List of papers, with their subjects.


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
1 Mr. Seward to the consular officers of the United States. 1879. Feb. 13 When shipping, packing, and other charges are not expressly specified in an invoice of imported goods, and such goods are not therein described as being free of charges, customs-officers are required to add all charges, for the purpose of ascertaining the dutiable value of the merchandise. Requirement of Treasury to this effect of October 4, 1878, to go into force April 1, 1879. Purport of instructions to be brought, by consular officers, to attention of manufacturers, owners, and shippers of goods to be imported into the United States. (See circulars of June 10 and July 9, 1879.) 1
2 do Mar. 8 Requiring that prices-current of goods to be exported from consular districts to the United States, shall be sent to appraising officers at ports in the United States to which invoices show that such goods are to be shipped. 2
3 Mr. Seward to consular officers in Europe. Apr. 3 Requiring that the annual report of consular officers in Europe, shall contain a table showing the humidity of each month of the year, at those places within their districts where meteorological observations are taken. 3
4 Mr. Evarts to the diplomatic officers of the United States. May 23 Requiring report as to amount of gold and silver coin and bullion, and paper currency in the treasury, in the banks, and in circulation; also, amount of gold and silver annually produced and coined. 3
5 do May 28 Directing the submission of an international system of fog signals, prepared by Commodore Beaumont, under orders of the Navy Department, for consideration and adoption by the nations. 4
6 Mr. Seward to the consular officers of the United States. June 10 Directing that a note of true market value be made upon invoices, when consul has reason to believe that an under-valuation is being attempted. (See circulars of February 13 and July 9, 1879.) 6
7 do June 10 Directing compliance with Treasury circular No. 82, of May 26, 1879, relating to the presentation to, and acceptance by, collectors of customs of landing certificates covering merchandise exported under internal-revenue laws. Form of certificates required as to fact of landing, from consignee and foreign revenue officer; form of oath of master and mate, or purser or other landing officer; form of consular authentication; and memorandum of evidence of landing when such certificates cannot be procured, or of loss at sea. 7
8 do June 24 Directing weekly reports as to the sanitary condition of consular districts, to be made by consular officers to the National Board of Health. 10
9 do July 9 Requiring that shipping and other charges in respect of goods to be exported to the United States shall be expressed in the invoice, unless such charges have been included in the price of the goods, when such fact shall be noted. (See circulars of February 13 and June 10, 1879.) 10
10 Mr. Evarts to the diplomatic officers of the United States in Europe. (A similar circular to the consular officers in Europe.) Aug. 9 Calling attention to the recent decision of the Supreme Court, sustaining the constitutionality of section 5352 of the Revised Statutes, defining the crime of bigamy and prescribing the punishment for the same; directing attention to the growth of Mormonism in Utah through recruitment from Europe; and ordering diplomatic officers to bring to the attention of the governments to which they are accredited the subject of the prevention of such emigration to the United States from Europe. 11
[Page XXX]


argentine republic.

[Page XXXI]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
1 Mr. Thomas O. Osborn to Mr. Evarts. 1878. Nov. 18 Reporting surrender, by Chilian authorities, of American bark Devonshire, to master, on December 2: Question of surrender complicated by unsettled relations between the Argentine Republic and Chili as to boundary; vessel seized by Chilian authorities in disputed waters; status of the question at issue between the two countries. (See dispatch of December 12, 1878; instruction, January 18, 1879, pages 14 and 15, and dispatch from Mr. T. A. Osborn (Chili). November 15, 1878, page, 147.) 13
2 do Dec. 12 Questions at issue between Argentine Republic and Chili temporarily settled: Provisional jurisdiction established in disputed territory; questions at issue to be submitted to arbitration; good effect of settlement of case of American bark Devonshire; report of negotiations in case. (See dispatch No. 227, from Mr. Osborn. Page 20.) 14
3 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Osborn 1879. Jan. 18 Gratification, to a certain extent, expressed at settlement of case of the Devonshire. Instructions given to urge upon Government of Argentine Republic the earnest hope of the United States that their disagreement with Chili may be honorably and peacefully accommodated. 15
4 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts Mar. 4 Banda Oriental light-dues question: Dues demanded by agent of Uruguay in Buenos Ayres; protest of American minister against such exaction upon American vessels; report of negotiations; American vessels to be dispatched without payment of dues; history of question. 16
5 do Mar. 25 Banda Oriental light-dues question: Vessels only required to pay light-dues for East Point and English Banks lights; no objection to such payment; regulations as to clearance of vessels from port of Buenos Ayres. 19
6 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Osborn Apr. 30 Course of minister in respect of Banda Oriental light-dues approved: American vessels entitled to same exemption as vessels of other nationalities. 19
7 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts May 3 Effect of the war between Chili and Bolivia and Peru upon the settlement of the boundary question between the former and the Argentine Republic: Popular feeling against Chili; doubt of ratification of treaty by Argentine Congress. 20
8 do May 8 Argentine Congress opened by President: Message read; growth of influence of national government commented upon; $2,066,000 of foreign debt and $694,000 of home debt paid during year; foreign debt amounts to $31,022,500, and home debt $21,567,000; national revenue amounted to $18,451,897; value of imports and exports $77,658,278; 35,876 immigrants arrived; postal receipts cover 95 per cent. of expenses; Chilian question discussed; case of the bark Devon shire referred to; peace with other nations assured. 21
9 do June 12 Convention signed between Chili and the Argentine Republic establishing the status quo for ten years: Argentine Government to have provisional jurisdiction over Patagonia up to eastern entrance of Strait of Magellan; Chili to maintain jurisdiction over portion now in her possession; Strait of Magellan neutral, and open to flags of all nations; public opinion divided as to convention. 23
10 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Osborn June 20 Expression of the hope that wise statesmanship will restrain within its original bounds the unhappy struggle now convulsing the South American people, and that the boundary question between the Argentine Republic and Chili may be amicably settled. 23
11 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts July 30 General Roca and Dr. Tejedor announced as presidential candidates at the October election; possible candidature of ex-President Sarmiento; his services to his, country recounted. 24
12 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts July 31 The status quo treaty with Chili rejected by Argentine Senate; Mr. Balmaceda leaves Buenos Ayres to become minister for foreign affairs at Santiago; new propositions for arbitration to be submitted by Argentine minister, Dr. Montes de Oca; popular sympathy with Bolivia and Peru in this war with Chili; president Avellaneda is averse to a war with Chili. (See dispatch June 12. 1879.) 25
13 do Aug. 29 Assassination of General Roca attempted; attack made upon the carriage containing the finance minister, Dr. Plaza; political feeling running high; the chief of the cabinet resigns; ex-President Sarmiento appointed to the post of minister of the interior. 25
14 do Sept. 4 Conflict between state and national authorities apprehended: State troops of Buenos Ayres ordered out by Governor Tejedor; decree produces depressing effect in business circles; circular from Senor Sarmiento, the premier, concerning the approaching presidential election, and counseling obedience to law and general acquiescence in the result. 27
15 do Sept. 8 Situation critical: Disagreement between the state and the national authorities intensifying; Senor Sarmiento’s note to Governor Tejedor denying his authority to call out the state troops; answer of governor; illy-defined relations of state and national authority; the national will in danger of being neutralized by the assertion of s tate sovereignty; message of President Avellaveda to congress; national troops ordered to Buenos Ayres; subject of disagreement fully discussed by Senors Sarmiento and Tejedor; draft of bill to regulate the calling out of the national guard. 28
16 do Sept. 20 Bill touching mobilization of national guard presented to congress by President Avellaneda, rejected by that body: Substitute passed prohibiting mobilization within eight months preceding a presidential election; state legislature of Buenos Ayres passed bill prohibiting governor from mobilizing national guard without its assent; governor unsupported except by his own party; his position thought to lead to secession. 34


[Page XXXII]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
17 Mr. Kasson to Mr. Evarts 1878. Oct. 27 Difficulty of forming ministry for Austria, due to dualism in the government of the empire: The ministry of the empire rests upon the “delegations” from Austria and Hungary, which are elected by the parliaments of those countries; the ministries of Austria and of Hungary are dependent upon majorities in their respective parliaments; the common ministry, or that of the empire, rests upon the support of the two parliaments, or of the ministries which control majorities in them; local questions complicated by national interests; foreign policy of Count Andrassy directed to territorial acquisitions to the southward toward the Mediterranean; objections to Bosnian occupation, and to expenses of such foreign policy. 35
18 do Oct. 29 Austrian paper florin originally redeemable in silver: Specie payments suspended in 1848; since 1848 paper florin not redeemable; silver florin not in circulation; trade transactions based upon values in paper; gold, not being legal standard, is dealt in as merchandise; 8-florin gold piece equivalent to 9 florins 40 kreutzers silver; no ratio fixed by law or treaty between gold and silver; under new Austro-Hungarian tariff law, after January 1, 1879, all duties must be paid in gold; such action necessitated by requirement of a reserve of gold to meet interest upon debt, and to equalize tariff dues under special commercial treaties (See Mr. Kasson’s dispatches of November 10, 1877, No. 24, and February 21, 1878, No. 46, at pages 19 and 30, Foreign Relations for 1878.) 36
19 Mr. Kasson to Mr. Evarts Nov. 12 Roumanian nationality recognized by Austria, Germany, Russia, and other governments, by sending ministers to Bucharest: minister also to be accredited to Servia. Jurisdiction of questions affecting American citizens in those countries assumed by Mr. Kasson. 38
20 do Nov. 20 Estimates for expenses of Bosnian occupation submitted to the delegations, amounting to $67,000,000: Losses in army of occupation in killed, wounded, and missing reported at 5,000 men. 38
21 do 1879. Jan. 3 Fluctuating values of silver and paper. Adoption of a common international unit of values recommended; the adoption by the treasury of the 8-florin gold piece as the standard of value for certification of money by consuls in Austria-Hungary thought to have been wise; the 8-florin gold piece of common value with the 20-franc and 20-lira gold pieces, and equal to 20 Spanish pesetas and 8 Dutch florins. (See Mr. Kasson’s dispatch No. 120 of October 29, 1878, page 36 of this volume, and his No. 53 of March 8, 1878, page 34, Foreign Relations, 1878.) 39
22 do Jan. 11 Rapidly increasing strength of the theory of protection, illustrated by the legislation of Austria, and by the tenor of negotiations for commercial treaties with nearly the whole of Enrope: New Austro-Hungarian tariff protective; special tariff treaties denounced; commercial treaties negotiated with Germany and with Italy, to go into effect January 1 and February 1, 1879, upon basis of equivalent concessions; the autonomic tariffs of Austria-Hungary and France regulate imports into the respective countries. (See Mr. Kasson’s dispatch No. 24 of November 10, 1877, and No. 51 of March 4, 1878, pages 19 and 32, Foreign Relations, 1878.) 40
23 do Jan. 17 Suspension of purchase of silver by Austro-Hungarian Bank (national): Apprehension excited on account of the fluctuating silver market; a determination of silver to Austria occasioned by the character of the standard; amount of silver held by German, government unknown; a like restrictive action against silver to that of Austria discovered in other countries of Europe. 41
24 do Jan. 29 Retaliatory character of French tariff indicated: Her policy to force nations to conclude commercial treaties upon her terms; duties advanced from 30 to 60 per cent. upon imports from Austria-Hungary upon determination of commercial treaty; to avoid this advance treaty negotiated upon “most favored native” basis; chaotic condition of public sentiment and action in Europe respecting tariffs and commercial treaties. The organization of a commission, under the presidency of the Secretary of the Treasury, to consider the effect of these and other changes, upon American interests, recommended by Mr. Kasson. 42
25 do Feb. 7 Resolute measures taken by Russia to prevent extension of plague: Sanitary precautions adapted by Austria, Hungary, Germany, Servia, and Roumania; certain articles of export from Russia prohibited admission to the Empire. 43
26 do Feb. 10 Austro-German commercial treaty of December 16, 1878: Liberal regulations for government of commerce between the two countries; Mr. Kasson suggests its examination in connection with trade relations between the United States and Canada, and Mexico. Text of treaty: Art. 1. Mutual traffic not to be interrupted by import, export, or transit prohibitions, except as to tobacco, salt, gunpowder, war materials under extraordinary circumstances, and for sanitary reasons. Art. 2. “Most favored nation clause.” (See Arts. 18 and 21.) Art. 3. Drawbacks allowed upon exports to extent of duties on internal taxes, but not to extent of bonuses. (See Arts. 9, 14, and 15.) Art. 4. No transit dues to [Page XXXIII] be collected. Art. 5. Goods under control of customs authorities, and unsold samples of commercial travelers, may be imported, and then exported without payment of duties, conditioned however, upon such payment when withdrawn for sale or consumption, or sold. Art. 6. Exemptions from import and export dues respecting products to be used in the preparation or finishing of goods to be re-exported. Art. 7. Pass or transit certificates regulations. Art. 8. Frontier custom-houses to be situated in same locality. Art. 9. Reciprocal regulations as to internal duties. Art. 10. Regulations in prevention of smuggling. (See art. 23.) Art. 11. Reciprocal admission of merchant vessels to ports, and to benefits of coast navigation; certificates of admeasurement of vessels to be mutually accepted. Art. 12. No duties to be collected upon vessels entering port in distress. Art. 13. Navigation of natural and artificial watercourses mutually opened. Art. 14. High roads and other ways of transport, &c., mutually opened to subjects of contracting parties. Art. 15. Reciprocity in rates of transport, and as to methods and vehicles of transport established; publication of railway tariffs required; currency of payment of rates. Art. 16. Rail connections between systems of two countries to be perfected. Art. 17. Protection of railway transport service; exemption of rolling stock from legal seizure in country of neighboring nation; disinfection of cattle-cars provided for. Art. 18. Transportation of goods in bond; goods may be transported in closed carriages through either country without customs examinations. Art. 19. Recriprocity as to trades and commercial pursuits, and equality of taxation accorded to subjects of either in territory of other nation. Art. 20. Reciprocal protection of trade-marks, patents, and samples or models, upon compliance with local regulations Art. 21. Appointment of consuls in respective countries. Art. 22. Consul of either to afford protection to subjects of other when called upon. Art. 23. Customs officials of either to be received for revenue purposes in customs-houses of other nation. Art. 24 Treaty extended to Liechtenstein, and conditionally to Luxemburg. Art. 26. Treaty to go into effect January 1, 1879. Art. 27. Ratifications, &c. 44
27 Mr. Kasson to Mr. Evarts Feb. 16 Roumania, through her minister at Vienna, expresses the wish to enter into diplomatic relations with the United States. Position of the Jews in Roumania discussed; they number 600,000, of whom less than one-tenth are native born. 49
28 do Feb. 18 Silver accumulating in Austro-Hungarian Bank: Disinclination of the people to accept it; effort to substitute 10,000,000 silver florins, for the one-florin paper notes in circulation. 50
29 do Mar. 10 Precautions respecting correspondence, taken by Austrian Government to exclude the plague: All correspondence from Russia to be fumigated at frontier; rules governing same. 50
30 do Mar. 11 Trade returns of empire for 1878: Imports, 579,547,828 florins, equal to $278,000,000; exports, 698,302,513 florins, equal to $335,000,000; balance in favor of Austria-Hungary about $57,000,000; increase of imports over 1877, 24,320,780 florins; increase of exports, 36,270,309 florins. 52
31 do Mar. 15

Report upon system of taxation upon railroads in Austria: Answer to series of questions prepared by Mr. Charles Francis Adams, jr.: I. Assimilation to system of taxation applied to individuals. II. All realty taxed. III. Not considered as having personalty except it be represented by franchise, income, or net earnings; these taxed as in case of individuals. IV. Franchise tax same as in case of individuals; tax insignificant in amount. V. Shares of stock taxed by stamp-tax, 1.25 florins for each 200 florins of nominal value; [Page XXXIV] priority bonds taxed in same way; the coupons of bonds or shares calling for 20 florins or less, taxed by 7 kreutzer (3½ cents) stamp; no annual tax on snares as such. VI. Definition of gross and net receipts; annual income tax of 5 per cent. on net receipts imposed; temporarily increased to 10 per cent.

The foregoing system applied to prosperous roads; special exceptions made by law. (See instruction to minister to Great Britain, dated February 18, 1879, calling for information as to railway taxation.)

