unions was obliged to exercise in 52 cases the judicial functions for preserving peace and order. Among so many unions there have been but very few conflicts.
In the passport bureau there were issued 215 passports for the interior; 2,550 passports for abroad; 308 cards of legitimation; 145 pass-books for female servants; and 950 workingmen’s books. The exercise of the system regulating affairs of female servants has given the police much to do. There have been 151,523 notices of entry into service, and 132,581 notices of departure from service; 8,329 issues of books for female servants; 130,000 confirmations of certificates of conduct; further, 6,532 complaints against female servants; 13,085 complaints against employers. The specific returns show that the greater number of complaints have been presented from the second district. Besides these complaints by female servants, the returns of crimes and misdemeanors committed by female servants, as also the applications for premiums of reward, furnish material for judging the qualities of female servants in Vienna. Three hundred and eighty-three female servants have, during their time of service, been guilty of the crime of theft; 147 have committed burglary; 298 have committed other larcenies; 29 embezzlement; 47 fraud. Against 892 female servants complaints were lodged for theft; 5,966 for transgressing the police regulations; 1,173 female servants out of employment were expelled from Vienna, and sent to their places of nativity. For the premiums of award designated for servants, 255 persons have made applications, for whom 207 were found to be qualified, of which number 20 persons have received premiums to the amount of 2,575 florins. Among these applicants one has produced evidence of a term of service of 61 years; 15 of 38 years; 11 of 37 years; 11 of 33 years; 1 applicant served 51 years, without interruption, in the same family; [Page 76] 1, 47 years; 1, 46 years; 3, 42 years; 13, 31 years; 16, 27 years; 20, 24 years, &c.
The, public hackney coaches have likewise engaged the active attention of the police. A matter of general interest is the fact that the number of licenses have decreased. There were for hire 1,008 two-horse hackney carriages; 1,333 one-horse hackney carriages or cabs; 794 omnibuses; 117 livery-stable carriages; 12 country carriages; 6 hotel omnibuses; 182 vehicles from the city limits; 500 tramway carriages; 60 carriages of tramways lying outside the city limits; and 2 sedan carriers. With the tramways were conveyed 18,788,348 persons, being 89,224 more than in the year 1876. With the new tramway were conveyed 1,284,744 persons, being 108,260 less than in the last year.
Not less than 5,910 complaints were reported for misbehavior, of every class, against hackney coachmen and cabmen, and against 2,474 omnibus owners and their drivers. These complaints resulted, that 924 have been punished with warnings, 1,059 with imprisonment, and 1,510 by fines.
The police report further cites specifically what Vienna offers in the way of public amusements.
There have taken place in the theaters 2,269 performances; in the dramatical schools, 241; by amateur performers, 223; by foreign dramatical societies, 45. There have been delivered 28 lectures, 1,097 concert have been given, 417 evening performances by clubs or unions have taken place; further, 4 balloon ascents, 1 exhibition in gymnastics, 1,235 performances in localities for amusement of the class of the Orphenm Hall, 1,834 performances in saloons of vocal music, 11,868 productions of popular singers, 100 performances in the circus Renz, 1,297 performances by gymnasts, 251 performances by necromancers or jugglers; to which still are to be added 39 grand balls, 86 charity balls, 171 masked balls, 37 fancy balls (or costume), 746 ordinary balls, 4 festival entertainments commemorating the foundation of benevolent institutions, 292 smaller dancing assemblies, and 10,561 dancing entertainments. It is hereby to be remarked that the number of masquerade balls, in comparison with the year 1876, has diminished by 76; the ordinary balls by 191; which might be accounted for as an evidence of advanced good taste had there not been at the same time an increase of 1,180 common dancing entertainments.
The police report enumerates yet further in summary manner the horse races, chip races, trotting matches, skating festivals on the ice, also eight pigeon-shooting matches, besides other daily amusements.
From all this it is manifest that there is in Vienna no want of mirthful enjoyments, and that amusements have not decreased.
To the poor fund 20,049 florins were paid over, resulting from the licenses granted for these entertainments, and this is one of the bright sides of these amusements.
In the section relative to railroads the president of the police reports respecting the passenger traffic of strangers to and from Vienna, and we learn from this report that there have arrived at the Southern Railroad station 1,293,926 persons, while 910,788 persons departed, and at Meidling 368,608 persons arrived; at the Northern Railroad station 658,702 persons arrived, while 572,872 departed; at the Western Railroad station 643,851 persons arrived, while 679,780 departed; at the Staatsbahn station 316,445 persons arrived, and 271,476 departed; at the Francis Joseph Railroad station 399,559 persons arrived, while 393,887 departed; at the Northwestern Railroad station 378,736 persons arrived, while 400,841 departed.[Page 77]
The aggregate passenger traffic amounted to 8,165,922 persons, being 249,473 more than in the preceding year.
The total bulk of freight transported amounted at the Northern Railroad station and at Florisdorf to 1,702,201,300 kilogrammes; at the Southern Railroad station and at Matzleinsdorf and Meidling to 625,969,200 kilogrammes; at the Western Railroad station and Penzing, 1,035,046,460 kilogrammes; at the Northwestern Railroad station and at Iedlersee, 262,481,900 kilogrammes; at the Staatsbahn station, 59,465,800 kilogrammes; at the Francis Joseph Railroad station and at Nussdorf, 176,689,390 kilogrammes.
In the local traffic of steamers there were conveyed 117,899 passengers, and 292,115,487 kilogrammes of freight. The bulk of the freight carried was greater by 9,000,000 kilogrammes than in the year 1876.
