Population Policy


104. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, June 8, 1973, 10:30 a.m.

Members of the Population Crisis Committee discussed their concerns with Department of State officials.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, SOC 13. Confidential. Drafted by Claxton. The meeting took place in Porter’s office. The Population Crisis Committee was a self-appointed group of advocates favoring a variety of measures to limit worldwide population growth.


105. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, June 13, 1973.

Eliot transmitted two briefing papers emphasizing the importance of discussing population control policy with Soviet General Secretary Brezhnev during his upcoming visit to the United States.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files, 1970–73, POL 7 USSR. Limited Official Use. Drafted by Claxton on June 12 and Barbour on June 13, and cleared by Porter.


106. Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers and Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Weinberger to President Nixon, Washington, June 19, 1973.

Rogers and Weinberger recommended that Nixon establish a commission for the observance of the 1974 World Population Year.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, SOC 13. Limited Official Use. Drafted by Spengler, Claxton, and Allen; and cleared by De Palma and Murray. A memorandum from Rush to Nixon, December 10, recommended that Nixon approve the proposal (ibid.). Nixon’s January 17, 1974 Executive Order establishing the Commission is published in Department of State Bulletin, February 11, 1974, pp. 153–154.


107. Airgram A–5913 From the Department of State to All Diplomatic Posts, Washington, July 11, 1973.

The airgram provided posts with guidance concerning the U.S. position on population control issues.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files, 1970–73, SOC 13. Unclassified; Priority. Drafted on July 2 by Allen, Claxton, and Burke; cleared by Marshall and Ravenholt; and approved by Claxton, Kieffer, and Marcy. Sent to Paris for the Representative to UNESCO and to Rome for the Representative to the FAO. None of the enclosures are published. For Enclosure 1, not attached, see Public Papers: Nixon, 1973, pp. 512–513. For Enclosure 2, not attached, see Department of State Bulletin, May 7, 1973, pp. 545–560. Enclosure 3, January 8, 1971, is U.N. Document A/RES/2683 (XXV). Enclosure 4, April 14, 1970, is U.N. Document E/RES/1484 (XLVIII). Enclosure 5, undated, is a U.N. Centre for Economic and Social Information brochure entitled “World Population Year 1974” reproducing Waldheim’s September 10, 1972 statement formally proclaiming 1974 as the World Population Year. Enclosure 6, undated, is a brochure entitled “World Population Year 1974: What the United Nations is Doing, What You Can Do,” produced by the UNFPA World Population Year Secretariat. Enclosure 7, February 14, 1973, is U.N. Document E/CN.9/276.


108. Briefing Memorandum From the Secretary of State’s Special Assistant for Population Matters (Claxton) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, October 5, 1973.

Claxton reviewed U.S. population policy since 1966 and identified current issues that required Kissinger’s attention.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73 SOC 13. Confidential. Drafted by Claxton on October 5. Tab A is not attached. Tab B is published as Document 106. Kissinger’s September 24 address to the U.N. General Assembly is published in Department of State Bulletin, October 15, 1973, pp. 469–473. Nixon’s July 18, 1969 Special Message to Congress on Problems of Population Growth is published in Public Papers: Nixon, 1969, pp. 521–530.


109. Telegram 12233 From the Embassy in India to the Department of State, October 20, 1973, 0705Z.

Moynihan offered observations about population policy in India, population control more generally, and détente with the Soviet Union.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files. Confidential; Priority. Repeated to Dacca, Islamabad, and Colombo. Telegram 209070 to London forwarded this message to Claxton, who was attending a meeting in London. Telegram 12555 from London forwarded this message to key NSC and Department of State officials (both ibid.).


110. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for International Economic Affairs (Cooper) to the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, November 26, 1973.

Cooper explained his rationale for delaying the issuance of a National Security Study Memorandum concerning population policy.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–204, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 200 [2 of 2]. Limited Official Use. Sent for action. Scowcroft initialed his approval of the first recommendation, crossing out “in approximately two weeks” and writing in “ASAP.”