32 Mr. Kasson to Mr. Evarts Mar. 20 Report upon the system of railway taxation in Hungary: I. Principle of taxation that transportation shall pay the taxes; i.e., that passengers and owners of goods transported, shall pay the taxes. II. Realty exempt from taxation. III. Personalty exempt from taxation. IV. No franchise tax. V. Shares not taxed. VI. No tax on gross or net receipts; principle of authorization of construction that the state shall ultimately acquire ownership of railway; concessions granted for 90 years; sinking fund for yearly purchase of shares provided; interest at rate of 5 per cent. guaranteed by Government of Hungary. As the government would, by imposing taxes on railway plant and property, virtually tax government interests, it collects its railways tax in the nature of a surcharge upon transportation rates. (See preceding: dispatch.) 54
33 do Mar. 22 Disaster at Szegedin, in Hungary, by flood: Estimated loss 6,000,000 florin, or’about $3,000,000; details of the disaster. 57
34 do Mar. 31 Statistics as to Roumania: Strength of the army; debt, 500,000,000 francs; receipts of treasury, 93,372,000 francs; disbursements about same sum; yearly deficits for 1875, 1877, and 1878; great part of public debt incurred in construction of railways; imports for last year, 100,834,000 francs; exports, 144,962,000 francs; trade chiefly with Austria; subject of possible extension of American trade with, should be studied by consuls in Roumania. 58
35 do Mar. 31 Commercial treaty concluded by Great Britain with Servia; British chargé d’affaires appointed at Belgrade; Austria attempting to establish customs union with Servia; Jewish question in Servia discussed; military organization; population, 1,725,000; land fertile but badly cultivated; national debt small; estimated value of exports, 39,000,000 francs; imports, 32,000,000 francs; revenue, according to budged of 1877–’8, 15,000,000 francs; France moving for a commercial treaty. 59
36 do May 3 Conversation between Mr. Kasson and Mr. Teisserence de Bort, French ambassador at Vienna, relative to commercial relations between the United States and France; protectionist policy of the United States ably explained by Mr. Kasson; no probability of success of Chotteau project of special tariff arrangement exclusively applicable to the two countries. General principles of American treaty relations: 1st. To treat all nations alike. 2d. To keep the legislative discretion unbound. 3d. Desire of the United States for independence respecting manufactured products. The result of this policy the establishment of a strong manufacturing interest in the United States, and the introduction of diversified industry. 4th. The permanent object of the tariff policy of the United States the production of revenue to be derived from luxuries; wines, silks, &c. French products, being luxuries, are charged with heavy duties under this principle. The French ambassador hinted at possibility of France imposing high duties on breadstuff’s, provisions, &c., in retaliation for our duties on French products. Mr. Kasson replied that if France imposed duties not for the interests of her own people, but against the interests of another people, it would be the initiation of a war of tariffs, the end of which could not be foreseen. Present condition of government [Page XXXV] sentiment upon tariff questions in Europe matter of grave interest to the United States. The surprising development of our commerce, and of the financial strength of our government and country, awakening the attention of European statesmen. 61
37 Mr. Kasson to Mr. Evarts May 7 Information touching railway system of Austria: Regulations as to concession; extent of government supervision; public mails to be transported free; telegraph regulations; maximum tariff for passengers and freight fixed by concession; military transportation rates, &c., fixed; certain net profit guaranteed by government for ninety years, equal to 5 per cent. on share and bonded capital; after ninety years, the roads, through operation of sinking fund, are to pass into hands of government. (See Mr. Kasson’s dispatches, March 15 and 20, 1879, pages 52 and 54.) 63
38 do May 14 Report by Mr. Kasson upon the municipal government of Vienna: I. Municipal theory. II. Electors and their classification. III. Organization of the city council and mayoralty. IV. Limitations of the powers of the city government. V. The organization and distribution of executive functions. VI. Sanitary organization. VII. Management of the poor and the sick. VIII. System of cleaning streets. IX. System of paving streets. X. Reference to authorities, &c. 64
39 Mr. Delaplaine to Mr. Kasson July 5 Report by Mr. Delaplaine upon the police system and administration of Vienna; record of police supervision during the current year; report of Chevalier von Marx, president of the police of Vienna; police statistics as to passports, hackney-coaches, public amusements, railways and steamers, accidents, casualties, crimes, and mendicancy. 74
40 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Kasson July 30 Instructions to respond to the diplomatic advance of Roumania respecting recognition, and the conclusion of a commercial treaty. Directed to visit Belgrade and Bucharest for the purpose of negotiating treaties with Servia and Roumania. 79
41 do July 30 Directing the preparation of a report upon the commercial relations and possibilities of Servia and Roumania. 81
42 Mr. Kasson to Mr. Evarts Sept. 1 Statistics of production and consumption of beer in Austria-Hungary: Number of breweries, 2,332; production, 11,323,414 hectoliters; ex-portations, 214,422 hectoliters; consumption, 11,101,796 hectoliters; government revenue, 21,041,631 florins, or about $10,500,000. Population of the empire, 36,000,000. 81
43 do Oct. 18 Military statistics of Austria-Hungary. Strength of the armies of the principal European states. 82
44 do Nov. 19 Report upon condition and resources of Servia: I. The organization of the government. II. Financial condition; public debt, 30,314,221 francs, contracted for military expenses; receipts sufficient to meet ordinary expenses of government. III. Condition of the industries of the country. IV. Agriculture. V. Education and intelligence. VI. Ways of communication; trade chiefly with Austria and Hungary, by railway and by the Danube. Necessity for consular representation in Servia urged. 82


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
45 Mr. Goodloe to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 2 Reception by the King; kind expressions of His Majesty respecting the United States. 86
46 do Mar. 10 Remarks upon the enlargement of the trade of the United States with Belgium: Difficulty of introducing new processes, or new articles of production in Belgium; necessity of studying the needs, tastes, habits, and customs of the people on the part of our merchants and manufacturers; patient and intelligent agents of American producers acquainted with the language needed. 87
47 Mr. Groodloe to Mr. Evarts Apr. 9 Restoration of diplomatic relations between Mexico and Belgium. Appointment of a minister from Belgium to Mexico gazetted. 89
48 do Apr. 16 Relations of Belgium to the Holy See: Excitement concerning the question; people Catholics, but the liberal party advocates a separation of church and state; the proposed school bill of the liberal party giving rise to bitter discussion; question as to whether the Belgian legation to the Vatican shall be maintained. 90
49 do May 5 Proposed industrial exhibition to be held in Brussels June 15, 1880: National, not international; suggestion that American manufacturers should send goods to Brussels for exhibition at the same time, although not under the auspices of the exhibition commission. 92
50 do May 7 Report upon railway taxation in Belgium: Railways owned by the state and by private corporations; state, lines untaxed, under distinct organization, with a separate budget; railway concessions to private corporations granted for ninety years; tariff of charges regulated by the stateland and buildings belong to the state, but may be used by the company during life of concession; mails carried free; military transportation at reduced rates; right of purchase by government reserved; provisions concerning; personalty and working materials exempt from taxation; stocks and bonds subject to stamp duty; railways subject to the land tax, to assessed, taxes, and to licenses; taxation regulated by amount of net profit; land tax imposed on surplus land outside of road-bed, &c.; no franchise tax. (See instructions to Mr. Welsh, February 18, 1879, calling for information touching railway taxation.) 92
51 do June 18 Agitation concerning the public instruction act, amendatory of the school act of 1842: Discussion takes a religious turn; object of bill to secularize education; extent of supervision of the priests under law of 1842 indicated; all teachers under new system to come from the state normal school; no scholar to be required to attend during presence of priests if he object to doing so; bill passed by the Chamber of Representatives by vote of 67 to 60; synopsis of debate in the Chamber of Representatives. 97
52 do July 17 Report upon gold, silver, and currency in Belgium: The national bank the state depository; bank held June 12, 1879, gold, 74,630,000 francs; silver (5-franc pieces), 13,650,000 francs; divisional coins, 12,350,000 francs; no means of ascertaining actual amounts in private banks and in circulation; divisional silver coin limited to six francs for each inhabitant, equal to 32,000,000 francs; bank-note circulation, 300,000,000 francs; mint returns. (See circular of May 23, page 3.) 109
53 Mr. Delfosse to Mr. Evarts. 1878. Aug. 12 Conversion of Antwerp port dues under stipulations for redemption of the Scheldt dues. Regulations touching the admeasurement of vessels; practical adoption of Moorsom system; circular of Belgian Government. 112
54 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Deliosse Sept. 19 Views of the Secretary of the Treasury upon subject of the conversion of the Antwerp port dues, and upon admeasurement of vessels: Belgian registry can only be accepted as to tonnage in American ports after complete adoption of Moorsom system of admeasurement. 114
55 Mr. Van den Bossche to Mr. Evarts. 1879. Jan. 6 Same subject: Belgian Government, although informally adopting the Moorsom system of admeasurement, with modifications from the practices of Great Britain, France, and Germany, has not yet secured its adoption by the Parliament of the kingdom; calls attention to Mr. Delfosse’s note of August 12, 1878, as to conversion of Antwerp port dues. 115
56 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Van den Bossche. Jan. 31 Reply of Mr. Evarts touching admeasurement of Belgian vessels: Copy of note from the Secretary of the Treasury upon the subject; effect of proposed conversion of local dues at Antwerp analyzed; slight increase of tonnage dues found to be the result; Moorsom system explained to be method of ascertaining cubic capacities; the United States rules include in the tonnage, not only the capacity of the hold and between-decks, but the capacity of all permanently closed-in spaces on the upper decks available for cargo, stores, passengers, or crew; no net tonnage recognized. 116
57 Mr. Van den Bossche to Mr. Evarts. May 7 Reply to above: Explanation that proposed conversion of Antwerp dues will not increase tonnage dues; further discussion of admeasurement question. 117
58 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Van den Bossche. June 23 Same subject: Substance of reply of the Secretary of the Treasury, communicated for information of Belgian Government. 119
59 Mr. Van den Bossche to Mr. Evarts. June 26 Requesting information as to the marriage laws in force in the United States, for the use of his government. 120
60 Mr. Seward to Mr. Van den Bossche. July 3 Reply to above, to the effect that the subject is under the jurisdiction of the individual States, but that inquiry will be instituted by Department to obtain the latest information upon the subject, if desired; refers to circulars issued by the Department upon the subject. 120
61 Mr. Van den Bossche to Mr. Evarts. July 7 The object of the Belgian Government to ascertain general practices in the United States respecting marriage; copy of Department circulars on the subject requested. 121
62 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Van den Bossche. July 12 Same subject: Text of Department circulars of February 16, 1872, giving substance of State and Territorial laws as to the age at which males and females attain majority, and as to laws concerning births and marriages. 121


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
63 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Pettis 1879. June 23 War between Peru and Bolivia, and Chili: Report current that Bolivia intends to issue letters of marque; attention of Bolivian Government to be called to treaty of 1858, and especially to Article XVI; the United States will not permit the fitting out of Bolivian privateers in its ports. (See following instructions.) 125
64 do June 25 Text of Treasury circular of date June 21, 1879, to collectors of customs, warning them against allowing the equipment of Bolivian privateers in the ports of the United States; attention of Bolivian Government to be called to the circular. (See instruction from Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy of June 26, page 886.) 126
65 Mr. Pettis to Mr. Evarts Aug. 25 The views of the United States as to the issuance of letters of marque by Bolivia brought to the attention of the Bolivian Government. 127
66 do Aug. 25 Treasury order of June 21, 1879, communicated to Bolivian Government. 128


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
67 Mr. Hilliard to Mr. Evarts 1878. Oct. 1 Trade-marks convention with Brazil concluded: Citizens or subjects of either nation to enjoy the same rights in the other as are enjoyed by the citizens or subjects thereof. 129
68 do Nov. 4 Public sentiment in Brazil favorable to the cultivation of friendly relations with the United States. 130
69 Mr. White to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 16 Cautioning Americans against going to Brazil unless acquainted with the Portuguese language; no opening for clerks. 132
70 Mr. White to Mr. Evarts Feb. 26 Cabinet crisis: Disagreement as to changes in electoral system; political emancipation of non-Catholios discussed; opposition to proposition. 132
71 do Feb. 27 Business depression in Brazil: British influence in mercantile affairs paramount; American trade with Brazil can only be increased by the establishment of branches of solid American houses, and by maintaining a high quality in the goods imported from the United States; Americans going to Brazil to engage in business should have ample capital to enable them to withstand British competition. 133
72 do Mar. 25 Need of the establishment of solid American houses in Brazil enforced; visit of leading merchants suggested. (See dispatches 55 and 65 from Mr. White, pages 132 and 133.) 134
73 Mr. Hilliard to Mr. Evarts May 3 Change in electoral law proposed by the ministry: Direct vote by qualified electors for candidates proposed, coupled with a raising of the electoral qualification; suffrage to be limited to those who can read and write, and who possess an income of $200 and upward; the measure looked upon as restrictive in its tendency. 135
74 do June 4 Debate in Parliament upon the electoral bill: Defeat of amendment to render eligible, to seats in chamber of deputies, non-Catholics and naturalized Brazilians probable passage of the bill. 136
Mr. Borges to Mr. Evarts 1878. Feb. 23 Laws of the United States against counterfeiting inapplicable to notes issued by foreign governments; requests that steps may be taken to secure their amendment. (See notes of Mr. Borges of November 8, 1878, and from Mr. Evarts of March 3 and June 20, 1879, pages 140, 141.) 138
76 do Sept. 24 Case of the bark Annie Mark: Regulation of Brazilian Government as to manifests of cargo; vessels taking on cargo at several ports before clearing for Brazilian ports, must have manifests of cargo from each port at which cargo was taken on board. (See Foreign Relations, 1878, page 71, note to Mr. Borges.) 139
77 do Nov. 8 Brazilian criminal code makes provision for punishment of counterfeiting foreign government notes; Brazil guarantees reciprocity for similar legislation on part of the United States. 140
78 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Borges 1879. Mar. 3 Same subject: Note from Senator Edmunds; disagreement in the Judiciary Committee as to constitutional power of the United States to reach such cases of counterfeiting by national law; further consideration of question promised. 140
79 do June 20 Same subject: The Secretary of State to recall subject to attention of Congress at next session. 141

central america.

No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
80 Mr. Williamson to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 4 Guatemala: Constitutional convention called by President Barrios; his dictatorship to terminate upon organization of new government; convention thought to have been called in his interest, and with the intention of conferring upon him the executive power for life. 140
81 Mr. Logan to Mr. Evarts June 14 Report of his reception by the President of Guatemala upon presenting his credentials: Friendly expressions on the part of Mr. Logan and President Barrios; the latter suggests the negotiation of a reciprocity treaty between the United States and Guatemala. 142
82 do Aug. 20 Cases in which improper applications for American protection are made: Such cases numerous throughout the Spanish-American countries; point illustrated by reference to the case of Anton Joseph Maassen; Maassen was born in Germany, acquired citizenship in California, drifted to Guatemala, declared himself to be a German subject and sought registration in German consulate; subsequently, after signal misbehavior, he claimed American citizenship, exhibiting his naturalization papers. Mr. Minister Logan suggests [Page XXXIX] the necessity for, first, a declaration by the government of conditions under which citizens of the United States, native and naturalized, shall be deemed to have expatriated themselves; and, second, the requirement of more substantial evidence on the part of applicants for protection in foreign countries, of American citizenship, before the protection of the United States shall be accorded. 143


[Page XL]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
83 Mr. Thomas A. Osborn to Mr. Evarts. 1878. Nov. 15 Case of the American bark Devonshire in its relationship to the boundary dispute between Chili and the Argentine Republic; release of the vessel ordered by the Chilian authorities. (See Mr. T. O. Osbom’s dispatches, Nov. 18 and Dec. 12, 1878, and Mr. Evarts’ instruction to Mr. Osborn of January 18 1879 pages 13, 14, 15.) 147
84 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Osborn 1879. Jan. 29 Gratification of the United States at prospect of settlement by arbitration of boundary dispute with Argentine Republic, to be expressed to Chili. 147
85 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts Feb. 20 Origin of boundary dispute between Chili and Bolivia: Prior to 1866, jurisdiction over disputed territory claimed by both parties; attempted settlement, by treaty, of boundary-line in that year; second boundary treaty concluded in 1874; twenty-fourth degree of latitude established as boundary; disputed territory contains vast guano and nitrate deposits; their development by Chilian capitalists; the immediate conflict occasioned by project of Bolivian Government to tax nitrate exports from that part of territory set apart as her share by treaty of 1874; the attempt to enforce this law leads to withdrawal of Chilian minister from La Paz, and the movement of Chilian troops to disputed territory. Chilian forces occupy Antofagasta; course of Government of Chili approved by the people of that country; probability of an alliance between Bolivia and Peru. 148
86 do Mar. 31 Question as to right of foreign-built vessels, wholly owned by citizens of the United States, to American protection, and to fly the flag of the United States: Case of three vessels said to have been bought by Mr. Henry L. Stevens, an American citizen, domiciled in Chili, from the South American Steamship Company of Chili; bill of sale of vessels recorded in consulate at Valparaiso in accordance with paragraphs 220 and 221 of the Consular Regulations; correspondence between Admiral Rodgers, Minister Osborn, and Vice-Consul McKellar respecting the transfer; action of Consul Clayton, at Callao, respecting the “Itata,” one of the vessels said to have been bought by Stevens, requiring, under instructions from Mr. Minister Gibbs, that vessel to haul down the flag; Mr. Osborn holds right to protection to be clear when sale and transfer have been made in good faith; refers to Attorney-General Cushing’s opinion as to purchase of ships of belligerents by neutrals, of August 7, 1854. (See page 638, Vol. VI, Opinions of Attorneys-General; dispatch from Mr. Osborne of April 26, p. 174; instructions from Mr. Evarts to Mr. Osborn, of June 9, p. 177; and from Mr. Hunter to Mr. McKellar, of June 2, and to Mr. Foote, of October 23, page 180; and dispatches from Mr. Gibbs, minister to Peru, of March 19, March 25, and April 7, pages 861 and 865; instructions from Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy, of April 24, May 8, June 20, and December 28, pages 867, 874, 884, 894; and dispatches from Mr. Christiancy, of May 20, June 1, and June 3, pages 877, 881, and 882.) 150
87 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts Apr. 3 Bolivia declares war against Chili: Property of Chilians to be confiscated; Chilian forces advance; attitude of Peru unfriendly; secret alliance between Peru and Bolivia acknowledged by the former; war between Peru and Chili inevitable; Mr. Asta Buruaga appointed Chilian minister at Washington; account of the “Desert of Atacama” and its resources; its possession one of the causes of the war. 160
88 do Apr. 10 War declared by Chili against Peru: Iquique, the great niter depot of Peru, blockaded by the Chilian fleet; Chilian army increased. (See next dispatch.) 167
89 do Apr. 19 Manifesto of Chilian Government to friendly powers in reference to its declaration of war against Peru. (See Mr. Christiancy’s dispatch of April 29, page 867.) 168
90 do Apr. 26 Status of foreign-built vessels sold to citizens of the United States; letter from Mr. Osborn to Mr. Christiancy. 174
91 Mr. Seward to Mr. Osborn May 29 Expression of the regret of the United States at the unhappy breaking out of war between Chili, Peru, and Bolivia. 175
92 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts June 5 Conflict between the Chilian wooden vessels Esmeralda and Covadonga and the Peruvian ironclads Huascar and Independencia: The Esmeralda and Independencia sunk; excitement of Chilians at news of the bravery of the officers and crew of the Esmeralda. (See Mr. Christiancy’s dispatch of May 27, page 879.) 176
93 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Osborn June 9 Status of foreign-built vessels transferred by purchase to citizens of the United States: The practice of purchasing foreign-built vessels by citizens of the United States has been pursued since the origin of the government; good faith the essence of the question of right to protection; such vessels entitled to national protection as all American property is entitled to such protection; they may fly the flag as a manifestation of ownership, but they are not entitled to registry nor to participation in the home trade. (See sections 4131 to 4134, inclusive, and section 4190, Revised Statutes, and paragraphs 219 to 225, inclusive, Consular Regulations; see, also, dispatch No. 85, March 31, 1879, from Mr. Osborn, page 150.) 177
94 Mr. Osborn to Mr. Evarts July 24 Peru and Bolivia propose arbitration based upon the status quo ante bellum; Ecuador sends special envoy in the interest of peace; Chilians favor vigorous prosecution of the war; business at a stand-still; Chilian Government issues six millions in paper notes; Chilian press opposed to European intervention in American affairs. 178
95 Mr. Hunter to Mr. McKellar. June 2 An essential element of the validity of the sale of a foreign vessel to an American citizen is the bona-fide character of the sale; his action respecting the sale of the vessels of the South American Steamship Company to Mr. H. L. Stevens will receive consideration. 180
96 Mr. Hunter to Mr. Foote Oct. 23

Directing the nomination of a new vice-consul for the post of Valparaiso, in place of Mr. McKellar.

