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Abbreviations and Terms

    • ABA, American Bar Association
    • AF, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
    • AF/EPS, Economic Policy Staff, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
    • AF/I, Office of Inter-African Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
    • AFMIC, Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center
    • AF/P, Public Affairs Staff, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
    • AF/RA, Office of Regional Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
    • AF/S, Office of Southern African Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
    • AFR/DP, Office of Development Planning, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development
    • AID, Agency for International Development
    • AID/AA/DS, Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Development Support, Agency for International Development
    • AID/AA/LEG, Assistant Administrator, Office of Legislative Affairs, Agency for International Development
    • AID/AA/PDC, Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Private and Development Cooperation, U.S. Agency for International Development
    • AID/AA/PPC, Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International Development
    • AID/AF, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development
    • AID/AFR, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development
    • AID/AFR/DR, Office of Development Resources, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development
    • AID/AFR/EA, Office of East Africa Affairs, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development
    • AID/AFR/TR, Office of Technical Resources, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development
    • AID/ANE/TR, Office of Technical Resources, Bureau for Asia and the Near East, Agency for International Development
    • AID/ASIA/TR, Office of Technical Resources, Bureau for Asia, Agency for International Development
    • AID/DAA/ST, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • AID/DS/POP, Office of Population, Bureau for Development Support, Agency for International Development
    • AID/ES, Office of the Executive Secretary, Agency for International Development
    • AID/GC, Office of the General Counsel, Agency for International Development
    • AID/LAC/DR, Office of Development Resources, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, Agency for International Development
    • AID/NE/TECH, Office of Technical Support, Bureau for Near East, Agency for International Development
    • AID/PPC, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, Agency for International Development
    • AID/PPC/PDPR, Office of Policy Development and Program Review, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, Agency for International Development
    • AID/S, Directorate for Health and Population, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • AID/S&T/H, Office of Health, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • AID/S&T/POP, Office of Population, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • AID/SER/MP, Office of Management Planning, Bureau for Program and Management Services, Agency for International Development
    • AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    • AMB, Ambassador
    • AMCITS, U.S. citizens
    • AP, adjusted protection
    • APA, American Psychiatric Association
    • ARA, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State
    • ARA/ECP, Office of Regional Economic Policy, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State
    • ARC, AIDS-related complex
    • AZT, azidothymidine
    • BBC, British Broadcasting Corporation
    • BIWS, Bureau of International Whaling Statistics
    • C, Counselor of the Department of State
    • CA/PC, Program Planning and Coordination Staff, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Department of State
    • CBW, chemical and biological weapons
    • CCC, Commodity Credit Corporation
    • CDC, Centers for Disease Control
    • CDE, confidence- and security-building measures and disarmament in Europe
    • CDU, Christian Democratic Union
    • CEFIC, European Chemical Industry Council
    • CEQ, Council on Environmental Quality
    • CFC, chlorofluorocarbons
    • CIA, Central Intelligence Agency
    • COMUSNAVPHIL Subic Bay, Commander, U.S. Naval Forces, Philippines, Subic Bay
    • CPSCU, Communist Party of the Soviet Union
    • CSCE, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe
    • CW, chemical weapons
    • D, Deputy Secretary of State
    • DAA/AFR, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Africa, Agency for International Development
    • DAS, Deputy Assistant Secretary
    • DCIT, Draft Convention Informal Text
    • DCM, Deputy Chief of Mission
    • DI, Directorate of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency
    • DIA, Defense Intelligence Agency
    • DOC/NOAA/OME, Office of Oceans, Minerals, and Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce
    • DOD, Department of Defense
    • DOE, Department of Energy
    • DOH, Department of Health
    • DPC, Domestic Policy Council
    • E, Undersecretary of State for Economic Affairs
    • EA, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Department of State
    • EA/RA, Office of Regional Affairs, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Department of State
    • EAP, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Department of State
    • EAP/J, Office of Japanese Affairs, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Department of State
    • EAP/PHL, Office of Philippine Affairs, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • EB, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, Department of State
    • EB/ICD, Office of International Commodities, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, Department of State
    • EB/MPM, Marine and Polar Minerals Division, Office of International Commodities, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, Department of State
    • EB/OIA, Office of Investment Affairs, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, Department of State
    • EC, European Community
    • ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council, United Nations
    • EEC, European Economic Community
    • EEZ, Exclusive Economic Zone
    • EIF, entry into force
    • ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    • EO, Executive Order
    • EOC, Ethiopian Orthodox Church
    • EPA, Environmental Protection Agency
    • EPA/A, Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency
    • EPA/OAR, Office of Air and Radiation, Environmental Protection Agency
