102. Editorial Note

In mid-October 1977, the Carter administration set in motion the legislative and political work required to reestablish U.S. arms sales to Turkey. At immediate issue was the financing of $93.7 million for 40 F–4E aircraft, ordered by Turkey in August 1976, which would come out of the overall figure of $175 million already slated for defense assistance to Turkey. In an October 24 memorandum to Secretary of State Vance, Deputy Secretary of State Christopher recommended that President Carter exercise his authority under Section 620(x) of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) which was “necessary to enable Turkey to fulfill its NATO defense responsibilities so that the articles may be sold to Turkey during FY 1978 and their purchase may be financed under FMS.” The memorandum was cleared by officials from the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the Office of Management and Budget. The memorandum is in the National Archives, RG 59, Records of the Office of the Deputy Secretary Warren Christopher, 1977–1980, Lot 81D113, Box 7, Memoranda to Secretary—1977.

In accordance with the recommendation, Vance noted in an October 26 memorandum to Carter that President Ford approved determinations to assist Turkey under the FAA in August and November of 1976, and that consultations with congressional committee staffs indicated that Carter’s determination to approve Turkish assistance would not “raise serious objections” on the Hill. (Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Brzezinski Office File, Country Chron File, Box 50, Turkey: 1977) In separate memoranda to Carter, dated November 1 and November 4, respectively, James T. McIntyre, Jr., Acting Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs Zbigniew Brzezinski concurred with Vance’s recommendation. Brzezinski noted that this move would help to “demonstrate to the Turks that we are doing everything our legislation permits to maintain their military strength—in return we expect them to develop and maintain momentum toward settlement of their problems with Greece and Cyprus.” McIntyre assured Carter that this legislation was consistent both with Presidential Directive 13 (Conventional Arms Transfer Policy) and with Carter’s human rights policy. (Ibid.) Carter signed Presidential Determination No. 78–1 on November 5, authorizing the financing of $93.7 million for the aircraft. (Ibid.)