Note.—For instruction of December 26, 1879, to Mr. Osborn as to status of foreign-built ships owned by citizens of the United States, see instruction No. 53, of that date, to Mr. Christiancy, page 894. Same instruction sent to both ministers.



[Page XLI][Page XLII]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
97 Mr. Holcombe to Mr. Evarts 1878. July 6 Transit passes: Refusal of intendent of customs at Hankow to issue same in favor of Szchuen produce, because Ichang is a nearer open port to that province; correspondence between Mr. Seward and Prince Kung; modification of order of Hankow intendant by Prince Kung. (See Mr. Holcombe’s dispatches of November 23 and December 12, 1878, and January 18, March 12, and Mr. Seward’s dispatch of June 26, 1879, pages 200, 208, 211, 215, and 219.) 181
98 Mr. Holcombe to Mr. Evarts. Oct. 28 Destruction by Chinese mob of English missionary premises at Foochow: The property destroyed had been in possession of missionaries upward of twenty years; hostility evinced by populace; Chinese authorities propose an exchange of property, and the removal of mission-houses to foreign settlement; an American war vessel sent to Foochow. 183
99 do Nov. 4 Question between Chinese and British authorities as to the right of the Chinese Government to order removal of a hulk at Chinkiang from its moorings: agreement of diplomatic body that China has the right to order the removal; correspondence in the case. 189
100 do Nov. 12 shanghai harbor-protection rules: Consular corps appoint committee to supervise their execution; their extension, to include the whole harbor, and the river to Woosung, proposed; opposition of Chinese authorities; correspondence. (See Mr. Seward’s dispatches No. 402 and 411, February 9 and 23, and No. 412, March 4, 1878, pages 103108, F. R., 1878, and Mr. Holcombe’s No. 123, February 20. 1879. page 213, F. R., 1879.) 192
101 do Nov. 23 Transit passes: Refusal of authorities of Szchuen to recognize those issued at Hankow; case of Mr. M. A. Jenkins; illustration of inattention of local authorities to engagements of the Imperial Government; correspondence between the legation and the Chinese foreign office. 200
102 do Dec. 3 Interpreters to consulates: Insufficiency of salaries; in many consulates native interpreters or merchant interpreters must be employed because Americans, solely engaged in interpretation, cannot be employed for the compensation allowed; importance of American interpreters; bad character of most of the Chinese interpreters; temptations to misuse their offices; all the great powers pay good salaries, and employ interpreters of their own nationality; disinclination of Chinese authorities to communicate with merchant interpreters; the propriety of appointing consuls acquainted with the Chinese language suggested; an educated American interpreter can easily earn in China $3,000 per annum in private employment. (See dispatch from Mr. Knight, July 14, 1879, page 234.) 203
103 do Dec. 5 Changes in the Chinese foreign office, Mao Changhsi and Li Hungtsao having retired, and Wang Wenchao and Chow Chia Mei have been appointed in their places; the Yamen numbers eleven members, and contains all the privy council of state. 207
104 do Dec. 5 The Marquis Tseng appointed Chinese minister to Great Britain: The marquis, one of the ablest men in public life in China, is of liberal ideas; he speaks and reads English. 208
105 do Dec. 12 Transit passes: Further correspondence in respect of the refusal of the Szchuen authorities to recognize Mr. Jenkins’s transit passes issued at Hankow; order of Prince Kung that the passes should be regarded if regular. 208
106 do 1879. Jan. 18 Transit passes: Viceroy of Szchuen disapproves action of subordinate officials in respect of Mr. Jenkins’s Hankow passes; communication from Prince Kung. 211
107 do Feb. 20 Shanghai harbor protection rules: Correspondence with foreign office; disposition of Chinese authorities to restrict their execution to the foreign concessions; right of China to amend rules advanced. (See dispatch No. 69, November 12, 1878. page 192.) 213
108 do Mar. 12 Transit passes: Further complication in this case; disobedience of orders of foreign office on the part of the Lekin tax-officers at Kwei Chow; merchandise in transit under Mr. Jenkins’s Hankow passes detained at Kwei Chow; correspondence between Mr. Consul Shepard and Mr. Holcombe, and the latter and Prince Kung. 215
109 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Holcombe. Mar. 13 Reply to request of Chinese Government that consuls of the United States in Cuba should be instructed to extend their good offices to Chinese subjects engaged as laborers in that island. 219
110 Mr. Seward to Mr. Evarts June 26 Transit passes: Remonstrance of Mr. Holcombe results in release of produce detained at Kwei Chow. 219
111 do July 29 Circular to consuls in China calling for information as to course heretofore followed in civil cases between Americans and Chinese; views as to mixed courts requested. (See Mr. Seward’s dispatches of September 18 and October 7, pages 221, 229.) 220
112 do Sept. 18 Answers of Consuls Lincoln, Scruggs, De Lano, Shepard, and Lord to above circular: Reports of procedure in mixed cases; drift of sentiment in favor of trial in court of defendant. 221
113 do Oct. 7 Answers of Consul-General Baily and Vice-Consul Bandinel to above circular: Tribunal the court of the defendant; the consul-general advocates establishment of mixed courts, and presents scheme of organization of mixed courts in Egypt. 229
114 do Oct. 11 The consul at Foochow reports that the local authorities at that post are dealing promptly and satisfactorily with missionary cases without requiring consular intervention. 234
115 Mr. Knight to Mr. Evarts July 14 American interpreters at our Chinese consulates imperatively necessary: Correspondence between Mr. Knight and President Eliot as to establishment of a Chinese professorship at Harvard. (See Mr. Holcombe’s dispatch No. 82, Dec. 3, 1878, page 203.) 234
116 Mr. Wing to Mr. Evarts Oct. 10 Remonstrates against recent ruling of collector of internal revenue at San Francisco requiring the possession of real estate by bondsmen for tobacco manufacturers: Requirements work a hardship against Chinese manufacturers, as but few Chinese are owners of real estate; custom for twenty years past has been to accept persons possessed of the requisite personalty. 237
117 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Wing Oct. 13 Above note submitted to Secretary of the Treasury. 241
118 do Oct. 24 Collector of internal revenue at San Francisco instructed to accept as surety on a tobacco manufacturer’s bond any good and solvent person, whether the owner of real estate or not. 241


[Page XLIV][Page XLV]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
119 Mr. Dichman to Mr. Evarts 1878. Aug. 14

Inclosing a translation of the interoceanic canal contract between the Colombian Government and Lieut. L. N. B. Wyse, known as the Wyse contract, and now the property of the de Lesseps company. Analysis of concession: Article I. Exclusive privilege to construct canal granted; duration of concession 99 years from completion of canal; right to construct railway conceded; Colombia restricted from granting another concession; grantees to determine line of canal, and to have two years in which to organize their company, and twelve in which to build the canal; size of canal agreed upon; public land required for canal granted; private property to be condemned; telegraph line authorized. Article II. Deposit by company of 750,000 francs as guarantee fund, required. Article III. Relations of Panama Railroad to enterprise; provisions as to Atrato route. Article IV. 500,000 hectares of public land granted in aid of the company. Article V. Neutrality of the canal and ports of termini; free navigation to merchant ships of all nations; passage of troops of foreign nations under control of Colombian Congress. Article VI. Canal closed to war vessels of nations at war, or to those destined to take part in hostilities. [Page XLIII] Article VII. No import duties to be collected except upon goods introduced for consumption in the country; custom-houses may be established in respect of such goods. Article VIII. Steps may be taken by Colombia to guard against smuggling; free transportation of Colombian officials; the company to support force necessary for protection of transit. Articles IX and X. Exemption from duties or taxes of materials, &c., used in canal construction. Article XI. Goods and passengers in transit exempt from duties or taxes. Article XII. Deposit of ship’s papers during transit. Article XIII. Free immigration of employés of canal allowed. Article XIV. Right to collect light-house, port, or transit dues granted to company; regulations as to tariff of charges. Article XV. Colombia to receive 5 per cent. of gross earnings of canal. Article XVI. Payment of dues to be in advance, and in specie. Article XVII. Fines for infringement of regulations. Article XVIII. Joint stock company for financing canal project may be organized under protection of Colombia; company shall take the name of “The Universal Interoceanic Canal Association;” office of company may be in Bogota, New York, London, or Paris; bonds and stock not to be taxed by Colombia. Article XIX. A fund of 10 per cent. of the shares to be organized for the profit of the founders and promoters of the enterprise; provisions for distribution of revenue of canal. Article XX. Colombia to name commissioner in board of directors, and resident agent on line of canal; grantees to appoint delegate to reside at Bogota; questions at issue between Colombia and the company to be settled by arbitration. Article XXI. Concession may be sold to another company, but absolute prohibition against transfer to foreign nations. Articles XXII and XXIII. Conditions of forfeiture of rights of company; supreme court of Colombia to determine questions of forfeiture. Article XXIV. Provisions for acquisition of canal by Government of Colombia at expiration of period of concession. Articles XXV and XXVI. Public character of enterprise, and provision for submission of contract to.Congress for approval.

Decree approving contract with certain modifications; modifications made by articles; above analysis of contract will serve as guide to modifications.

120 Mr. Dichman to Mr. Evarts. Oct. 30 Extradition, and right of transit for criminals in charge of United States officers across the Isthmus of Panama, discussed with minister for foreign affairs of Colombia: Questions separate and distinct; right of transit secured by treaty of 1846; views of Mr. Dichman and Mr. Arosemena; power of executing treaty of extradition on part of Colombia limited by want of federal judiciary, and necessity of relying on State authorities. (See case of C. G. Scrafford, Mr. Evarts to Mr. Dichman, November 12, 1878, F. R., 1878, page 151; report of royal commission upon extradition, Mr. Welsh’s’ dispatch, June 22, 1878, F. R., 1878, page 268; case of Angell, Mr. Lowell’s dispatch of February 11, 1879, page 936, and Mr. Evarts’s reply of March 5, 1879, page 941, and dispatches 48, February 15, page 271, and 58, March 17, 1879, page 273, from Mr. Dichman.) 251
121 do Nov. 7 Project of a reciprocity treaty between Colombia and the United States suggested: Colombia to grant free admission to American beer, and to reduce tariff charges on American dry-goods 25 per cent., in consideration of a special tariff reduction by the United States in favor of Colombian tobacco; letter from Mr. Minister Camacho and remarks by Mr. Dichman upon extension of American trade with Colombia. 254
122 Mr. Dichman to Mr. Evarts. Nov. 16 Submitting letter from Dr. Camacho upon the revenues; imports and exports, and tariff rates of Colombia: Population of Colombia, 3,500,000; revenue, $4,200,000; exports, $12,000,000; imports, $10,000,000; tariff, general, 36 per cent. ad valorem; value of tobacco exported to the United States in 1860 about $300,000. This commerce disappeared with the high tariff of 1863. 256
123 do Nov. 29 Correspondence touching the establishment of steam communication between New Orleans and Colombia: Present imports from the United States not over 15 per cent. of total imports of Colombia; direct steam communication needed to develop trade; Colombia favorable to establishment of such communication; trade statistics: letter from Mr. Minister Camacho. 258
124 do Dec. 14 Deposit of ships’ papers: Colombian law requirin deposit of ships’ papers of foreign ships with her customs officers in opposition to international usage; argument of question by Mr. Dichman; position assumed that ships’ papers should be deposited with consul of ships’ nation while vessel is in port, said papers to be returned upon presentation of port clearance by master of vessel to consul; identity in spirit of Colombian and American law respecting the deposit of their ships’ papers with their respective consuls in the ports of the other; violation of this principle by Colombia in demanding for her customs officers custody of papers of American vessels in her ports while directing her con suls in American ports to take charge of papers of Colombian vessels. (See Mr. Dichman’s dispatches, No. 34, page 266; No. 62, page 280; No. 104, page 289, and instructions from Mr. Evarts, No. 26, page 270, and 31, page 273.) 260
125 do 1879. Jan. 15 Deposit of ships’ papers: Protocol entered into between the United States and Colombian ministers on the 7th January, 1879, prescribing form of proceeding upon entry of vessel into port: 1st. Papers to be produced to collector of customs or inspector of port; within forty-eight hours of arrival, papers to be deposited by master with consul; his receipt taken, and it transferred to the collector. 2d. Ships’ papers only to be returned to master by consul upon exhibition of port clearance. 3d. Exequatur may be canceled if papers be returned to master’before issuance of clearance. 266
126 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Dichman. Feb. 4 Inclosing correspondence with British minister at Washington respecting the deposit of ships’ papers with the consul of the ship’s nation in Colombian ports. 270
127 Mr. Dichman to Mr. Evarts. Feb. 15 Right of transit across the Isthmus of Panama under article 35, treaty of 1846: Case of C. G. Scrafford, released by authorities of Panama while in custody of a United States official, on his way to the United States from Peru; action of authorities of Panama in contravention of rights secured by treaty; inclosing correspondence on subject with foreign minister of Colombia. 271
128 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Dichman. Feb. 20 Deposit of ships’ papers: Satisfaction of the United States at adjustment of question. 273
129 Mr. Dichman to Mr. Evarts. Mar. 17 Right of transit across the Isthmus of Panama: Protocol signed 22d February, 1879, prescribing procedure in case of transit of criminals in charge of officers of the United States across the isthmus: 1st. Recognition of right of transit accorded to the United States by article 35, treaty of 1846, to include the transit of the troops of the government, and criminals in charge of officers of the United States. 2d. Exhibition of documents of extradition in case of extradited prisoners, (to Colombian authorities on isthmus. 3d. Prisoners while in transit to be under guard of Colombian forces. Correspondence between Mr. Dichman and Colombian foreign minister illustrating protocol. 273
130 Mr. Dichman to Mr. Evarts. Mar. 24 Commercial relations with Colombia discussed: Trade at present largely in the hands of Great Britain. The position of Colombia; similarity of her institutions to ours; character of her products and of her imports; all indicate that under a wise commercial policy the bulk of her trade might be transferred from Great Britain to the United States. To this end Mr. Dichman proposes a reciprocity treaty, and, to enable the United States to negotiate one to advantage, the reimposition of the tax upon coffee, with the allowance of a rebate or cancellation of duties in favor of such coffee-producing countries as shall accord equivalent trade advantages to the United States. 278
131 do Mar. 31 Deposit of ships’ papers: Correspondence between Mr. Dichman and the British minister to Colombia; Colombian law of 1875, in conflict with international usage, should be repealed; executive power to ask Congress to enact a law in the line of the protocol of 7th January, 1879. 280
132 do April 14 Right of transit across the Isthmus of Panama: Acquiescence of the Senate in the protocol upon this subject of February 22, 1879. (See Mr. Dichman’s No. 58. of March 17. page 273.) 284
133 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Dichman. May 12 Protocol of February 22, 1879, respecting right of the United States to transport troops, and criminals in custody of its officers, across the Isthmus of Panama armroved. 284
134 Mr. Dichman to Mr. Evarts. June 1 Congratulations on behalf of the United States at the peaceful solution of recent political troubles in Colombia. 285
135 do June 14 Forced loans: Exemption of Americans from same by operation of most-favored-nation clause of treaty, France having treaty with Colombia expressly exempting French citizens from such exactions. 287
136 do June 28 Colombian foreign debt about $10,000,000; interest 4¾ per cent. per annum; settlement of 1874 based upon contract of 1861; default in the obligations of the settlement of 1874 revives the contract of 1861; public sentiment in favor of payment of debt. 289
137 do July 2 Deposit of ships’ papers: Text of law passed by Colombian Congress touching same; Colombian law substantially the same as the law of the United States. (See Mr. Dichman’s dispatches 34, page, 266, and 62, page 280.) 289
138 do July 19 Panama interoceanic canal: Wyse-de Lesseps contract discussed; national and international character of the enterprise; the Wyse-de Lesseps contract deemed to be unworthy of the support of the United States; dangerous principle of action sought to be established by Article 5, respecting the use of the canal by vessels of war of belligerents, and by the military and naval forces of Colombia and her allies; supreme interest of the United States in an interoceanic canal. (For text of the Wyse-de Lesseps contract, see Mr. Dichman’s dispatch dated August 14, 1878, page 243.) 290
139 do Aug. 1 Radically defective nature of the Wyse-de Lesseps canal contract: Insuperable objection that it is a mere contract between private individuals and the Government of Colombia; insecurity of property rights in Colombia in time of domestic convulsion; advisability of placing any enterprise for the building of an interoceanic canal under the protection of a treaty stipulation; paramount interests of the United States in an interoceanic canal; international agreement as to neutrality of canal suggested; prominence given by Colombia to the question of revenue to be derived from the canal, and to its ownership after 99 years. 295
140 do Oct. 17 History of the steps taken by succeeding Governments of Colombia to secure enlistment of capital in the building of an interoceanic canal: Record of the various concessions granted; account of the Wyse-de Lesseps contract. Contract [Page XLVI] signed 28th May, 1876, by A. de Gorgoza, for himself and Gen. Stephen Türr, of France. Contract then transferred to the “Civil International Society of the Interoceanic Canal,” or the Türr Society. Under the auspices of this society Lieutenant Wyse, one of its members, visited the isthmus in 1876. In 1878 he asked for a modification of the Türr contract, the result being the present Wyse-de Lesseps contract. Account of the transfer of the Türr-Wyse contract to the de Lesseps company: Conditions of transfer; one million francs to be paid fifteen days after the organization of the company; 4,000,000 francs to be paid one month after half of the stock subscriptions shall have been paid, and 5,000,000 francs in the fully paid-up stock of the company—in all 10,000,000 francs. Reasons why the United States should discourage the de Lesseps enterprise: The company essentially French; inevitable intervention of the European government or governments whose citizens may be interested in the canal; Colombia powerless against such intervention; the good offices of the United States would then be invoked and a serious complication occasioned; such complications may be avoided by making the completion of the canal under the present contract impossible; same objections apply to any attempt to construct a canal under auspices of any European government; dangers to American commerce from such an organized enterprise; question of the court in which disagreements between the company and the shipping using the canal, are to be adjudicated. (For the De Gorgoza contract, see Mr. Scruggs’s dispatches 163, of May 7, and 170, of June 5, 1876.) 297