    • EPA/OIA, Office of International Activities, Environmental Protection Agency
    • ESAF, enhanced structural adjustment facility
    • ESF, Economic Support Fund
    • EUR, Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs, Department of State; Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
    • EUR/P, Public Affairs Adviser, Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs, Department of State
    • EUR/RPE, Office of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, European Community, and Atlantic Political-Economic Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
    • EUR/SOV, Office of Soviet Union Affairs, Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs, Department of State
    • EUR/SOV/SOBI, Bilateral Political Relations, Office of Soviet Union Affairs, Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs, Department of State
    • Exdis, Exclusive distribution
    • FAA, Federal Aviation Administration
    • FAM, Foreign Affairs Manual
    • FBIS, Foreign Broadcast Information Service
    • FCO, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, United Kingdom
    • FDA, Food and Drug Administration
    • FFN, food for the north
    • FFP, Food for Peace
    • FON, Freedom of Navigation
    • FonMin, Foreign Minister
    • FR, Federal Register
    • FRG, Federal Republic of Germany
    • FWPCA, Federal Water Pollution Control Act
    • FVA, Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance Bureau, Agency for International Development
    • GA, General Assembly, United Nations
    • GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    • GI, gastrointestinal
    • GIFA, governing international fishery agreement
    • GDR, German Democratic Republic
    • GNP, gross national product
    • GOA, Government of Argentina
    • GOI, Government of Indonesia; Government of Iceland
    • GOJ, Government of Japan
    • GON, Government of the Netherlands; Governmant of Norway
    • GOP, Government of Philippines
    • GOZ, Government of Zaire
    • H, Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs, Department of State
    • HA, Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, Department of State
    • HA/HR, Office of Human Rights, Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs
    • HHS, Department of Health and Human Services
    • HIV, human immunodeficiency virus
    • HMG, Her Majesty’s Government (United Kingdom)
    • HR, House Resolution
    • HRC, Human Rights Commission, United Nations
    • HTLV, human T-cell lymphotropic virus
    • IBRD, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
    • ICC, International Commerce Commission
    • ICJ, International Court of Justice
    • ICP, International Conference on Population
    • ICRC, International Committee of the Red Cross
    • IDF, Icelandic Defense Force
    • IE & C, information, education, and communication
    • IFPRI, International Food Policy Research Institute
    • IG, interdepartmental group; interagency group
    • IMCO, Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization
    • IMEC, industrial market economy countries
    • IMET, International Military Education and Training
    • IMF, International Monetary Fund
    • INA, Immigration and Naturalization Act
    • INF, Intermediate Range Nuclear Force Treaty
    • INR, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
    • INR/AMR, Office of Active Measures, Analysis, and Response, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
    • INR/ID, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Inter-Departmental Affairs, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
    • INR/RSE, Office of Research and Analysis, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
    • INS, Immigration and Naturalization Service
    • IO, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State
    • IO/D, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Bureau of International Organization Affairs
    • IO/ECO, Economic Development Division, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Economic and Social Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State
    • IO/HR, Office of Human Rights Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State
    • IO/T/SCT, Deputy Director for Scientific Programs, Bureau of International Scientific Affairs, Department of State
    • IPPF, International Planned Parenthood Federation
    • ITM, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp
    • ITSH, international transport, storage and handling
    • IUSAC, Institute for the United States and Canada
    • IV, intravenous
    • IWC, International Whaling Commission
    • JCS, Joint Chiefs of Staff
    • KGB, Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnost (Soviet security agency)
    • L, Legal Adviser, Department of State
    • L/EBC, Assistant Legal Adviser, Economic, Business, and Communication Affairs, Department of State
    • L/HRR, Assistant Legal Adviser, Human Rights and Refugees, Department of State
    • L/OES, Office of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Legal Adviser, Department of State
    • L/T, Treaty Affairs, Legal Adviser, Department of State
    • LAV, lymphadenopathy-associated virus
    • LDC, less developed country
    • LDP, Liberal Democratic Party of Japan
    • LOS, Law of the Sea
    • LOU, limited official use
    • M/COMP, Office of the Comptroller, Bureau of Management, Department of State
    • M/MED,Office of Medical Services, Bureau of Management, Department of State
    • M/MO, Management Operations, Bureau of Management, Department of State
    • MAUT, Multi-attribute Utility Theory
    • MBFR, Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions
    • MC, Missionaries of Charity
    • MDB, multi-lateral development bank
    • MFA, Minister of Foreign Affairs
    • MMPA, Marine Mammal Protection Act
    • MMWR, Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report
    • MOU, memorandum of understanding
    • MT, metric ton
    • NAS/IOM, National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine
    • NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    • NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • NEA, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State
    • NEA/IAI, Office of Israel and Arab-Israeli Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State
    • NEA/RA, Office of Regional Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State
    • NEPA, National Environmental Policy Act
    • NFP, natural family planning
    • NGO, non-governmental organization
    • Niact, night action
    • NIAID, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
    • NIEO, New International Economic Order