111. Intelligence Note RECN–18 Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, February 8, 1974.

The Bureau of Intelligence and Research presented an overview of population-related issues at the opening of the World Population Year.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P740024–0442. Limited Official Use. Prepared by Giffler.


112. Memorandum From the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, March 23, 1974.

Scowcroft recommended issuance of a National Security Study Memorandum on world population issues.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–204, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 200 [2 of 2]. Confidential. Sent for action. Kissinger wrote at the top of the memorandum, “Brent, we don’t need Pres. OK for NSSM’s.” Tab I, Kissinger’s undated memorandum to Nixon, is attached but not published. On it, Kissinger initialed his approval of Scowcroft’s recommendation on Nixon’s behalf. Tab A, as signed, is published as Document 113.


113. National Security Study Memorandum 200, Washington, April 24, 1974.

The President directed a study of the implications of worldwide population growth on U.S. security and overseas interests.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–204, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 200 [2 of 2]. Confidential. A copy was sent to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


114. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 31, 1974, 1 p.m.

Kissinger discussed international population policy with a group of experts from outside government.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P820050–0597. Confidential; Nodis. Approved by Bremer on June 19. The meeting took place in the Madison/Monroe dining room. For Kissinger’s address to the Sixth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on April 15, see Department of State Bulletin, May 6, 1974, pp. 477–482. The referenced NSSM on population is published as Document 113.


115. World Population Conference Scope Paper UNEC D–479/Rev.2 Prepared in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Washington, July 25, 1974.

The Scope Paper presented an overview of the major issues facing the World Population Conference and outlined U.S. goals for the Conference.

Source: Department of State, IO/DAR Files: Lot 82 D 211, SD/E/CONF.60/1. Unclassified. Drafted by Marshall and Allen, and cleared by Claxton and McDonald.


116. Telegram 3969 From the Embassy in Romania to the Department of State, August 31, 1974, 1605Z.

The telegram summarized the accomplishments of the World Population Conference.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, D740242–0932. Confidential; Priority. Repeated to USUN, the Mission to the U.N. in Geneva, Moscow, and Saigon. Forwarded to all diplomatic posts as Airgram A–8189 on October 29 (ibid., P740116–2194).


117. Memorandum From Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Weinberger to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, September 19, 1974.

Weinberger communicated his assessment of the World Population Conference.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–204, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 200 [2 of 2]. Confidential. The accompanying 36-page unclassified report is not published. The memorandum and report were transmitted under a December 14 covering memorandum from Springsteen to Scowcroft (ibid.) for consideration in the preparation of the response to NSSM 200 ( Document 113). Herter’s statement is published in Department of State Bulletin, September 30, 1974, pp. 436–437.


118. Memorandum NSC–U/DM–130 From the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Ingersoll) to President Ford, Washington, December 14, 1974.

Ingersoll summarized the recommendations of the NSSM 200 report on the implications of worldwide population growth.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–204, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 200 [1 of 2]. Confidential. The 198-page attached report is not published. The 13 key countries identified in the report as comprising almost half (47%) of the present population growth were India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, Egypt, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Colombia. NSSM 200 is published as Document 113.


119. Summary Report From the National Commission for the Observance of the World Population Year to President Ford, Washington, June 1975.

The commission recommended creation of a permanent body within the U.S. government to monitor and coordinate population policy efforts.

Source: Ford Library, White House Central Files, Subject Files, FG 373, Box 195, 4/1/17–1/20/77. No classification marking. The entire report, including appendices, is not published. Committee Chairman Clifford M. Hardin submitted the report to Ford on June 15.


120. Memorandum From Hal Horan of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, July 17, 1975.

Horan recommended that Kissinger forward to Ford a National Security Decision Memorandum concerning population policy.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 63, NSDM 314 (3). Confidential. Tab A (Tab I) is published as Document 122. Tab C is published as Document 118.


121. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Ford, Washington, October 16, 1975.

Kissinger recommended the issuance of a National Security Decision Memorandum on population policy. Ford initialed his approval.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 63, NSDM 314 (3). Confidential. Sent for action. Tab A, as signed, is published as Document 122. Tab B is published as Document 118. Tab C is published as Document 113.