[Page XLVII]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
141 Mr. Cramer to Mr. Evarts 1878. Nov. 27 Commercial depression: Bulk of the trade of Denmark with Germany and Great Britain; exports to the United States in 1874, 380,571 crowns, in 1876 but 15,141 crowns; imports from the United States in 1874, 4,478,826 crowns, and in 1876, 6,730,000 crowns; suggestions for increase of trade with the United States. 303
142 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Cramer Dec. 10 The negotiation of a treaty of extradition to be suggested to the government of the King; treaties exist with all but five of the powers of Europe. 306
143 Mr. Cramer to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 4 Same subject: Denmark willing to enter upon negotiations. 306
144 do May 20 Report of commission to inquire into cause of riot in the island of Santa Cruz; aid to be furnished to the sufferers. (See dispatch No. 487, of November 4, 1878. page 160. F. R., 1878.) 307
145 do May 27 A general European tariff league against the United States suggested in the Rigsdag; the idea said to find favor among German agricultural and manufacturing classes; adulterated cotton goods of English make sold as American goods; trade-mark conventions suggested as a measure of protection; further suggestions as to extension of American commerce. 307
146 do Aug 11 Rumored negotiations on the part of Demark for the sale of St. Thomas said by the Danish foreign minister to be untrue. (See dispatch No. 550, from Mr. Cramer, dated August 29, page 310.) 308
147 Mr. Seward to Mr. Cramer Aug 11 Extradition negotiation: Instructing as to conduct of. General rather than minute and specific definitions of offenses desirable; the treaty with Spain thought to afford the best example of an extradition treaty; drafts exchanged during progress of negotiation to be dated, and copies sent to Department. 309
148 Mr. Cramer to Mr. Evarts Aug. 29 Rumored disposition on the part of Denmark to sell the Island of St. Thomas to some foreign government; suggestion advanced that possibly Great Britain may entertain design of acquiring the island. 310


[Page XLVIII][Page XLIX]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
149 Mr. Noyes to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 11 Circular from the International Bureau of Weights and Measures to the effect that the bureau is prepared to make comparisons of old with new standards. 311
150 do Jan. 24 Copy of second annual report or the international Bureau of Weights and Measures; report for the year 1878. 312
151 do Jan. 31 Resignation of President MacMahon; election of Mr. Jules Grévy as President of France; text of message of President MacMahon resigning the Presidency; details of the election of his successor. 332
152 do Feb. 7 The organization of the administration of President Grévy: Mr. Waddington appointed premier; personnel of the administration; text of message from the President to the Chambers; speech of Mr. Gambetta upon assuming the presidency of the Chamber of Deputies. 334
154 do Mar. 14 Proposition to impeach the de Broglie and Rocheboüet ministries defeated; by French custom, impeachments for political acts must be directed against the whole cabinet; account of the debate. 336
155 do Mar. 28 Report of audience with the President of France to deliver letter from the President of the United States in reply to one announcing M. Grévy’s accession to the presidency. 339
156 do Apr. 25 Appointment of Admiral Ammen and Mr. Monocal as representatives of the United States to the Interoceanic Canal Conference, to meet at Paris; their presence at the conference in no way to bind the United States to its conclusions. 339
157 do May 30 Report of conclusion of labors of the Paris interoceanic canal conference. 340
158 Mr. Hunter to Mr. Noyes July 11 Mr. Noyes instructed to ascertain if there be any truth in the report that France has offered to establish a protectorate over Liberia; deep interest of the United States in Liberia expressed. (See Mr. Noyes’dispatch of August 20; Mr. Smyth’s dispatch of May 30; and Mr. Hunter’s instruction to Mr. Smyth of September 8, pages 341, 718, and 727.) 341
159 Mr. Noyes to Mr. Evarts Aug. 20 French protectorate over Liberia: Proposition made by thoroughly irresponsible persons; French Government does not entertain the idea. 341
160 Mr. Seward to Mr. Noyes Aug. 29 Mr. Noyes directed to visit North Africa, and the countries about the head of the Mediterranean with reference to the extension of American trade with those countries; efforts now making by France to extend her trade with the African countries. 342
161 Mr. Noyes to Mr. Evarts Sept. 3 Report upon the system of railway taxation in France; notes from the ministry of finance citing laws and rates of taxation. 345
162 Mr. Hitt to Mr. Evarts Nov. 1 Mormon proselyting practically unknown in France; the French disinclined to emigrate; no means of prohibiting emigration if the requirements of the military law have been complied with; polygamy a crime under French law; arrest will follow its advocacy. 349
163 Mr. Taylor to Mr. Evarts Nov. 8 Text of law for suppression of social democratic movement, passed by Imperial Parliament after long debate; vote 220 to 149; period of operation limited to March 31, 1881. 351
164 do Nov. 18 International exposition of products and utensils of sea and inland fisheries, to be held at Berlin in 1880, under auspices of German Fisheries Society; programme of exposition. 354
165 Mr. Everett to Mr. Evarts Dec. 21 Report of the death of Mr. Bayard Taylor; the cause of his death dropsy; note from Mr. Von Bulow conveying the sentiments of regret of the German Government. 357
166 do 1879. Jan. 6 Resolutions in memory of Mr. Bayard Taylor, passed at a meeting of Americans in Berlin. 358
167 do Jan. 9 Cases of naturalized citizens arrested in Germany for alleged offenses against the military laws of the empire, or of the states of the empire; instances, those of Wilhelm Steffan, Frank Lutz, Iver Iverson; complications as to citizenship growing out of annexation of Schleswig-Holstein. 359
168 do Feb. 15 Reichstag opened by the Emperor: Text of the Emperor’s speech; questions relating to increased taxation and protective duties the most difficult which the Reichstag will have to deal with; sentiment growing in favor of a protectionist policy; reasons for the abrogation of the 5th clause of the Treaty of Prague of 1866. 360
169 do Feb. 17 Counterfeiting United States money punishable under German law by imprisonment at hard labor; an open question whether the counterfeiting of foreign postage-stamps is punishable under German law. 364
170 do Mar. 13 Debates in the Reichstag upon the commercial treaty with Austria, and the parliamentary discipline bill; opposition to the latter; course of the financial discussion; the protectionist views of Prince, Bismarck attacked. 365
171 do Mar. 21 Report of cases of naturalized citizens of the United States which have required intervention of legation from October 3, 1877, to December 3, 1878, 24 in all; list of cases: 1. Martin Zimmer; 2. Benjamin Becker; 3. C. A.F. Weibezahl; 4. Hermann Labischinsky; 5. Ernst Eggers; 6. Jacob Kowalski; 7. Frank Kiagges; 8. Philip Flatar; 9. Karl Ganzenmüller; 10. Albert Kokott; 11. Julius Baumer; 12. Joseph Wackermann; 13. John Gottfried Berude; 14. Gustavo Weil; 15. Christian Henkes; 16. Alex. F. Wallner; 17. Gustav Folte; 18. F. E. O. Klein; 19. Emil David; 20. George Wehrung; 21. Johannes Kehr; 22. Elie Bloch; 23. William Krotz: 24. William Steffan. 367
172 do Apr. 23 Question as to exemption from military duty of the employés of the legation; case of the messenger of the legation, William Knoth, a German subject; question of exterritoriality of legation involved; notes from Mr. Everett to Mr. Von Bülow. (See dispatches 107 and 114, pages 375 and 384.) 374
173 do May 5 Same subject: Statement of case, and citations from Wheaton, Phillimore, Heffter, Bluntschii, and Vattel; notes from Mr. Von Bülow; the position assumed by Mr. Everett as to Knoth’s rights to exemption on account of services in the legation sustained by above authorities. 375
174 do May 5 No uniform regulations as to railroad taxation as yet established in the German Empire; railroads of Prussia divided into state and private lines; private lines taxed by the state upon their net receipts, and their bonds subject to a stamp-tax; excepting road-beds, railroad realty is subject to taxation; railroads not taxed as owners of personalty; stock, and dividends from stock and bonds in the hands Of private holders taxed as their personalty; gross receipts not taxed; definition of net receipts; question as to extent of municipal taxation of railroads and railroad bonds, not settled in Prussia by legislative provisions. 379
175 Mr. Everett to Mr. Evarts May 19 Text of treaty between Germany and the Samoan Islands, concluded January 24, 1879: Article I. Peace and friendship clause. Art. II. Reciprocal exemption of subjects from war contributions, military requisitions, or military service: Houses, lands, and plantations of Germans in Samoa exempt from occupation by war parties. Art. III. Freedom of worship accorded—right of sepulture mutually granted. Art. IV. German subjects accorded “complete liberty of commerce” in Samoa, and right of free entry into “all places, ports, and waters with their ships and cargoes,” and “to sell, land, and store their ladings “as well as to ship native produce; no duties or restrictions to be imposed upon Germans by Samoa except same be agreed upon between the two governments; first “most favored nation” clause. Art. V. May establish naval station and hoist flag in harbor of Saluafata; German war vessels may enter all Samoan harbors. Art. VI. Right to travel, trade, and buy lands and build houses mutually accorded; taxes and regulations in Samoa, affecting Germans, to be matter of agreement between the two parties; second “most favored nation” clause; Germans to enjoy, in Samoa, same rights as Samoans; guarantee by Samoa of peaceful possession of all lands heretofore purchased by Germans. Art. VII. Germans subject to German jurisdiction respecting legal disputes and crimes and offenses arising or committed among themselves; jurisdiction, where Samoan subject is a party, reserved for further consideration. Art. VIII. All Samoan laws respecting taxes and duties, as well as those regulating conduct, to receive the sanction of the German Government before being enforced; municipal regulations of Apia agreed upon between Samoan and German officials may be lawful unless vetoed by Germany; third “most favored nation” clause. Art. IX. All questions not settled by this treaty reserved for subsequent agreement. Art. X. Samoa may do nothing to the injury of Germans. Art. XI. Fourth “most favored nation” clause. Arts. XII, XIII. Ratifications, &c. (See dispatch of June 30. page 388.) 381
176 do June 2 Exterritoriality accorded legations by German law only to extend to non-Germans; translation of law. 384
177 Mr. White to Mr. Evarts June 25 Debate in the Reichstag upon the question of suspending the sale of silver, and the restoration of the double standard: Speech of Prince Bismarck; his position a tentative one; the sale of silver suspended—the policy not absolutely abandoned; no immediate intention of changing the basis of coinage. Speech of Herr von Dechen, president of the Reichs Bank; results of the sales of government silver stated; net loss on sales 72,000,000 marks; in 1873, when the sales began, the price of silver in London was between 60¼ and 62 pence, when sales were discontinued it had sunk to 48⅞ pence; the loss on the present stock of German silver, if it should be sold, is estimated at 90,000,000 marks. 385
178 do June 30 Debate in the Reichstag upon the treaty between Germany and Samoa: Treaty explained by the minister of foreign affairs, von Bulow; German position in the South Pacific; her trade relations. 388
179 do July 3 Tariff debate in the Reichstag: New tariff law in the direction of protection of home industries; augmentation of duties upon American lard. 392
180 do July 12 Germany not likely to sell any more silver; prospect of reissue. 394
181 do Aug. 15 Résumé of the work of the session of the Reichstag which closed on the 12th of August: Decision respecting the Parliament discipline bill; tariff debates, and passage of the bill by a coalition between the Ultramontane and the Imperial and Conservative parties; its protective tendencies; increase of revenue anticipated; [Page L] resignation of Dr. Falk, Herr Hobrecht, and Dr. Friedenthal; labors of Dr. Falk as minister of instruction; great increase in school efficiency under his administration; con stitution of Alsace and Lorraine, a state of the empire with a parliament; discussion upon the silver question and the Samoan treaty; contemplated purchase of railroads by the government, and establishment of a separate department for their control; operation of the anti-socialist law; tariff policy discussed. 394
182 Mr. White to Mr. Evarts Sept. 9 Report upon the amount of the gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in Germany; memorial containing tables of statistics upon the subjects submitted by the German foreign office. (See circular of May 23, 1879, page 3.) 398
183 do Oct. 15 Success ot the conservatives m the elections to the Prussian Landtag; majority with that party; the elections indicate the powerful influence of Prince Bismarck. 402
184 Mr. Schlözer to Mr. Evarts. 1878. Dec. 8 Requesting information as to whether a drawback of duties paid upon goods imported into the United States is allowed unon their exportation. 403
185 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Schlözer. Dec. 17 Answer to above: Drawbacks of duties, less 1 per cent., are allowed on such goods when exported, provided they have not been out of the custody of the government; inclosing a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury. 404
186 Mr. Schlözer to Mr. Evarts 1879. Mar. 2 Case of Carl Weinrebe, cook on board the steamer Mosel, a German vessel, arrested for smuggling: Question whether under Article XII, paragraphs 2 and 3, consular convention between the United States and Germany, the arrest and search of Weinrebe’s effects, made without notification of German oonsul, was regular. 404
187 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Schlözer. Apr. 17 Answer to above: No such search as contemplated by treaty made; arrest of Weinrebe not a violation of treaty. 406

great britain.