    • NIH, National Institutes of Health
    • NMFS, National Marine Fisheries Service
    • NOAA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    • NOAA/NMFS, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    • NODIS, no distribution
    • NOFORN, no foreign dissemination
    • NPW, nuclear-powered warships
    • NSC, National Security Council
    • NSDD, National Security Decision Directive
    • NSSD, National Security Study Directive
    • OAU, Organization of African Unity
    • OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    • OES, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State
    • OES/CP, Coordinator of Population Affairs, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State
    • OES/E, Office of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State
    • OES/ENH, Office of Environment and Health, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State
    • OES/ENR, Office of Food and Natural Resources, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State
    • OES/O, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Oceans and Fisheries Affairs, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs
    • OES/OLP, Office of Ocean Law and Policy, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State
    • OFDA, Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Agency for International Development
    • OMB, Office of Management and Budget
    • OPD, Office of Policy Development, Executive Office of the President
    • OSD, Office of the Secretary of Defense
    • OSTP, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President
    • OTEC, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    • P, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
    • PA, Bureau of Public Affairs, Department of State
    • PAO, Public Affairs Officer
    • PDM, Presidential Decision Memorandum
    • PEES, pre-enactment explorers
    • PEN, Poets, Essayists, and Novelists
    • PIP, Preparatory Investment Protection
    • PLO, Palestine Liberation Organization
    • PM, Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, Department of State
    • PMGSE, Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia
    • PPC/PDPR, Office of Policy Development and Program Review, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, Agency for International Development
    • PRC, People’s Republic of China
    • PREL, External Political Relations
    • Prepcom, Prepatory Commission
    • PSA, politically sensitive area; public service announcement
    • PVO, private voluntary organization
    • R&D, research and development
    • RAF, Royal Air Force (United Kingdom)
    • REIO, regional economic integration organizations
    • RP, Bureau for Refugee Programs, Department of State
    • RP/RAP, Office of Refugee Admissions and Processing, Bureau for Refugee Programs, Department of State
    • RP/RAP/AP, Admission Programs Division, Office of Refugee Admissions and Processing, Bureau for Refugee Programs, Department of State
    • RRC, Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (Ethiopia)
    • RSA, Reciprocating States Agreement
    • S, Secretary of State
    • S/CSCE, Ambassador to the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe
    • S/AL, Ambassador at Large, Department of State
    • S/P, Policy Planning Staff, Department of State
    • S/R, Ambassador at Large and Coordinator for Refugee Affairs
    • S/S, Executive Secretariat, Department of State
    • S/S–O, Operations Center, Executive Secretariat, Department of State
    • S&T/HP, Directorate for Health and Population, Bureau of Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • S&T/PO, Office of Program, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • SAA/S&T, Senior Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • SAF, structural adjustment facility
    • SC, Security Council, United Nations
    • SecNav, Secretary of the Navy
    • Secto, series indication for telegrams from the Secretary of State or his party to the Department of State
    • SHUM, Social Affairs—Human Rights
    • SIG, Senior Interdepartmental Group
    • SR, Senate Resolution
    • SS, Schutzstaffel (Adolf Hitler’s personal bodyguards)
    • Stadis, standard distribution
    • START, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
    • STD, sexually transmitted disease
    • SWAPO, South West Africa People’s Organization
    • T, Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology
    • T/HEALTH, Directorate for Health and Population, Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
    • TDY, temporary duty
    • TG, Toronto Group
    • TPRG, Trade Policy Review Group
    • TTPI, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
    • UK, United Kingdom
    • UN, United Nations
    • UNCLOS, United Nations Conference on Law of the Sea
    • UNDP, United Nations Development Programme
    • UNDRO, United Nations Disaster Relief Organization
    • UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme
    • UNFPA, United Nations Fund for Population Activities
    • UNGA, United Nations General Assembly
    • UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    • UNHRC, United Nations Human Rights Commission
    • UNICEF, United Nations Children’s Fund
    • UNIDO, United Nations Industrial Development Organization
    • UNIFEM, United Nations Development Fund for Women
    • UNITAR, United Nations Institute for Training and Research
    • UNLOSC, United Nations Law of the Sea Conference
    • UNSYG, United Nations Secretary-General
    • USAID, United States Agency for International Development
    • UCINCLANT, U.S. Commander in Chief, Atlantic Command
    • USCINCPAC, U.S. Commander in Chief, Pacific Command
    • USCINCSO, U.S. Commander in Chief, Southern Command
    • USDel, U.S. delegation
    • USDH, U.S. direct hire
    • USDOL, U.S. Dollar
    • USG, U.S. Government
    • USIA, United States Information Agency
    • USPHS, U.S. Public Health Service
    • USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
    • USTR, United States Trade Representative
    • USUN, United States Mission to the United Nations
    • UVB, ultraviolet radiation
    • VOA, Voice of America
    • WEO, Western Europe and Others Group, United Nations
    • WEOG, Western Europe and Others Group, United Nations
    • WFP, World Food Programme, United Nations
    • WG, Working Group
    • WHO, World Health Organization
    • WHO/GPA, Global Programme on AIDS, World Health Organization
    • WJC, World Jewish Congress
    • WMO, World Meteorological Organization
    • WPPA, World Population Plan of Action
    • WSJ, Wall Street Journal
    • WVRO, World Vision Relief Organization
    • Z, Zulu (Greenwich Mean) time