122. National Security Decision Memorandum 314, Washington, November 26, 1975.

The President issued several related directives designed to foster a coordinated governmental approach to international population policy issues.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, NSDMs File, Box 1, NSDM 314. Confidential. Copies were sent to the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Director of Central Intelligence, and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality. NSSM 200 is published as Document 113. The NSSM 200 response is published as Document 118.


123. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, April 10, 1976, 2:30 p.m.

Kissinger discussed how to promote U.S. international population policy objectives with Green and other Department of State officials.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P820117–2114. Confidential. Drafted by Simmons on May 17 and approved by Aherne on May 21. The meeting was held in Kissinger’s office. Kissinger’s trip included stops in the United Kingdom (April 23–24), Nairobi (April 24–25), Dar es Salaam (April 25–26), Lusaka (April 26–27), Kinshasa (April 27–30), Monrovia (April 30–May 1), Dakar (May 1–2), Nairobi (May 2–6), and Paris (May 6–7). Kissinger’s May 6 speech to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in Nairobi is published in Department of State Bulletin, May 31, 1976, pp. 657–672. Kissinger’s speech to the United Nations General Assembly Seventh Special Session is ibid., September 22, 1975, pp. 425–441.


124. Memorandum From the Coordinator for Population Affairs (Green) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, April 13, 1976.

Green submitted a list of specific actions Kissinger could take to support U.S. international population policy.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P760069–0390. Confidential. Sent for action. Drafted on April 13 by Green. Sent through Kratzer. A handwritten notation indicates that Kissinger approved, on May 7, the draft cable attached at Tab 1. Tab 1, not printed, was sent as telegram 113982 to all diplomatic posts, May 10, indicating Kissinger’s personal interest in promoting U.S. population policy objectives. (Ibid., Central Foreign Policy Files) The memorandum of Kissinger’s conversation with Green and other Department officials on Saturday, April 10, is published as Document 123. NSDM 314 is published as Document 122. Kissinger’s May 6 speech to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in Nairobi is published in Department of State Bulletin, May 31, 1976, pp. 657–672.


125. Memorandum NSC–U/DM–130A From the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Robinson) to President Ford, Washington, July 29, 1976.

Robinson submitted the first annual report on U.S. international population policy, including recommendations for action.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 74, NSC–U/DM 130. Confidential. The Annexes are not published. A copy of this report was forwarded to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, the Under Secretary of Agriculture, the Under Secretary of Commerce, the Under Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, and the Acting Director of the Council for International Economic Policy. NSSM 200 is published as Document 113. The NSSM 200 study is published as Document 118. NSDM 314 is published as Document 122. For Kissinger’s Address to the Seventh Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly, read by Moynihan on September 1, 1975, see Department of State Bulletin, September 22, 1975, pp. 425–441. For Kissinger’s May 6, 1976 speech to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, see ibid., May 31, 1976, pp. 657-672.


126. Memorandum From Robert S. Smith of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, December 15, 1976.

Smith recommended securing Ford’s formal acceptance of the first Annual Report on U.S. International Population Policy and the recommendations therein.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Files of NSC Logged Documents, Box 42, 7604397. Confidential. Sent for action. Tab 1 is attached but not published. Tab C was not found. Tab D is published as Document 127. The first Annual Report of U.S. International Population Policy is published as Document 125.


127. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Robinson), Washington, January 3, 1977.

The memorandum indicated acceptance of the first Annual Report on U.S. International Population Policy and offered guidance for its further implementation

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, OPI 29, Job 82M00587R, Box 5, NSSSM 200. No classification marking. Forwarded under the designation NSC–U/N–185 to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, the Deputy Secretary of Agriculture, the Under Secretary of Commerce, the Under Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, the Acting Director of the National Science Foundation, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, and the Acting Director of the Council for International Economic Policy. The first Annual Report on U.S. International Population Policy is published as Document 125. NSSM 200 is published as Document 113. The NSSM 200 study is published as Document 118. NSDM 314 is published as Document 122.