[Page LI][Page LII][Page LIII][Page LIV]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
188 Mr. Welsh to Mr. Evarts 1878. Dec. 6 British circular prohibiting government officers from acting: as consuls for foreign countries. 407
189 do 1879. Jan. 31 Frigate Constitution: Case of tug Admiral against the Constitution; claim for salvage; service rendered in hauling the frigate off the shore; case tried before Sir R. Phillimore; judgment in favor of the Constitution; motion of plaintiffs dismissed; report of proceedings. 407
190 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Welsh Feb. 18 Directing a report upon the system of railroad taxation in force in Great Britain. Questions submitted by Mr. Charles Francis Adams, jr.: 1st. On what general recognized principles, if any, is the railroad taxation of Great Britain based? 2d. Are railroads taxed as holders of realty? 3d. Or as holders of personalty? 4th. Are they subject to a franchise tax? 5th. Is their stock taxed as personalty? 6th. Are the receipts of the companies taxed; and, if so, whether net or gross receipts? (See Mr. Welsh’s dispatch of April 15, page 429. Similar instructions sent to ministers to Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Franee, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. See answers from all countries but Italy.) 413
191 Mr. Welsh to Mr. Evarts Mar. 18 The gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society conferred upon. Professor Asaph Hall, of the National Observatory. 414
192 do Mar. 19 Question as to liability to arrest at suit of British subject, of Belgian Government vessel engaged in the mail and package service. The vessel not being a vessel of war, nor the yacht of a sovereign, decided by Sir R. Phillimore affirmatively; case of the Parlement Beige. 415
193 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Welsh Mar. 25 Case of the American bark Laconia: Improper search of said vessel by order of Captain Earle, of Her Britannic Majesty’s naval service, in the port of Zanzibar, ostensibly in pursuit of slaves. Violation of provisions of the first article of the Treaty of 1862; case to be brought to attention of British Government; report of Consul Hathorne. (See dispatch of June 17 from Mr. Welsh, page 431.) 415
194 do Apr. 2 The character and growth of the cattle export trade of the United States: Exports of cattle on the hoof in 1871, amounted to $403,491; in 1878 to $3,896,818; and of the shipment of 1878, $2,408,843 in value went to Great Britain. Exports of slaughtered cattle in 1874, when the trade began, amounted to $12,661; in 1878, to $5,009,856; proportion to Great Britain, $4,966,152. Ample provisionmade at Leavenworth and Omaha, points of collection, and at Chicago and New York, points of shipment, for inspection of cattle. 423
195 Mr. Welsh to Mr. Evarts Apr. 10 Terms of admission of private students to Royal Naval College at Greenwich. 427
196 do Apr. 15 Railroad taxation in England: 1st, a tax of 5 per cent. on gross receipts from passengers, except on fares of not exceeding a penny a mile by trains stopping at every station; 2d and 3d, railways subject to stamp duties on dealings in real or personal property; 4, no franchise tax; 5th, stock and debentures not taxed as such; 6th, liable to income tax on net annual profits; such tax precedes dividends. (See instruction of February 18 from Mr. Evarts. page 413.) 429
197 do June 10 Letter from Mr. Thomas Brassey upon “a naval reserve of ships”: Project for the creation of an auxiliary navy by granting bounties to constructors of merchant vessels to build them with reference to their ultimate transfer to the regular Navy. Remarks upon the United States steamer Trenton. 429
198 do June 17 Regret expressed by the British Government at the unwarranted proceedings of Captain Earle, of Her Britannic Majesty’s naval service, in ordering the search of the American bark Laconia in the harbor of Zanzibar. (See instructions No. 258, dated March 25, from Mr. Evarts to Mr. Wesh, page 415). 431
199 do July 11 Transmitting communication from Mr. George McHenry, in reply to circular of May 23, 1879 (page 3), calling for information as to the amount of gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in Great Britain. 432
200 Mr. Evarts to Mr, Welsh July 11 Unwarranted assumption of jurisdiction by the high court of Calcutta, in the case of John Anderson, a seaman on board the American bark “C. O. Whitmore,” charged with having killed the first officer while the ship was upon the high seas, the ship being on her voyage from New York to Calcutta; his trial by the high court. The well-settled principle of international law, that a merchant-vessel upon the high seas is under the jurisdiction of the nation to which she belongs, and that the tribunals of the ship’s nation have exclusive jurisdiction of offenses committed upon such vessel upon the high seas, violated in this case; detailed report from the consul-general at Calcutta. (See Mr. Evarts’ instruction of date July 29. page 446.) 435
201 Mr. Welsh to Mr. Evarts July 18 Transmitting two articles written by Mr. George McHenry, “on bi-metallism. (See Mr. McHenry’s article on the gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in Great Britain, inclosed in Mr. Welsh’s dispatch of July 11, pase 432.) 441
202 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Welsh July 29 The unwarranted assumption of jurisdiction by the high court of Calcutta, in the case of John Anderson, seaman of the American bark “C. O. Whitmore,” charged with murder upon the high seas, aggravated by the character of the trial, and the utter insufficiency of the sentence. Dispatch from Consul-General Litchfield, with details of trial. (See Mr. Evarts’s instruction of date July 11, 1879, page 435.) 446
203 Mr. Welsh to Mr. Evarts Aug. 5 Memorial from Lord Salisbury as to amount of gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in Great Britain. (See Mr. Welsh’s dispatches of date July 11 and 18, pages 432 and 441.) 449
204 Mr. Hoppin to Mr. Evarts Sept. 4 Text of Mr. Hoppin’s note to Lord Salisbury, communicating substance of Mr. Evarts’s circular upon Mormon immigration. (For Lord Salisbury’s answer, see page 465.) 450
205 do Sept. 5 Editorial from the Daily News upon our claim for damages arising out of the transactions at Fortune Bay. (See Foreign Relations, 1878, pages 284, 314, 318, 323, 346, 349.) 451
206 do Sept. 19 Speeches of Lords Beaconsfield and Derby, Mr. Cross and others, upon the prevalent agricultural and commercial distress in Great Britain. 453
207 do Sept. 20 Report from Mr. Hoppin; owing to general depression in trade and industry, a large emigration to the United States of a higher class of laborers, and of many from the class of small proprietors, may be anticipated: Necessity for an authentic government publication respecting the advantages for settlement afforded by the new States and Territories of the West and Southwest. 463
208 do Oct. 8 Answer of Lord Salisbury to Mr. Hoppin’s note on the subject of Mormon immigration: British Government can do nothing in the premises. 465
209 do Oct. 11 Editorial from the London Times of October 8 upon American agriculture. (See dispatch of date October 25, page 478.) 466
210 do Oct. 18 Speeches of Lord Salisbury at Manchester in defense of the policy of the government. 468
211 do Oct. 25 Letter from Mr. Andrews, late United States minister to Sweden, upon land in the United States, published in the Times of October 24. (See editorial from the Times upon American agriculture, page 466.) 478
212 Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton. 1878. Dec. 17 The Canadian Government denies to American vessels the right to aid wrecked or disabled vessels in Canadian waters, while the United States is ready to grant this right to Canadian vessels in American waters, (see act of Congress approved June 19, 1878): Necessity for change of policy illustrated by cases of the tug Champion, the tug Winston, the tug J. H. Martin, the schooner Augustus Ford, and others. (See notes from Mr. Seward of July 15 and August 26, 1878, Foreign Relations, 1878, pages 251, 252, and notes from Mr. Evarts of June 13, 1879, page 498, and Mr. Seward of August 11, 1879, page 505, and from Sir Edward Thornton of June 18, 1879, page 498.) 481
213 Mr.Drummond to Mr. Evarts. 1879. Jan. 13 Transmitting copy of dispatch from Lord Odo Russell upon the death of Mr. Bayard Taylor. 484
214 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. Jan. 23 Case of steam-tug Crusader amicably arranged by American and Canadian officials of Detroit and Port Sarnia. 485
215 Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton. Jan. 30 Deposit of ship’s papers with consul of ship’s nation: British minister at Bogota instructed to bring question to attention of Colombian Government; the United States minister, Mr. Dichman, has already moved in the matter; copy of Lord Salisbury’s intructions will be sent to Mr. Dichman and his co-operation suggested. (See correspondence between the Department and Mr. Minister Dichman for the record of the negotiation, and the plan of settlement.) 486
216 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. Feb. 3 The Suez Canal Company to extend to vessels of all flags the rules as to tonnage-measurement recently determined upon respecting British vessels 487
217 Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton. Mar. 15 Bands of hostile Indians from Sitting Bull’s force cross the frontier: Sitting Bull said to have sent emissaries to affiliated tribes; attention of Canada called to threatened invasion of Canadian Indians. 488
218 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. Mar. 25 Respecting concentration of British Indians in Bear Paw Mountains, with intent to cross the frontier: Memorandum of Canadian minister of the interior upon the Indian question; the return of refugee Indians to the United States advocated. 488
219 Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton. Apr. 10 The thanks of the United States conveyed to Commander A’ Court, of Her Britannic Majesty’s ship “Osprey,” for his efficient service in protecting the town of Sitka from hostile Indians. (See Sir Edward Thornton’s note of May 15, page 492.) 490
20 do Apr. 19 Calling attention to large shipments of ammunition to Manitoba, which may find a market with the hostile Sioux: Report of General Terry. 491
221 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. May 15 Commander A’Court’s report upon affairs in Alaska, and upon the unprotected condition of Sitka: The withdrawal of the troops exposed the town to the mercy of the savages; the inhabitants only saved by the arrival of the Osprey; the necessity of a, permanent, fore, at Sitka shown. 492
222 Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton. May 27 Sitting Bull and his bands regarded by the United States as British Indians: The British Government responsible for the peace of the frontier respecting his operations; if it shall become necessary for the United States to repulse an invasion of its territory by Sitting Bull, the situation will be a grave one, and will require that the British Government shall be prepared on the frontier with a sufficient force either to compel their surrender to our forces as prisoners of war, or to disarm and disable them from again disturbing the Peace of the frontier. 496
223 do June 13 Necessity for some agreement touching the aid which American vessels may render to vessels of their own nationality when wrecked or disabled in Canadian waters: The United States ready to accord to Canadian vessels the right to aid vessels of their own nationality when wrecked or disabled in American waters, provided a reciprocal right in favor of our vessels be accorded; case of the tug John Owen and her tow. 498
224 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. June 18 Report of a committee of the privy council of Canada upon the question of accordance of right of relief in the case of wrecked and disabled vessels in Canadian waters to vessels of the United States: Canada ready to negotiate touching mutual concessions upon this point. 498
225 Mr. Seward to Sir Edward Thornton. July 3 Attention of Canadian Government called to the invasion of the territory of the United States by bands of British Indians and half-breeds. 500
226 Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton. July 14 Position of the United States stated respecting the Haytian consular authentication tax: The tax looked upon as an indirect export duty on goods shipped from the United States to Hayti. (See correspondence with minister to Hayti, Foreign Relations, 1878 and 1879.) 501
227 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. July 14 Shipments of ammunition to Manitoba not deemed by Canadian Government to be in sufficient amount to occasion uneasiness respecting the supplying of hostile Indians. 502
228 Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton. July 30 Restrictions placed by Canadian officials upon the navigation of the Red River within the province of Manitoba, by American vessels: Canadian regulation in conflict with Article XXX of the treaty of Washington, and opposed to the spirit of section 3102 of the Revised Statutes. 503
229 do Aug. 5 Visit of the Kearsarge to the fishing grounds off the British North American Provinces with government agent to examine pending questions between the United States and Great Britain. 504
230 Mr. Seward to Sir Edward Thornton. Aug. 9 Attention of Canadian Government called to new inroad of hostile Indians: Report of depredations committed; request for the return to the United States for punishment of the Indians charged with the commission of murder. 504
231 Mr. Seward to Sir Edward Thornton. Aug. 11 Transmitting a copy of the act of Congress, approved June 19, 1878, in relation to the aiding of wrecked and disabled vessels in the waters of the United States contiguous to the Dominion of Canada, and calling attention to the fact that it rests with Canada to take such steps in the direction of reciprocity as shall bring that act into operation. 505
232 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. Aug. 12 Note from Mr. Evarts touching the navigation of the Red River of the North to be communicated to the Canadian Government. 506
233 Mr. Seward to Sir Edward Thornton. Aug. 16 Hope expressed that an understanding may be reached between the United States and Canada as to the navigation of the Red River of the North. 507
234 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Seward. Sept. 8 Admission by Canadian Government that British Indians have crossed the frontier, but not with hostile intent; they have only done so in pursuit of the buffalo. 508
235 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Hunter. Sept. 9 Memorandum, from the Canadian Government respecting the Sioux Indians: Request that the United States will take steps to secure their return to American territory. 508
236 Sir Edward Thornton to Mr. Evarts. Sept. 30 Memorandum from the Canadian Government renewing request that the United States will take steps to secure the return of the Sioux to American Territory. Attention asked to Canadian regulations touching crossing of frontier by British Indians. 510

hawaiian islands.

No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
237 Mr. Comly to Mr Evarts 1878. Aug. 5 Report of special committee of Hawaiian Assembly upon the reciprocity treaty with the United States, and the international relations of Hawaii in consequence thereof. Copy of tariff law approved August 1, 1878. 512
238 do 1879. June 9 Instructions asked as to whether the Hawaiian tariff upon American cotton goods made up into clothing is not in contravention of Article II of the reciprocity treaty. Correspondence with Hawaiian Government. (See Mr. Evarts’ instruction of September 23, page 544.) 527
239 do June 9 Report upon alleged frauds in exportation of sugars to the United States under reciprocity treaty: Unlikelihood of such frauds; account of the process of landing and receiving cargo at various ports of the islands; report of the consul at Honolulu upon the subject; correspondence with Hawaiian foreign office; interest of Hawaiian Government to guard against such frauds upon our customs revenue. 529
240 do June 9 Failure of American merchants and. manufacturers to avail themselves of benefits of reciprocity treaty. British manufacturers supplying the Hawaiian market, notwithstsnding the fact that Hawaiian produce is almost exclusively exported to and sold in the United States. 542
241 Mr. Morton to Mr. Seward Sept. 1 Amount of gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in the Hawaiian Islands. 543
242 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Comly Sept. 23 The Hawaiian tariff respecting American cotton goods made up into clothing in violation of Article II of the reciprocity treaty. (See Mr. Comly’s dispatch of June 9, 1879, page 527.) 544


[Page LVI]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
243 Mr. Langston to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 24 Consular authentication tax: Note from Mr. Etheart and reply from Mr. Langston; restatement of the objection to the tax; question to be removed by Hayti to Washington; joint remonstrance against tax by the ministers of Great Britain, France, and Germany. (See instructions [Page LV] from Mr. Evarts, of November 7, 1877, and April 12, 1878, Foreign Relations, 1878, pages 411 and 445, and dispatches from Mr. Langston, of December 6 and 26, 1877, and January 9 and 24, 1878, Foreign Relations for 1878, pages 415, 416, 427, and 428; and in Foreign Relations for 1879, dispatches from Mr. Langston, of January 24, and March 12, 1879, pages 546, 553, and 554; and notes from Mr. Preston, of January 16, Februruary 4, and May 28, 1879, pages 583, 587, and 594; and. from Mr. Evarts, of January 22 and June 13, pages 586 and 595; and note from Mr. Evarts to Sir Edward Thornton, of July 14, page 501.) 546
244 Mr. Langston to Mr. Evarts. Jan. 24 Discriminating license law against foreigners engaged in business in Hayti: In contravention of treaty of 1864; correspondence between Mr. Langston and Mr. Ethéart. (See notes from Mr. Preston, of April 4 and May 28, pages 591 and 594; and from Mr. Evarts, April 19, page 593.) 550
245 do Jan. 24 Text of identic note of Great Britain, France, and Germany, protesting against Haytian consular authentication tax. 553
246 do Mar. 12 Translation of reply of Haytian Government to the identic note above referred to Position of Hayti. 554
247 do June 7 National assembly opened: Speeches of the President of the Republic and of the president of the Senate; unsatisfactory relationship of parties. 556
248 do June 21 Disagreement between the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies: Refusal of the Senate to confirm the election of General Peophete; efforts at reconciliation attempted by President Canal. 558
249 do June 30 Insurrection at Cape Haytien, June 20, under the leadership of General Theophile Parisien: Success of the government forces. 559
250 do June 30 Industrial condition of Hayti discussed: Deplorable condition of her agriculture; absence of capital; disposition of the people to serve in the army rather than engage in productive labor; extract from an article in Le Peuple, advocating the repeal of the constitutional prohibition against the acquisition of citizenship by whites. 560
251 do June 30 Constitution Of the Haytian Assembly: The Senate elected by the Chamber of Deputies; at present, the majority in each body held by political antagonists; the Senate refuses to recognize the organization of the Chamber as legal; bitter feeling engendered; an absolute dead-lock imminent: great danger of revolution. 562
252 do July 7 The revolution, under the leadership of Boyer Bazelais and Edmond Paul, breaks out in Port au Prince on the 30th of June. The scene of the conflict the center of the city; the government forces attack the insurgents, the heart of the city, containing many of the public buildings, destroyed by fire; loss upward of half a million dollars; the insurrection suppressed; fighting reported at Gonaives. 564
253 do July 17 The revolution extends throughout the country: Little energy shown by the government; the President resigns, and will leave Hayti; many of the defeated revolutionists of Port au Prince quietly embarked on board the British man-of-war Boxer. 569
254 do July 17 Question of asylum m consulates and legations: The practice an inducement to revolution, as it insures practical immunity to the revolutionists; gravity of the issue. (See Mr. Langston’s dispatch of July 25, page 576, and Mr. Evarts’ instruction of August 6, page 582.) 570
255 do July 18 Resignation and withdrawal of President Canal accomplished; respect shown him by the people of Port au Prince; government in the hands of the revolutionists. 572
256 do July 25 Course of events: Ineffectual efforts of the diplomatic body resident in Port au Prince to secure a suspension of hostilities. 572
257 do July 25 Correspondence touching the right of asylum 576
258 Mr. Langston to Mr. Evarts. July 26 Entry of tbe revolutionary army into Port au Prince: Establishment of a provisional government. 578
259 do July 28 Constitution of the provisional government under the presidency of General Hérrissé. 579
260 do Aug. 1 Same subject: Formal announcement of the organization of the government. 581
261 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Langston Aug. 6 The United States not tenacious in maintaining for its legations the so-called right of asylum: Where conceded, no communication between the refugees and their associates in arms should be allowed; it would be as intolerable as reprehensible, were not the refugees supposed to be kept, of mischief as wall as out of danger. 582
262 Mr. Langston to Mr. Evarts. Oct. 24 Election of General L. Salomon as President of the Republic. 582
263 Mr. Preston to Mr. Evarts Jan. 16 Restates the position of Hayti upon the consular authentication tax question: Text of the law authorizing tax. (See For. Rel., 1878, pages 411, 415, 416, 427, 428, 445; and For. Rel., 1879, pages 501, 546, 553, 554, 583, 586, 587, 594 and 595.) 583
264 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Preston Jan. 22 The consular authentication tax of Hayti of 1 per cent. exacted in the ports of the United States, in the nature of an export tax upon United States produce; the United States is prohibited by the Constitution to collect an export duty in its ports, and it cannot concede a right to a foreign nation which is denied to itself. 586
265 Mr. Preston to Mr. Evarts.. Feb. 4 The position of the Secretary of State controverted: The fee claimed to be relatively no higher than many fees exacted by consuls of the United States for similar services; nor is it thought to be in contravention of the treaty of amity and commerce between the two countries; the agreement that it is an export tax upon other produce is not accepted. 587
266 do Apr. 4 Restatement of the position of the Haytian Government upon the question of discrimination against Americans engaged in commercial and other pursuits in Hayti. in respect of license taxes, under the Haytian laws of October 30, 1876, and August 11, 1877. 591
267 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Preston Apr. 19 Reply to above: The tax shown to be in contravention of Article Y of the Treaty of 1864, which insures to Americans, engaged in trade in Hayti, exemption from discriminating taxation. 593
268 Mr. Preston to Mr. Evarts May 28 Further discussion of the question of the Haytian consular authentication tax. 594
269 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Preston June 13 Reply of Mr. Evarts: The tax believed to be unduly exorbitant and tantamount to an export tax, which it does not comport with the dignity of this government to allow to be exacted by any foreign authority in the United States. 595


[Page LVII]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
270 Mr. Marsh to Mr. Evarts 1878. Oct. 27 Retirement of Count Corti from the ministry. Questions to be brought before Parliament, the extension of the elective francise, and the abolition of the grist tax. 596
271 do Nov. 19 Congratulations upon the escape of the King from assassination: Internationalism making itself felt in Italy; the incessant attacks of the enemies of the House of Savoy, lay and ecclesiastical, upon the Government of Italy, impede the growth of a sentiment of loyalty. 597
272 do Nov. 30 Return of the King and Queen to Rome: Received with demonstrations of enthusiasm by a vast concourse of people; socialistic movements; depression in some of the large cities of the kingdom; the financial condition of Florence. 598
273 do Dec. 10 Defeat of the ministry: Questions leading to this result, the extension of the suffrage, the abolition of the grist tax, and the right of suppression of political meetings of a seditious character; the ministry held responsible for public discontent. 599
274 Mr. Marsh to Mr. Evarts 1879. Mar. 31 Case of Largomarsino: Soon to he discharged from the army by expiration of term of service. (See Foreign Relations for 1878, pages 458, 459, 460, 461, and 464.) 600
275 do July 16 Mr. Cairoli forms new Ministry 601
276 Mr. Wurts to Mr. Evarts Sept. 14 Department circular concerning Mormon emigration brought to attention of Italian Government. No prospect of Mormonism making headway in Italy. Singular and instructive career of Davide Lazzaretti, first a devoted servant of the church, and then her opponent, and the attempted founder of an antagonistic religious system; his death. 601