To the report on the subject of traffic is naturally joined the report of the accidents which occurred by reason of the traffic. The number of disasters by vehicles of all sorts amounted to 1,368, resulting in the death of 12 persons, 73 cases of severe and slight injury.
The number of accidents has increased by more than 200 in comparison with those which occurred in the years 1875 and 1876.
Coming to that part of the report of the police president which has reference to the dark side of life in a great city, in the year 1877 there have been committed 329 suicides and 265 attempts of suicide. The activity of the police on such occasions deserves to be acknowledged, which has in 185 attempted suicides resulted in effecting successfully the restoration of the unfortunates. The manner of death mostly selected by the suicide was by hanging; namely, in 192 instances; then in 146 instances by drowning, in 89 instances by poisoning, and in 85 by shooting. Among the suicides were 5 children, 105 minors under age; 392 were of Catholic, 25 of Israelite, 9 of Protestant, and 1 of Greek confession; of 167 the religious confession was unknown. Extreme poverty was in 148 cases the cause of suicide, in 43 cases family discord and unfortunate love, in 168 cases insanity.
In the most ample manner are reported crimes committed, misdemeanors, and transgressions of law, and hereby is not only the qualification of the violation of law stated, but also the personal record of the culprit and the disposition made of same, the action of the commissariat and police bureau, as also of the official organs, relative to the pursuit and capture of malefactors of every class.
The number of all sorts of crimes amounted in the aggregate to 5,770, in which 4,988 perpetrators who participated were detected by the authorities; 542 perpetrators have remained undiscovered.
The statistics of crimes show that chiefly thefts are committed. The number of the same far exceeds 3,000; then frauds occur more frequently, and, namely, 689 cases of embezzlement, 269 of public outrages, whether by forcible opposition to official organs, dangerous threats, &c.; in 600 cases of other crimes, occur more frequently those against morality, and this in 110 cases. The number of murders, with the intent of robbery, amounted to 8, those of murder to 14, those of robbery to 17. The number of misdemeanors and transgressions of law amounted to 28,217. Of the offenders 27,184 have been discovered, and only 2,237 have remained undiscovered. Not only in proportion to the size of single districts, but also in accordance with their special peculiarities, have the number of violations of law varied. In the inner city, although it in the number of population and in space belongs to the smaller districts, still the greatest number of crimes and offenses were committed, namely, 4,231. Then follows the largest district of the city of Vienna, the Leopoldstadt, [Page 78] with 3,771, and the district outside the suburb, named Ottakriug, with 3,721; Sechshaus, with 2,957, and Währing, with 2,641. Among the districts of Vienna, Neuban, being 911, shows the least number of violations of law. The special returns relative to invasions of private property exhibit the commission of 14,292 punishable acts of this sort.
The damage amounted to 668,147 florins, of which 191,394 florins have been recovered.
Among, the criminals were 3,923 males, 1,065 females, 55 young children: 1,731 minors, 3,202 persons of full age. A higher school education had been received by 114, while 2,146 belonged to the mechanic class; 992 were female servants, 907 day laborers; 14 soldiers. In regard to their place of birth, 1,665 were of Vienna and of the vicinity, 1,036 from Bohemia, 629 from Moravia, 683 from Lower Austria, 417 from Hungary; 199 were aliens.
The number of persons who have been arrested and against whom complaints have been made on account of transgression of police regulations, sanitary and traffic ordinances, amounted to about 80,000. Among these, however, the majority of cases are quite insignificant, and the number is stated only as evidence of the activity and energy of the police in general.
Also mendicity and public begging belongs to the dark side of a great city, and the police has so much to do with the same; and its attention is more claimed, the more pauperism is not regulated. The community in Vienna does very much for the support of the poor; likewise is the population ready to contribute generously towards the alleviation of want; but the work of aid is not systematically conducted, and speculation upon the notorious feelings of benevolence of the Viennese promotes mendicity and begging. The police have arrested 11,801 beggars; and, farther, 6,000 persons who were without residence or home.
The aggregate number of persons arrested amounted to 91,692, of whom 28,908 were Viennese, 60,204 strangers, and 2,538 aliens.
The declarations of objects lost and found also belong to the characteristics of the life at Vienna. In the year 1877 there were declared to the police 4,320 objects lost, 2,171 found. There were deposited at the railroad station 2,490 objects found.
In conclusion may be mentioned the action of the police in the way of mediation and arbitration. It is known that the Viennese always with confidence apply to the police for counsel and advice. The Viennese may deprecate and dislike espionage, a tendency to denunciation, &c.; at the same time he is quite as willing and desirous to support the action of the police authority in maintaining order and security, since he applies in all private affairs to those reliable persons who are intrusted with that responsible and difficult office. This is clearly manifested by the returns relative to the exercise by the police department of its power of mediation and arbitration, since it appears that in 4,345 cases of matrimonial quarrels and in 9,520 extrajudicial cases of compromise the services of the police were claimed. It is scarcely necessary to mention that all the branches of the police agency and direction demand an enormous exertion of the force and ability of that department. The president’s report declares that the number of commissions, inspections, official reports, escorts, communications, &c., reaches far into the thousands, and that it must be especially mentioned that complaints against the action of the police have become so unusual, that even the occurrence of a single one creates surprise.[Page 79]
The police in Vienna has of late, by its skillful and resolute action, earned an excellent reputation; and, although not always successful, it has given frequent evidence of its ability and useful agency.
The compilation of the details of the report is elaborate, and is creditable to the courteous and energetic gentleman now presiding over the police department, in the administration of which, since he has occupied his present position, he has introduced many important improvements and reforms. I beg to submit the foregoing items, under the opinion that a comparison of the various returns enumerated with those of the large cities in the United States may probably be considered worthy of attention.
I have, &c., &c.,