[Page LVIII][Page LIX]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
277 Mr. Bingham to Mr. Evarts 1878. Oct. 21 Proposed institution of quarantine inspection at Kanagawa by Japanese Government. Refusal of foreign consuls to recognize proceeding under the Japanese regulations unless approved by officers of their own selection. This position thought to be untenable by Mr. Bingham. (See dispatches from Mr. Stevens of Nov. 9, 1878, page 608, and from Mr. Bingham of July 16 and 26; August 8, 11, 18, 29; October 6, pages 647, 657, 663, 665, 667, 668, 670, 680, 681, 695.) 604
278 do Oct. 21 Memorial of the Chinese ministry in the matter of their contest with Japan concerning the Lew Chew Islands. The good offices of the United States requested. 606
279 Mr. Stevens to Mr. Evarts Nov. 9 Text of quarantine regulations for the port of Kanagawa, approved by Mr. Bingham. Cholera prevails at Nagasaki. 608
280 do Sept. 9 Regulations of the Japanese Government for the suppression of the sale of opium: Opposition of foreign press on the ground that the regulations infringe the exterritorial rights of foreigners. 609
281 do Nov. 21 Progress of the Emperor: Its political significance; the presence of the Emperor to manifest to the people his personal liberty, and his inter est in the reforms instituted by the existing Government of Japan. 610
282 do Nov. 23 Visit of Mr. Hanabusa to Corea, in respect of restriction placed upon trade between Japan and the Corean town of Fusan. Wreck of the “Barbara Taylor,” a British vessel, upon the island of Quelpart; aid rendered by the Coreans. 612
283 Do Dec. 7 Visit of Mr. Satow, Japanese secretary to British legation, to island of Quelpart. The press upon so-called Russian designs upon Corea. The Japanese difficulty with Corea likely to be settled by diplomacy. 612
284 do Dec. 19 Report of the Osaka mint: Total coinage, 82,785,397.63 yen; coinage during current year: gold, 357,578 yen; silver, 4,031,345.75yen; copper, 959,406.43 yen; the copper coinage to take the place of the rude coinage of the old regime; the foreign staff under whom the mint was organized has been reduced to two members; introduction into general circulation of the 1-yen silver piece of 416 grains; its ready acceptance. 616
285 do 1879. Jan. 15 Regulations for licensing pilots issued by Japanese Government: American consuls to aid in their enforcement. 617
286 do Jan. 24 Satisfactory arrangement of the difficulties between Japan and Corea. 619
287 do Feb. 5 Statement of imports and exports of Japan. (See Mr. Bingham’s dispatch of October 6, page 694.) 620
288 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Stevens Mar. 1 Satisfaction expressed at the settlement of the disagreements between Japan and Corea: The hope entertained that the influence of Japan may lead to the opening of Corea to the commerce of the world. 620
289 Mr. Stevens to Mr. Evarts Mar. 25 Japanese record of the reception of Mr. Townsend Harris in 1857: Mr. Harris the first foreign minister who had ever visited the capital, or been accorded an audience by the Taikun. 621
290 Mr. Stevens to Mr. Evarts Apr. 9 General Grant invited by the Japanese Government to visit Japan. (See dispatches of July 19 from Mr. Stevens, and September 2 and 18 from Mr. Bingham, page 643, 685, and 694.) 636
291 do May 13 Arrival of the prince of Lew Chew: Reorganization of the administration of the islands. 637
292 Mr. Bingham to Mr. Evarts. June 16 Export duties upon certain articles removed: Text of notification. 638
293 do June 17 Visit of Governor Hennessy, of Hong Kong, to Tokio: Copy of his address before the Chamber of Commerce of Tokio. 639
294 do July 15 General Grant: Reception in Japan; audience with the Emperor, and a review of troops in his honor; official and other fêtes; press accounts. 643
295 do July 16 Quarantine regulations against cholera of Japanese Government: Correspondence between Mr. Bingham and Mr. Terashima, and Mr. Bingham and Mr. Van Buren; proclamation of the latter of the regulations as binding upon Americans and upon American vessels; notice of Sir Harry S. Parkes; position of Great Britain and Germany respecting right of Japan to issue such regulations. The German merchant vessel “Hesperia” withdrawn from quarantine by the German consul, aided by a man-of-war. (See Mr. Bingam’s dispatch of August, 11 page 665.) 647
296 do July 23 Letter in the London Times, from Mr. E. J. Reed, M. P., upon Japan, and his recent visit to that country. 652
297 do July 24 Japanese finances: Estimates for expenditures for current fiscal year, 55,651,379.03 yen; revenue from land tax, 41,000,950 yen; constitution of a famine-relief fund by appropriation of 1,200,000 yen to fund; decrease in paper circulation, 7,499,217; decrease in debts, 21,200,280.26 yen. 656
298 do July 26 Quarantine regulations of Japanese Government for the open ports: Correspondence and notification of Mr. Bingham ordering their observance by all American vessels; notification by the British minister. 657
299 do Aug. 8 Report upon the ravages of cholera: 18,017 deaths up to July 25. 663
300 do Aug. 11 Same subject, further statistics: 23,380 deaths up to August 4. 665
301 do Aug. 11 Correspondence between Mr. Terashima and the German minister, Mr. Von Eisendecker, as to the right of the Japanese Government to issue quarantine regulations for the open ports: Germany holds that no such right exists under the treaties. (See dispatch of August 18, page 670.) 665
302 do Aug. 18 Report upon the extent of the cholera epidemic: 29,722 deaths up to August 9. 667
303 do Aug. 18 A history of cholera in Japan, translated from the Osaka Nippo. 668
304 do Aug. 18 Correspondence between Mr. Terashima and the ministers of Great Britain and Germany upon the subject of the right of the Japanese Government to establsh quarantine regulations. 670
305 do Aug. 18 Theory as to the origin of the cholera epidemic 680
306 do Aug. 29 Further cholera statistics: 54,615 deaths up to August 26. 681
307 do Sept. 2 Account of a fête by the people of Japan to the Emperor: A striking event in the history of Japan; the fête held in a public park, and attended by the Emperor, the princes, and the ministry of the empire. General Grant present at the fête. 682
308 do Sept. 2 Farewell audience of General Grant with the Emperor: Appropriate arrangements for his departure from Japan. 685
309 do Sept. 15 Remarks upon the notification that the silver yen of 416 grains will be received in payment of customs and at par with the Mexican dollar. 687
310 do Sept. 15 Report of the director-general of telegraphs: Record of the operations of the same; receipts and disbursements. 688
311 do Sept. 18 Departure of General Grant from Japan: Ceremonies of leave-taking. 694
312 do Oct. 6 Table of imports and exports in ten years. (See page 620.) 694
313 Mr. Bingham to Mr. Evarts Oct. 6 Cholera statistics: Whole number of cases up to the 30th of September, 148,038; deaths, 83,012; death-rate, 56.07. 695
314 do Oct. 9 Record of coinage of the silver yen: The Mexican dollar being driven from circulation. 695
315 do Oct. 10 Text of notification issued by Japanese Government abolishing trial by torture. 696
316 do Oct. 22 Text of a treaty between Japan and Corea opening a new port to Japanese trade: Article I. Gensan to be opened to trade; Japan to have light to establish a settlement. Articles XI, III, and IV. Ground rent and preparation of ground for settlement. Article V. Corea to build a pier and keep it in repair; rights of Corean, vessels reserved; rights of travel of Coreans by Japanese vessels insured. Article VI. Customhouse to be built. Article VII. Treaty limits. 696
317 Mr. Payson to Mr. Van Buren 1878. Nov. 23 Deportation of Thomas Glass from Japan: Forcible deportation contrary to the principles of American law; the sentence of the consul-general in the case not approved. (See dispatch of October 9, 1878, from Consul-General Van Buren, F. R. 1878, page 518.) 697


[Page LX]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
318 Mr. Turner to Mr. Evarts 1878. Apr. 3 Report upon Liberian coffee: Its commercial value; the character and extent of the soil capable of its production; its excellence; large exportation of plants to Brazil. 699
319 Mr. Smyth to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 9 Legislature in session: Message of the President, Mr. A. W. Gardner; discussion of the boundary question with Sierra Leone; the railway project of Messrs. Crisswich & Burnell, of England, to build from Monrovia interiorward;. the finances and foreign relations of the republic; receipts during fiscal year, $119,889.60, disbursements $124,166.63, deficit $4,277.03. 701
320 do Mar. 24 Meeting of the farmers: Speeches of the secretary of state, and of Dr. Blyden, Liberian minister to England; appreciation of the interest which the United States entertains for Liberia; the aid of the United States in respect of a railway to the interior urged; the trade of Liberia in the hands of the English and the Germans, although the sympathy of the people is with the United States; resources of the interior. (See Mr. Smyth’s dispatches of August 7 and 28, pages 722 and 723.) 712
321 do Apr. 26 Relations of the colonial and republican governments to the aboriginal inhabitants of the country: The question of color in its bearing upon the future of Liberia; the influence of the republic in the civilization of Africa; the necessity for the absolute equality of the colored and the black men in the administration of affairs, and in the social relations of the country. 713
322 do Apr. 26 Adjournment oi the boundary commission without settling the question submitted. Revolt of the Greaboes and Kroos attributed to the machinations of British traders. (See Mr. Smyth’s dispatch of June 17 page 718.) 717
323 do May 30 France said to be contemplating the establishment of a protectorate over Liberia: Unequivocal hostility to such a policy on the part of the government and people of Liberia. (See Mr. Hunter’s instruction to Mr. Noyes, of July 11, and Mr. Noyes’s dispatch of August 20, page 341; and Mr. Hunter’s instruction to Mr. Smyth, of September 8 page 727.) 718
324 do June 17 Manifesto of the rebellious Greaboes and Kroos 718
325 do July 17 Text of letter of the secretary of Liberia to the rebellious chiefs: The title of Liberia to their territory and allegiance clearly shown; measures to be taken to reduce them to subjection if necessary. 719
326 Mr. Smyth to Mr. Seward Aug. 7 The commercial possibilities of Central Africa. Efforts of Great Britain, France, and Belgium to establish trade relations: M. de Freycinet’s prospect of a trans-Saharian railway from Algeria to Soudan; estimated population of the Soudan upward of 100,000,000; traversed by the Niger; the inhabitants industrious; necessity for action on the part of the United States to insure the possession of a part of the trade of this section of Africa. (See Mr. Smyth’s dispatches of March 24 and August 28, pages 712 and 723.) 722
327 do Aug. 28 Report of M. de Freycinet upon the railway from Algeria to the Soudan. The prospects of success of the route set forth; European enterprise in the Soudan; activity of the European powers to establish intimate commercial relations with Central Africa. 723
328 Mr. Hunter to Mr. Smyth Sept. 8 The French Government has never expressed a desire to establish a protectorate over Liberia. 727


[Page LXI][Page LXIII][Page LXIV]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
329 Mr. Foster to Ms. Evarts 1878. Nov. 2 Forced loans imposed upon Mr. Walter Henry in Chihuahua: Mexico holds that the remedy lies in an appeal to the courts, and that such claims belong to the interior debt; Mr. Foster replies, showing the exactions committed upon Americans in Chihuahua; the futility of attempting to obtain redress through the courts, and the necessity for diplomatic intervention; correspondence between Mr. Avila and Mr. Foster. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatches October 6, 1877, September 11 and 14, 1878: F. R., 1878, pages 527, 603, 606, and December 10, 1878 page 750.) 727
330 do Nov. 4 Frontier relations: Correspondence touching the operations of Areola and his band; the ground of American complaint is that the frontier districts of Mexico are made a base of operations against the United States. The object of their remonstrance is to secure the prevention of such practices. (See F. R., 1878, pages 612 and 622, and dispatches of December 14 and 23, 1878, pages 750 and 771.) 730
331 do Nov. 22 Mexican debt held in the United States: “Corlis-Carbajal” bonds; neither the interest nor the principal of these bonds paid; some bonds bought by the Mexican Government at 18¾ cents on the dollar. (See dispatch of October 8, F. R., 1878. p. 624.) 733
332 do Nov. 29 Mexican depredations in Arizona. A refuge sought in Sonora: several arrests made; extradition declined because prisoners are Mexican. Mexico proposes two remedies: first, reciprocal agreement to extradite citizens of either for offenses committed in the territory of the other; second, the reciprocal enactment of laws punishing offenses committed in the territory of the other by citizens fleeing for protection to their own country. Dispatches from Mr. Willard, consul at Guaymas, as to attacks upon stages of the Wells-Fargo line. 734
333 do Dec. 4 Case of Emilio Boig, an American citizen impressed into the Mexican army; protest of Mr. Foster, and subsequent release of Boig. Untenable position of Mexican Government as to the requirement of matriculation; Mr. Foster holds that failure to matriculate in no way prejudices rights of Americans. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatch September 20, 1878, F. R., 1878, page 613. and July 28, 1879, page 819.) 741
334 do Dec. 9 Forced loan imposed upon American citizens by the governor of Jalisco (case of F. A. Newton): Mr. Foster recommends a resort to the courts; similar exactions in San Louis Patosi. The tax unconstitutional (see decision of the supreme court of Mexico in the Goribar case). Disreregard by Mexican Government of claims for reimbursement of losses on account of forced loans. Case of Mr. Blumenkron. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatches of November 2, and December 10, 1878, pages 727 and 750, and Mr. Seward’s instruction of January 15, 1879, page 772.) 746
335 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts Dec. 10 Case of Walter Henry: Note from Mr. Avila as to forced loans; assertion of the right to impose same; denial of the right of diplomatic intervention; Mr. Foster regards the question as second only to that of the frontier relations. 750
336 do Dec. 14 Discussion of frontier relations by Mr. Avila: Points of the discussion; first, is Mexico the base of operations for depredators upon the United States? second, if Mexico has not quite succeeded in suppressing depredations is she therefore impotent to maintain order upon her frontier? His argument is that Mexico is neither the base of operations, nor that her government is unable to maintain order upon the frontier; complaint as to the existence of the order; the case of Areola adverted to, and the claim advanced that the United States has not furnished sufficient evidence to insure the conviction of the marauders. Mr. Foster’s reply shows the insufficiency of the Mexican argument, and that the animus of the action of Mexico upon the Rio Grande is illustrated by other and grave causes of complaint advanced by the United States, vet unsettled. 754
337 do Dec. 16 Mexican debt: Contract for the funding of the debt, and the building of a system of railroads, entered into between the minister of finance and Messrs. Edward J. Perry and Pedro del Valle on behalf of the bondholders, submitted to Congress; only such bondholders as may agree to the contract to become parties thereto; the capital and accrued, interest of the bonds to be funded at 50 per cent. of their value with issue of new bonds; the agreeing bondholders to form company to build the road; the government agreeing to pay off $8,000 of funded debt for each kilometer of road built; bondholders not agreeing not to be prejudiced in present status; the practicability of the scheme, and the ability of the Mexican Government to carry out it’s share of the undertaking, discussed by Mr. Foster; as holders of the Carbajal bonds, citizens of the United States interested in the contract; text of contract. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatch of April 3, 1879. page 799.) 764
338 do Dec. 18 Finances of Mexico: Estimated receipts, $16,303,455.05; estimated expenses, $23,334,636.94; Congress called upon to equalize receipts and expenditures by either cutting down expenses or increasing; the revenue. 770
339 do Dec. 23 Arrest of Areola. Information as to his depredations requested. 771
340 Mr. Seward to Mr. Foster 1879. Jan. 15 Mr. Foster’s action in respect to the forced loan castes approved. Whenever the guarantees of the treaty are ignored through the acts of subordinate military authorities, and the judgments of the highest tribunals are unheeded, the situation demands diplomatic intervention. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatch of December 9, 1878, page 746.) 772
341 do Jan. 15 Mr. Foster’s answer to Mr. Avila’s note of November 11, 1878, respecting frontier affairs approved. Depredators from the Mexican side of the frontier, whether natives or foreigners, should be punished by Mexican laws. 773
342 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts. Jan. 28 The railway question discussed: Attitude of the present government; the contracts of the preceding governments declared null and of no effect; the Plumb & Barron contracts; case of the Mexican Railway Company (from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico); subsidy due and unpaid this road, $1,800,000; the N. J. Palmer contract for a system of roads from Mexico to the Pacific and to the Rio Grande; the contractors to be regarded, in respect of their contract, as Mexicans; opposition to railroad connection with the United States; speech of Mr. Chevaro in the Mexican Congress; Congressional action defeated; adverse reports of a joint committee [Page LXII] of Congress upon railway concessions; no connection with the American system favored; the Guaymas and Frontier Railroad; the Tehuantepec Railway; the debt-funding railway scheme (see p. 764); hostility awakened in Mexico by Senator Morgan’s resolution of May 8, 1878, respecting treaty negotiations for railway connections between the two countries. The foreign debt of Mexico, $130,000,000; present receipts only 70 per cent. of expenses; the available receipts from the custom-houses pledged, and a part repledged to pay interest and principal of debt; ten in closures illustrating the points in the dispatch. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatch October 9, 1878, F. R., 1878, page 636.) 774
343 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts Feb. 7 Reception accorded the Chicago excurson party. 796
344 do Feb. 11 Yucatan discriminating bounty in favor of hemp exported to Europe: Protest of the United States against the law recognized by Mexico as well taken; expiration of the law granting the bounty. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatch of October 28, 1878. F. R.. 1878. page 661.) 796
345 do Feb. 18 Prohibition against the settlement of Americans upon the island of Ciare, in the Gulf of Mexico. Construction given to law prohibiting Americans from purchasing land in the frontier States of the republic. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatches of August 15, 1878, F. R., 1878, page 575; of May 27 and August 20, 1879, pages 809 and 833.) 798
346 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Foster Feb. 20 Gratification expressed at reception accorded the Chicago excursionists. Little to be accomplished, however, by such enterprises; the insurance of safety to life and property alone capable of producing an enlargement of trade relations between the two countries. 799
347 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts Apr. 3 Rejection by the English bondholders of the Perry-del Valle funding contract. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatch of December 16, 1878, page 764.) 799
348 do Apr. 4 Difficulty experienced by foreigners in securing employment in Mexico. 800
349 do Apr. 11 Indian affairs upon the frontier: Campaign against the Lipans; removal of Indians from the frontier. 801
350 do Apr. 12 The firing upon the flag of Consul Sutter at Aca-pulco, May, 1877; officer in command of fort at time condemned to loss of commission. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatch of September 3, 1878, Foreign Relations, 1878, page 580.) 802
351 do Apr. 14 Resignation of Señor J. H. Ramirez, secretary of the treasury of Mexico. Text of letter of resignation. 803
352 do May 21 Visit to the hacienda of Chualta in the valley of San Martin: Exhibition of American agricultural implements; owing to cost of production and transportation, although much of the land is suitable to its production, wheat and wheat flour sell at a high price, wheat averaging $1.70 per bushel; implements of cultivation of a primitive character; results to be anticipated from the introduction of improved American machinery. 804
353 do May 24 Official table of exports: Aggregate, $28,777,508; silver, coined and in bullion, $20,493,129; gold, $1,265,199; total of other exports does not reach $7,000,000. 808
354 do May 27 Question of American ownership of realty in the frontier provinces: Note from Senor Ruelas; position of Mexico due to apprehension of annexation designs on the part of settlers. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatches of August 15, 1878, Foreign Relations, 1878, page 575, and of February 15 and August 20, 1879, pages 798 and 833.) 809
355 do May 31 Adjournment of Congress. Effort to reduce expenses, and to increase revenue by increased taxation; smuggling made a penal offense; approval of the H. H. Hall Tehuantepec railway contract; Congress unfriendly to railroads connecting with the American system. 811
356 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts June 7 Text of laws imposing penalties on smuggling, and taxes oh certain domestic manufactures: The sum of this tax being added to the tariff duties upon these articles; remarks upon the Mexican tariff policy. 812
357 Mr. Seward to Mr. Evarts July 2 A passport may be issued to a minor of discreet age unaccompanied by his parents: Until coming of age, a child born abroad of American parents, and continuing abroad, is an American citizen. (See Mr. Seward’s instruction of August 13, page 824.) 814
358 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts July 18 The case of James W. Smith, deceased, and query as to the political status of his minor children: Smith entered the Mexican army as colonel, and by that act, under Mexican law, became a citizen of Mexico; instructions asked as to status of such Mexican employés. (See Mr. Seward’s instructions of August 13, page 824.) 815
359 do July 23 Report of General Ord respecting rumored crossing of American Indians into Mexico communicated to Mr. Ruelas; rumor unfounded; note from Mexican minister, calling attention to recent depredations of American Indians. 816
360 do July 28 Matriculation of American citizens through the legation resumed by Mexico: Case of Gustave Sommer; his matriculation, heretofore refused, now conceded; matriculation granted upon request of legation based upon a State Department passport. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatches of September 20, 1878, Foreign Relations, 1878,. page 613; and December 4, F. R., 1879, page 741.) 819
361 do Aug. 2 Report upon the gold and silver com and bullion and paper currency in Mexico: Owing to silver being unlimited legal-tender, gold has ceased to circulate, and is exported as soon as it is produced. 822
362 Mr. Seward to Mr. Foster Aug. 13 The right of expatriation fully recognized by the United States: The question of acquiring Mexican citizenship to be determined by Mexican law; by taking service in the Mexican army Mr. James W. Smith is thought to have acquired Mexican citizenship; the American citizenship of his minor children, born while yet he was a citizen of the United States, recognized. (See Mr. Seward’s instructions of July 2, page 814, and Mr. Foster’s dispatch of July 18, page 815.) 824
363 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts Aug. 15 Comments by Hon. J. M. Vigil upon Mr. Felix Gibert’s report upon the administration of affairs in Lower California. 825
364 do Aug. 16 Hostility to railway connection with the American system of railroads manifested in the matter of the Guaymas and frontier road: Report of Gen. P. Sanchez Ochos, chief of engineers, upon the impolicy of any but a Mexican railway, and in favor of building a Mexican interoceanic railway; criticisms of the report by Hon. Antonio Moreno, senator from Sonora; the necessity of taking action to develop the frontier States pointed out. 826
365 do Aug. 20 Restrictions upon ownership of realty in the frontier States of the republic by Americans extended to mines: Extract from the Minitor Republicano of August 6, 1879, upon the mines of Sonora. (See Mr. Foster’s dispatches of August 15, 1878, Foreign Relations, 1878, page 575, and of February 15 and May 27, 1879. pages 798 and 800.) 833
366 do Sept. 13 Statistical data as to area, population, congressional representation, taxable property, State revenues, schools, &c.; the taxable value of property returned at $344,979,490; data as to military expenses of the States: 834
367 do Sept. 19 Receipts of the federal treasury for the year ending June 30, $17,350,867: Detailed statement of: decrease, $2,136,602; deficit, $4,378,000; decrease in the customs item, $3,214,933; slight increase in some of the other items. 836
368 Mr. Foster to Mr. Evarts Sept. 24 Favorable comment upon the President’s message; general success of General Diaz’s administration; the success mainly attributable to the personal qualities of President Diaz; hopeful signs for the future discovered; the greatest embarrassment the government has had to suffer has been occasioned by the poverty of the treasury. 837
369 Mr. Strother to Mr. Hunter Oct. 4 Review of affairs in Mexico from the standpoint of the consular correspondence: Manifest concern lest by cordially welcoming Americans and American capital steps may be taken which shall lead to absorption; the record of the progress which Mexico is making. 838


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
370 Mr. Mathews to Mr. Evarts 1879. Mar. 24 Report upon the malignant typhus fever raging in Morocco: Great loss of life; Europeans suffering alike with the natives; business paralysis. 840
371 do June 5 The rebellion of the Berber tribes suppressed: The Sultan, with his army, encamped near Rabat; the heads of thirty-four rebels sent to Rabat to be exhibited upon the walls of the town. 842
372 do July 9 Report upon the gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in Morocco. 842
373 do July 20 The kabyle of Benimteer reduced to subjection; sickness in the Sultan’s army. 843
374 do July 21 Report upon the prison system of Morocco: System of punishment for crime and care of criminals; letter to the Rev. E. C. Wines. 844


[Page LXV]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
375 Mr. Birney to Mr. Evarts 1879. Mar. 27 System of railway taxation: Laws general not special to railways, and directed to deriving revenue from the products or avails of labor and property through a license or income tax; double ownership of railways, part national and part individual; government roads leased to private corporations; concessions granted upon condition of a deposit, which is forfeited to the government if the company fails to build the road; no franchise tax; realty of roads taxed as other realty in respect to its estimated yield as such; no tax on personalty as such; stamp tax on bonds and shares. 846.
376 do Apr. 21 Same subject: Note of Mr. Heeckeren van Kell, minister for foreign affairs; answers to Mr. Adams’s six inquiries. 847
377 do Aug. 26 Change of ministry: Baron van Lynden van Sanden burg forms new cabinet and holds the portfolio of foreign affairs; the present a fusionist cabinet. 848
378 do Sept. 17 The Staats General opened by the King: Copy of his speech; three points worthy of note: 1st, the ministry will not depart from the present free-trade policy; 2d, the secularization of education law will be enforced; 3d, the island of Curaçoa will not be held. 849
379 do Sept. 19 Report upon the gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in the Netherlands: Memorandum of the minister of finance upon the subject. 851
380 do Sept. 30 The Mormon circular brought to the attention of the Netherlands Government: So far as may be effective, the co-operation of the government will be secured to the discouragement of Mormon emigration. 852
381 Mr. Birney to Mr. Evarts Oct. 30 Same subject: Note from Mr. van Lynden van Sandenburg; but few Mormons go from the Netherlands; the commissioners at Rotterdam to do all in their power to discourage such emigrants from going to the United States. 854


[Page LXVI][Page LXVII]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
382 Mr. Gibbs to Mr. Evarts 1878. Nov. 20 Assassination of Don Manuel Pardo, president of I the Senate and leader of the Civilist party, by a soldier of the guard at the door of the Senate chamber; profound sensation; the deed condemned by the most intelligent and best section of the Peruvian people; the assassin arrested; details of the crime. 855
383 do 1879. Feb. 10 Increase of duties on exports and imports to j create a fund for the amortization of the treasury notes; text of law. 859
384 do Mar. 19 Question of the right of foreign-built vessels owned by American citizens to fly the American flag and to claim protection: Case of the “Itata,” a vessel said to have been bought by Henry L. Stevens, an American citizen resident in Chili, from the South American Steamship Company of Chili; the “Itata” entered the port of Callao under the American flag, with a regular clearance from Valparaiso; Mr. Gibbs directed the consul to return the ship’s papers to the captain and to cause him to haul down the flag; correspondence in the case. (See dispatches from Mr. Gibbs of March 25 and April 7, page 865; instructions from Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy of April 24, May 8, June 20, and December 26, pages 867, 874, 884, 894; dispatches from Mr. Christiancy of May 20, June 1, June 3, pages 877, 881, and 882; and dispatches from Mr. T. A. Osborn, minister to Chili, March 31, April 26, pages 150 and 174; and instructions from Mr. Evarts to Mr. Osborn of June 9, page 177, and from Mr. Hunter to Mr. McKellar of June 2; and to Mr. Foote of October 23, page 180.) 861
385 do Mar. 25 Same subject: Case of the “Loa,” a sister ship of the “Itata;’ entered Callao March 23 under the Chilian flag, having exchanged the American I flag for that of Chili at Arica. 865
386 do Apr. 7 Same subject: Note from Mr. Gibbs to the minister for foreign affairs informing him that there is no law that permits foreign vessels to use the American flag. (See Mr. Evarts’ instruction to Mr. Christiancy of May 8. page 874.) 865
387 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy. Apr. 9 The hope expressed that Peru will remain neutral in the approaching contest between Bolivia and Chili. 867
388 do Apr. 24 Case of the “Itata”: Under the circumstances the right of the “Itata” to fly our flag was properly challenged. 867
389 Mr. Christiancy to Mr. Evarts. Apr. 29 Official documents bearing upon the war between Peru and Chili, and explaining the causes which induced Peru to go to war; text of treaty of alliance with Bolivia; note from Chilian Government terminating the Peruvian mission to that country; message of President Prado and reply of the president of Congress. (See Mr. Osborn’s dispatches of April 10 and 19, pages 167 and 168.) 867
390 do Apr. 29 Joint note from the ministers of the United States, France, Great Britain. Italy, and Germany to the commander of the Chilian blockading squadron, protesting, in the name of the neutral nations, against the bombardment of open, purely commercial, towns without notice to neutrals; instances the bombardment of Mollendo and Pisagua. (See Mr. Evarts’ instruction of June 18, page 883.) 872
391 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy. May 8 Right of foreign-built vessels wholly owned by American citizens to national protection, and to the national flag; the flag allowed to such vessels as an indication of her ownership and as an emblem of owner’s nationality. 874
392 Mr. Christiancy to Mr. Evarts. May 12 Causes of the war between Chili and Peru traced to traditional hostility; Chilian success at sea; difficult country for the armies to operate in; need of transports by Peru; disastrous effect of the war upon the finances; liberality of private individuals; depreciation of the paper money; the suffering of neutral shipping; the coasting trade of Peru opened to neutrals. 874
393 do May 20 Copies of correspondence between Mr. Osborn and Mr. Christiancy as to the right of foreign-built vessels owned’ by citizens of the United States to fly the American flag. 877
394 do May 27 Chilian fleet appears off Callao; progress of the war; concentration of the military forces of Peru and Bolivia; effect of the war upon Peruvian finances; loss of the Chilian corvette Esmeralda, and of the Peruvian iron-clad Independencia. Loan bill passed by Peruvian Congress. 879
395 do June 1 The substance of Mr. Evarts s instruction of May 8 (see page 874) respecting the right of foreign-built vessels owned by American citizens to fly the American flag, communicated to the minister for foreign affairs. 881
396 do June 3 Copy of a letter from Mr. Christiancy to Minister Osborn respecting the right of foreign-built vessels owned by Americans to fly the American flag. 882
397 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy June 18 Mr. Christiancy’s action respecting the Chilian bom bardment of Mollendo and Pisagua approved. The rule of international law respecting foreigners domiciled in the country of a belligerent is that they must share with the citizens of that country in the fortunes of war. (Copy of Mr. Attorney-General Stanbery’s opinion of August 31, 1866. respecting the bombardment of Valparaiso by the Spanish. See Mr. Christiancy’s dispatch of April 29, page 872.) 883
398 do June 20 Right of foreign-built vessels owned by citizens of the United States to fly the American flag; as a citizen is not prohibited from purchasing and employing abroad a foreign-built ship, when such purchase is made in good faith, there is no reason why he should not fly the flag of his country as an indication of ownership. 884
399 do June 26 Treasury circular respecting the proposed issuance of letters of marque, by Bolivia, to Americans; the neutrality of the United States to be maintained. (See instructions from Mr. Evarts to Mr. Pettis, of June 23 and 25, pages 125, 126.) 886
400 Mr. Christiancy to Mr. Evarts July 15 Question of the effectiveness of the Chilian blockade of Iquique, and of the effect upon the blockade of the withdrawal at night of the blockading squadron to a distance of from four to five miles; unsuccessful attempt to raise the blockade by the Peruvian iron-clad Huascar; letter from Mr. Christiancy to Mr. Merriam, consul at Iquique. (See Mr. Evarts’s instruction of August 8, page 893.) 886
401 do July 23 Letter from Mr. Christiancy to Mr. Merriam respecting the right of the Chilian fleet to prevent the shipping of nitrates from Pisagua; questions touching contraband of war and blockade. 888
402 do July 30 Correspondence as to the bombardment of Iquique by the Chilian fleet; question touching the right to bombard without notice discussed by Mr. Christiancy; protests of the consular body and answer of the Chilian commander. 889
403 do Aug. 8 Telegram from President Prado announcing the raising of the blockade of Iquique. 893
404 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy Aug. 8 The views expressed by Mr. Christiancy respectting the blockade of Iquique approved. (See Mr. Christiancy’s dispatch of July 15. page 886.) 893
405 Mr. Christiancy to Mr. Evarts Sept. 24 Increase of the British squadron in the Paficic 894
406 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Christiancy Dec. 26

The right of Americans to buy foreign-built vessels, and to carry on commerce with them, exists independently of statute law, and such vessels may properly fly the flag of the owner’s country as an indication of such ownership, and as an emblem of the owner’s nationality; consuls before recording bills of sale under paragraphs 220 and 221 of the Consular Regulations must satisfy themselves of the good faith of the transaction; unless so satisfied, they need not record or authenticate the bill of sale; such paper so recorded and authenticated becomes prima facie evidence of American ownership, and should be so regarded by all officers of the government, unless there be reason to believe that the authenticating consul was misled in his conclusions; the question of ownership may be inquired into by any competent court, such as a prize court of a belligerent, after capture of the vessel in proper course of naval operations. (See instructions to Mr. Christiancy of April 24, May 8, and June 20, pages 867, 874, and 884, and to Mr. T. A. Osborn of June 9, page 177.)

Note.—An identic instruction sent to the minister to Chili.



No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
407 Mr. Moran to Mr. Evarts. 1879. Jan. 6 Cortes opened by the King: Speech from the throne; friendly relations with foreign nations; colonial relations; educational measures; military duty and recruiting; railways; harbors; finances discussed. 897
408 do Mar. 20 Captains of American whaling ships in Cape Verde Islands in shipping crews evade local law, and ship men under obligation of military duty: Request that such ships may not be allowed to receive on board seamen without necessary papers. (See Mr. Moran’s dispatch of May 19, page 903.) 899
409 do Apr. 9 Tobacco duties advanced: Details of the measure 900
410 do Apr. 11 Signal assistance rendered to the frigate Constitution by the Portuguese Government: The thanks of Mr. Moran and Captain Badger conveyed to the minister for foreign affairs. 901
411 do May 1 Naval cemetery at Cape Saint Vincent: Preparation for the transfer of the dead from the old to the new cemetery; the walls to be built by Portuguese Government; need of an annual appropriation to keep the cemetery in order. (See Mr. Moran’s dispatch of December 22, 1877, Foreign Relations, 1878, page 737.) 902
412 do May 1 Same subject: The satisfaction of the United States expressed at the action of the Portuguese authorities respecting the naval cemetery at Cape Saint Vincent. 902
413 do May 19 No specific charge has been made against American whaling ships in the matter of the improper enlistment of seamen; precautions taken by consul to cause observance of local laws. 903
414 do June 18 The thanks of the United States conveyed to the Government of Portugal on account of the courtesy and assistance rendered to the frigate Constitution. 905


[Page LXVIII][Page LXIX]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
415 Mr. Stoughton to Mr. Evarts. 1878. Dec. 28 Transmitting a report from Lieut. F. V. Greene, U. S. A., recommending the appointment of military and naval attaches to several of the legations in Europe; memorandum concerning the position and duties of military attachés. 906
416 Mr. Edwards to Mr. Evarts 1879. Mar. 20 System of railway taxation: Companies free from taxation as holders of realty or personalty; stockholders exempt from taxation upon their stock; tax levied January 1, 1879, upon passenger traffic; with this exception no tax on gross or net receipts; railroad companies under control of the government, and subject to a franchise tax; conditions upon which companies may be organized; with the exception of three companies, the government pays a guarantee to all the others, ranging from 1½ to 4 per cent. per annum upon the share and bonded capital. 910
417 Mr. Hoffman to Mr. Evarts. Apr. 4 Russian plague: Exaggerated accounts; not the plague, but rather a virulent form of typhus confined to a small district; precautions of Germany abated. 912
418 do Apr. 14 Attempt to assassinate the Emperor: The assassin seized; the city greatly agitated; the Emperor unhurt; drives out and is enthusiastically received by the people. 913
419 do Apr. 14 Case of Mr. Calvocoressi’s (an American citizen resident in Turkey) claim for compensation for losses sustained at the hands of the Russian army during their occupation of Turkey: The case brought to the attention of the Russian Government; the right of a foreigner domesticated in the territory of a belligerent to claim I compensation for losses sustained at the hands of the other belligerent, discussed. (See Mr. Evarts’ instructions to Mr. Hoffman of July 18, and Mr. Hoffman’s two dispatches of November 3 and 4, pages 924, 926, and 927.) 913
420 do Apr. 15 The congratulations of the President and people of the United States upon the escape of the Emperor from assassination communicated to him. 915
421 do Apr. 15 Response of Prince Gortchakoff to Mr. Hoffman’s note conveying the congratulations of the President upon the escape of the Emneror. 916
422 do Apr. 16 Stringent regulations as to passports and residence have been enforced since the attempt upon the life of the Emperor. New law regulating interest upon loans. 917
423 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Hoffman. Apr. 19 Congratulations of the President upon the escape of the Emperor, the wise and firm Mend and protector of the great Russian people, from assassination. 917
424 Mr. Hoffman to Mr. Evarts,. May 5 Trial and execution of Lieutenant Dombrovine, a member of the Nihilist society. Exaggerated statements in the English and New York papers as to the state of affairs in Russia. 918
425 do May 12 Mr. Evarts’s dispatch conveying the congratulations of the President upon the escape of the Emperor communicated to his highness Prince Gortchakoff. 919
426 do May 13 Regulations to guard against the spread oi the cattle plague. 920
427 do May 26 Condition of affairs in Russia: Political executions; incendiary fires; grasshoppers; and restrictions upon the migration of people from one section of Russia to another. 920
428 do May 29 Position of Jews in Russia: Case of Mr. H. Rosenstraus, a naturalized citizen of the United States; foreign Jews restricted by law from settling in Russia exceptions in favor of British Jews; the exception further extended to other foreign Jews; restrictions upon the holding of real estate; the classification of Jews in guilds; taxes upon, &c. 921
429 do June 17 Report upon the gold and silver coin and bullion and paper currency in circulation in Russia. 923
430 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Hoffman July 18 Case of John Calvocoressi: Not one to be pressed as of right; to be commended to the favorable consideration of the Russian Government; San Stefano was not the scene of active hostilities, and the occupation of his property was rather for the convenience of Russian officers than on account of purely military exigencies or requirements. (See Mr. Hoffman’s dispatches of April 14 and November 4 and 5, pages 913, 926, and 927.) 924
431 Mr. Hoffman to Mr. Evarts Aug. 1 Visit to the three naval vessels built upon the Delaware for the Russian Government: The government said to be pleased with the vessels; the officers of the navy seem to take pride in them. 925
432 do Sept. 16 Extracts from the Journal de St. Petersburg upon the locust in Southern Russia: Report of Mr. Portcbinsky. secretary of the Russian Society of Entomology. 925
433 do Nov. 3 Note from Baron Jomini rejecting the claim of Mr. John Calvocoressi: No liability recognized by the Imperial Government on account of damage done to private property during the occupancy of an enemy’s country. 926
434 do Nov. 4 Note representing the equities of the Calvocoressi case, and urging it upon the favorable consideration of the Russian Government. 927


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
435 Mr. Sickels to Mr. Payson 1879. Feb. 19 General Giant invited by the King to visit Siam; the Siamese Government thinking of sending an embassy to the United States. 928
436 do July. 10 The government ready to send an embassy to the United States whenever it is officially informed from Washington that it would be agreeable to the government to receive the embassy. 928
437 do Aug. 25 Same subject: History of former Siamese embassies; the embassy to the United States designed to study American industry; an opportunity will be afforded through the embassy to extend American trade relations with Siam. 929
438 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Sickels Aug. 29 Mr. Sickels instructed to assure the Siamese Goveminent that it will give the Government of the United States great satisfaction to receive the embassy; the belief entertained thatit will tend to develop international commerce; the President will call the attention of Congress to the subject, in order that suitable arrangements may be made to receive the embassy. 930
439 Mr. Sickels to Mr. Payson Oct. 6 Congratulatory address of Americans to the King of Siam upon the occasion of his birthday. 931


[Page LXX]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
440 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Lowell. 1878. Sept. 24 Certain packages of “La Ilustracion Espanola” and “La Moda Elegante,” sent by mail to the United States, were returned to Spain, because, under the construction given the postal union treaty by the international bureau at Berne, duties may not be collected upon dutiable matter sent by mail within the limits of the union; letters and circulars from the Treasury and Post-Office Departments upon the subject. (See Mr, Lowell’s dispatch of August 30, 1878, Foreign Relations, 1878, page 798.) 932
441 Mr. Lowell to Mr. Evarts Oct. 29 Account of the visit of General Grant to Spam: At Vitoria he dined with the King and rode by his side during the reviews; his reception in Madrid; every possible attention and courtesy shown him during his stay by the Spanish government. 935
442 do 1879. Feb. 11 Extradition of Charles W. Angell: Arrested in Portugal; permission granted by Spanish Government to transport him across Spanish territory. (For discussion of extradition and transit questions see case of C. G. Scrafford; Mr. Evarts to Mr. Dichman, Nov. 12, 1878, F. R., 1878, p. 151: Report of Royal British Commission upon Extradition; Mr. Welsh’s dispatch of June 22, 1878, F. R., 1878, p. 268: dispatches from Mr. Dichman of February 15 and March, 17, 1879, pp. 271 and 273, F. R., 1879, and Mr. Evarts’ instruction to Mr. Lowell of February 11, 1879, p. 941.) 936
443 Mr. Lowell to Mr. Evarts Feb. 14 Importation into Spain of American wheat: It is sold at a profit; question of a commercial treaty between Spain and the United States discussed; protection and free trade influences in the Cortes. 938
444 do Feb. 20 The question of a commercial treaty between Spain and the United States; article from La Epoca; conflict of sectional interests; Spanish agriculture; need of improved agricultural machinery; steam communication with foreign countries. 939
445 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Lowell Mar. 5 The question of the right of transit of an extradited criminal in custody across the territory of a foreign state, now attracting the attention of the department: Satisfaction of the United States at the courteous accordance of that right by Spain in the case of Angell. (See Mr. Lowell’s dispatch of February 11, page 936.) 941
446 Mr Lowell to Mr. Evarts June 2 Opening of the Cortes by the King in person: Judicial reforms proposed; Cuban questions discussed; measures looking to the assimilation of the administration in the Antilles and in the Peninsula; Cuban representatives in the Cortes; project looking to the extinction of slavery; reformation of taxes; ministerial crisis impending. 941
447 do Aug. 19 Report of General Martinez Campos in relation to the pacification of Cuba: His position at the head of the ministry; the Cuban question the most important one before the Cortes. 943
448 do Aug. 20 Report of the minister of ultramar upon Cuban reforms: Royal decree appointing a commission to formulate measures of reform. 952
449 do Aug. 22 Question of extraordinary taxes imposed upon Americans in the Island of Cuba: The subject referred to the governor-general for consideration. (See page 800, Foreign Relations. 1878.) 954
450 do Aug. 22 Excessive tonnage dues exacted from American vessels at Manilla returned. 955
451 Senor Mendez de Vigo to Mr. Evarts. Mar. 29 Transmitting a draft for $10,000 in payment of the indemnity on account of the American barks Ellen Rizpah and Rising Sun. (See Foreign Relalations: 1878. pages 769, 775, 777, 784, 786.) 956
452 Mr. Evarts to Senor Mendez de Vigo. Apr. 1 Same subject: Acknowledging receipt of the indemnity. 956

sweden and norway.

No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
453 Mr. Stevens to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 20 Parliament opened by the King: Text of the speech; an increase of duties recommended; business relations discussed. 956
454 do May 19 New tariff law in force: Duties increased; rate of duties. 958
455 do May 20 The government authorized to issue its bonds to the amount of 23,000,000 crowns in aid of the railways and banks of the country, taking mortages upon completed railways as security, and to buy one line of railway for 4,000,000 crowns; government advances to railways since 1855, 190,000,000 crowns; the state owns about half the railways. 959
456 do Aug. 26 Railways of Sweden and Norway: Their construction of recent date, owing to the admirable system of water communication, artificial and natural, throughout the two kingdoms; first Swedish railway built by the government in 1856; 1,005 miles of state railway, cost $41,400,000; 1,240 miles of private railways, cost $61,000,000; state aid to private roads; first Norway railroad built in 1854; miles in operation 656, in construction 362; total cost $30,000,000, of which $22,500,000 has been paid by the government. 960
457 do Sept. 23 The Mormon emigration question brought to the attention of the Swedish Government: Difficulty of direct government action pointed out; so far as may be consistent with law, the government will assist in discouraging Mormon emigration. 964
[Page LXXI]


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
458 Mr. Fish to Mr. Evarts 1878. Dec. 2 Socialistic movements: Switzerland’s attitude respecting the question of political asylum; rumored dissatisfaction of neighboring nations in respect to the accordance of asylum by Switzerland to political prescripts; utterances of the Swiss press upon the subject. (See discussion of subject of asylum in Haytien correspondence, pages 570, 576, 582.) 965
459 do 1879. Mar. 13 Abuse of American citizenship: Case of William Dietze; naturalized in 1855; twenty-four years away from the United States; twenty years in Switzerland; correspondence between Mr. Fish and the consul at Zurich in respect to the case. 968
460 do Mar. 31 Railway taxation in Switzerland: No direct taxes imposed by national government; right of free transportation of mails, mail cars, and employes of mail service reserved; other government transportation to be paid for; disagreement as to rates to be determined by the judicial tribunals; an annual concession tax at the rate of 50 francs for each kilometer in operation if income of road be at the rate of 4 per cent. on capital; 100 francs, if income be at the rate of 5 per cent.; and 200 francs, if income be at rate of 6 per cent; right of taxation reserved to cantons. 970
461 do May 19 Capital punishment: By recent vote the right to resort to, restored to the cantons, except in respect of political offenses; corporeal punishment abolished. 971
462 do June 9 Pauper emigration to the United States: Case of the family Brugger, sent by the communal authorities of Graben; the man unfit to work, and the woman half blind. 972
463 do Oct. 18 Difficulties attending Swiss expatriation: Action of communal and cantonal authorities in withholding property belonging to Swiss naturalized in the United States; report of Mr. Consul Byers upon the subject; for Swiss law regulating expatriation see F. R. 1876, page 567. 973

turkish empire.

1. turkey.

[Page LXXII]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
464 Mr. Maynard to Mr. Evarts 1878. Nov. 20 Notable visit of the Japanese corvette Seiki to Constantinople: Ceremonies of reception. 976
465 do Dec. 25 Proceedings necessary to validate a marriage between American citizens in a Mohammedan country in which there is no consular representative; suggestions as to the amendment of section 4082, Revised Statutes, to include diplomatic officers as well as consular officers. 977
466 Mr. Heap to Mr. Evarts 1879. Feb. 11 Abstract of treaty of peace between Turkey and Russia, signed 8th February, relating to the execution of so much of the treaty of San Stefano as remains unaffected by the treaty of Berlin: Payment of the indemnity; payment of losses of Russian subjects; status of the inhabitants of ceded provinces. 978
467 Mr. Maynard to Mr. Evarts. June 28 Deposition of Ismail Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt, by imperial irade of the Sultan of June 26, 1879, and the appointment of his son, Tewfik Pasha, as Khedive: Papers relating to his deposition. (See dispatches from Mr. Maynard of July 11, page 982, from Mr. Farman March 18, June 27, pages 996, 1005, and from Mr. Comanos of July 16, August 8. August 19, pages 1008, 1013.) 979
468 do July 10 Note from Turkish minister for foreign affairs requesting the sanction of the United States to the increase of customs duties in Crete, to raise funds for the support of schools. 931
469 do July 11 Review of the establishment of the khedivate of Egypt and of the reign of Ismail Pasha: The reason of his downfall; the practical withdrawal of the autonomous character heretofore accorded to the Government of Egypt; henceforth Egypt to be regarded as a province of the empire. (See Mr. Farman’s dispatch of June 27, page 1005.) 932
470 Mr. Maynard to Mr. Evarts July 12 Affairs in Eastern Roumelia: The administration of Aleko Pasha Vogorides as governor-general; manifestations of hostility to Turkish rule by the Bulgarian part of the population; article from the London Spectator, attributed to the Marquis of Bath, upon Roumelian affairs. 984
471 do Aug. 29 Case of Etienne P. Mirzan, a naturalized citizen, charged with the murder of Dr. Alexander Dahan in Alexandria, Egypt: Question of jurisdiction of court of consul-general; correspondence between Mr. Maynard and Mr. Comanos. (See Mr. Evarts’s instructions to Mr. Maynard of October 9, and to Mr. Comanos of July 22, pages 990 and 1010, and dispatch from Mr. Comanos of July 30, page 1012.) 987
472 Mr. Hunter to Mr. Maynard. Oct. 9 Same subject: Mr. Maynard’s letter to Mr. Comanos as to jurisdiction of the court of the consul-general approved; the court has jurisdiction of the Mirzan trial. 990
473 Mr. Maynard to Mr. Evarts. Oct. 13 Account of the visit of the British ambassador to Syria: Letters from the consuls at Beirut and Jerusalem. 990
474 do Oct. 15 Reawakening of religious zeal a g ong the Mohammedans: An incident in illustration. 993

2. egypt.

No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
475 Mr. Farman to Mr. Evarts 1879. Feb. 3 Report upon the Suez canal: The canal a complete financial success. Total cost of the canal up to 1877, 472,921,799 francs; adding estimated value of labor furnished by Egyptian government at $38,000,000, and cost of fresh-water canal and connections built by Egyptian government and the company 50,000,000 francs, the total cost would be 560,000,000 francs, deducting all aid of whatsoever kind received from Egypt, and the actual cost to the company would be 358,921,799 francs. The stock of the company consists of 400,000 shares at 500 francs each; Great Britain holds by purchase from Egypt 176,602 shares, bought at the rate of 568 francs per share; the bulk of the balance of the stock held in France; present market price of shares 717 francs. Total debt of the company, 116,000,000 francs. Revenue of the canal in 1870, $995,752; in 1877, $6,325,448. Interest at the rate of 5 per cent. has been regularly paid since the first issue of the stock. (See Mr. Van Dyck’s dispatch of October 17, p. 1034). 993
476 do Mar. 18 Progress of the interference of Great Britain and France in Egyptian affairs: Demand of the two powers for the restoration of Nubar Pasha to the ministry, or in default thereof that the two European ministers should have the power of veto respecting all measures presented to the council; notes from the Khedive and the representatives of France and Great Britain; debate in the House of Commons upon Egyptian finances. 996
477 do May 22 Negotiations respecting the transfer of Cleopatra’s needle to New York: Notes from Mr. Farman and from the minister for foreign affairs of Egypt. 1003
478 do June 27 The deposition of the Khedive: Proceedings upon the proclamation of Prince Tewfik; the attitude of the two powers, France and Great Britain; review by Mr. Farman of the incidents of Ismail Pasha’s reign. (See Mr. Maynard’s dispatch of July 11 page 982.) 1005
479 Mr. Comanos to Mr. Evarts. July 16 Same subject: Copies of official telegrams touching the deposition of the Khedive. 1008
480 Mr.Evarts to Mr. Comanos. July 22 Case of the naturalized citizen Mirzan charged with murder: Vice consul-general, in absence of consul-general, has jurisdiction of case. 1010
481 Mr. Comanos to Mr. Evarts. July 30 Same subject: Incidents of the murder in Alexandria of Dr. Dahan by Mirzan. 1012
482 do Aug. 8 Copy of telegram from Prince Tewfik to Grand Vizier upon receipt of notification of his accession to the khedivate of Egypt. 1013
483 Mr. Comanos to Mr. Evarts Aug. 19 Ceremonies upon the reception of the firman of the Sultan constituting Tewfik Pasha Khedive of Egypt: Translation of the firman; description of the divisions of Egypt. 1013
484 do Sept. 1 The Khedive willing to appoint an American member upon the commission of liquidation; foreign intervention in the government. 1017
485 do Sept. 2 Fifteen official documents showing the proceedings of Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria, in concert with Turkey, in 1840 and 1841, in relation to the “pacification of the Levant:” In 1839 Muhammed Ali, Pasha of Egypt, was in victorious possession of Syria, and threatened the destruction of the Turkish Empire; the great powers, in co-operation with Turkey, restored the Turkish power. 1018
486 do Sept. 6 Re-establishment of the controller-generalship of receipts and expenses, and the appointment of Messrs. Baring and de Blignieres as controllers-general. 1033
487 Mr. Van Dyck to Mr. Hunter. Oct. 17 Statistics as to the Suez Canal: Transit of vessels; tonnage, receipts, expenses, profits; nationality of vessels. (See Mr. Farman’s dispatch of February 3, 1879, page 993.) 1034
488 do Oct. 23 Revenues and expenses of Egyptian Government: Receipts, £8,500,000 (Egyptian); interest on bonded debt, £4,648,200; interest on other debt, £300,000; total interest, £5,000,000; balance for expenses, £3,500,000; ordinary expenses, £4,500,000; probable deficit, £1,000,000. 1035

3. tunis.

No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
489 Mr. Fish to Mr. Hunter 1878. Nov. 26 Tax for maintenance of light-houses on the coast of Tunis: The United States consents to the imposition of a moderate tax upon shipping. (See Mr. Heap’s dispatches of August 2 and 13, and Mr. Evarts’s reply of October 23, F. R., 1878. pages 931, 932, 933.) 1036
490 do 1879. Apr. 16 Opening of the Tunisian section of the French Railway of Algeria: Ceremonies upon the occasion. 1037


No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
491 Mr. Caldwell to Mr. Evarts. 1879. Mar. 10 Constitutional form of government restored: Colonel Lorenzo Latorre elected President; composition of the ministry. 1038


[Page LXXIV]
No. From whom and to whom. Date. Subject. Page.
492 Mr. Baker to Mr. Evarts 1879. Jan. 24 Attempt of Venezuela to prevent the entry of American vessels into Puerto Cabello, that port being: in the hands of insurgents, without establishing a blockade: Protest of Mr. Baker. 1038
493 Mr. Evarts to Mr. Baker Feb. 24 Same subject: Approval of the protest and course of Mr. Baker respecting the attempt of Venezuela to restrict the entry of American vessels into Puerto Cabello. 1040
494 Mr. Baker to Mr. Evarts Feb. 26 Entry of the revolutionary army under General Cedeno into Caracas. 1040
495 do Feb. 27 Arrival of General Guzman Blanco, the head of the revolution, in Caracas. 1041
496 do Mar. 17 Decree of General Guzman Blanco, assembling a congress of plenipotentiaries to deliberate upon the condition of the nation. 1041
497 Mr. Baker to Mr. Evarts Apr. 14 Decree of General Guzman Blanco, constituting the department of Maracay a federal district. 1042
498 do May 14 Proceedings of the congress of plenipotentiaries: Redaction of the number of States from twenty to seven; election of Guzman Blanco as provisional president; his proposed visit to Europe sanctioned. 1043
499 do June 10 Programme of General Guzman’s visit to Europe, to negotiate for the reduction of the debt; to negotiate treaties to insure the development of the resources of Venezuela, and to formalize the purchase of Curaçoa. 1043
500 do Aug. 25 Report upon the trade relations of Venezuela: Transportation in the hands of French, English, German steamship companies; no American steamers engaged; table of distances from ports of Venezuela to those of the United States and of Europe respectively; no profit made of advantages in fayor of the United States; conditions favorable for enlarged commercial intercourse between Venezuela and the United States. 1044
501 do Oct. 28 Translation of contract, approved by Gen. Guzman Blanco, between the minister of Venezuela at Paris and M. Eugenio Pereire, under Which the latter agrees to organize a commercial company to undertake the development of the resources of Venezuela, in consideration of Venezuela’s granting to him exclusive and general rights respecting the building of railroads, roads, canals, the entry and working of mines, the establishing of manufactories, the creation of banks, the issue of certificates of indebtedness, &c. 1045