Jamaica


410. Airgram A–13 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, Kingston, January 24, 1969.

In Part I of its Country Analysis and Strategy Paper for Fiscal Year 1971, the Embassy identified the significance of Jamaica to the United States.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967–69, POL 1 JAM–US. Confidential; LOU attachment. Drafted on January 22 by DCM David Wilken; cleared by Arthur L. Jacobs, Charles H. Taquey, Kenneth N. Rogers, Dennis C. Goodman, Homer G. Gayne, Nancy Ostrander, Defense Attaché H. Watts, William B. Paxson, William L. Carr, and Haviland Smith, Jr; and approved by DCM Wilken. Stamped notations on the Airgram indicate that it was received at the Department of State at 1:57 p.m. on January 27, at the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs on January 28, and at the AN/RS Analysis Branch. Attached but not published at Enclosure 1 is a July 1968 Peace Corps Program Memorandum.


411. Report Prepared by the Governor of New York Rockefeller, Albany, August 30, 1969.

Governor Rockefeller reported on meetings with Prime Minister Shearer and opposition leader Michael Manley during his July 3–4 visit to Jamaica.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 802, Country Files, Latin America, Latin America General, Rockefeller, Report on Conversations with Latin American Leaders, May–July 1969. Confidential; Personal.


412. Memorandum From Viron P. Vaky of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, January 7, 1970.

National Security Council staff member Vaky reported an “early warning signal” indicating that Jamaica might attempt to gain equity participation in the bauxite industry.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Secret; Limdis. Sent for information. Attached but not published at Tab A is telegram 12 from Kingston, January 5. A stamped notation on the memorandum indicates that Kissinger saw it on January 15. A handwritten message, apparently written by Kissinger, reads, “De Roulet should take it easy.”


413. Telegram 962 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, April 23, 1970, 2200Z.

The Embassy reported on a meeting between Ambassador de Roulet and Jamaican Finance Minister Seaga, in which Seaga indicated that the Jamaican Government had decided on a course of action to gain equity participation in the bauxite industry.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Secret; Limdis.


414. Airgram A–90 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, Kingston, May 6, 1970.

The Embassy reported on the future of the Jamaican bauxite industry and concluded that the rise of Black Power in the Caribbean and increased economic nationalism in Jamaica were the forces pushing the Jamaican Government to press for equity participation in the bauxite industry.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Confidential. Drafted on May 6 by DCM Roberts; cleared by Rogers and Goodman; and approved by Ambassador de Roulet. The airgram is unsigned. Attached but not published is an enclosure, a study titled, “The Future of the Jamaican Bauxite Industry.” An attached forwarding note indicates that the Airgram and its enclosure were forwarded to Kissinger on May 12. A handwritten note, May 18, reads, “No further action required per Vaky.” In Airgram A–85 from Kingston, April 27, 1970, the Embassy analyzed the Black Power movement in Jamaica. (Ibid., RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 13–10 JAM)


415. Memorandum From Viron P. Vaky of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 20, 1970.

National Security Council staff member Vaky informed President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger that President Nixon had agreed to meet with Prime Minister Shearer to discuss the bauxite problem and covert support for Shearer’s reelection. In reference to the bauxite question, Vaky recommended that the President listen to the Prime Minister and promise to study the situation. Concerning covert support for Shearer’s reelection, Vaky indicated his opposition to the idea.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Secret; Sensitive. Sent for action. The memorandum is a “not logged” item. A handwritten note by Kissinger, which appears next to Vaky’s recommendation against covert reelection support, reads, “Let’s talk to Helms.” Neither of the attachments is published. The attachments are: Tab A, a July 7 letter from de Roulet to Haldeman, requesting a meeting between Shearer and President Nixon; and an August 2 note from Nachmanoff to Kissinger indicating that the President agreed to see Shearer on August 11 at 11:30 a.m., but no memorandum of conversation of the meeting has been found. On August 10, Kissinger sent Nixon a briefing memorandum for the proposed meeting; not published. (Ibid.)


416. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to Secretary of State Rogers and Secretary of the Treasury Kennedy, Washington, August 18, 1970.

President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger relayed instructions from President Nixon to arrange discussions with the Jamaican Minister of Finance on the question of double taxation, an issue raised during President Nixon’s August 11 meeting with the Jamaican Prime Minister.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. No classification marking. A copy was sent to Secretary of Commerce Stans.


417. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to Secretary of State Rogers and the Administrator, Agency for International Development (Hannah), Washington, August 24, 1970.

President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger forwarded a directive from President Nixon to form a high-level inter-agency commission to examine social and economic development in the Caribbean, with special emphasis on Jamaica.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Confidential. Copies were sent to the Secretaries of Commerce and Treasury, and the Director, Office of Management and Budget.


418. Letter From Ambassador to Jamaica (de Roulet) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Kingston, September 4, 1970.

Ambassador de Roulet opined that U.S. policy toward the Caribbean should be separated from that of Spanish and Portuguese speaking Latin America and that a private sector profit-oriented approach be taken to developing and executing that policy.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. No classification marking. Attached but not published is the enclosed extract, titled “The Proposal—An alternative bureau structure.” De Roulet sent the letter to Alexander Haig on September 4, asking him to forward it to Kissinger and observing, “The Caribbean needs a policy, the Caribbean needs a push, the Caribbean needs effective management and it will not be easy to achieve.” Haig forwarded the letter to Kissinger with a handwritten note that read, “Some gems in attached.” Kissinger responded,“Al—Let’s hear what he has to say.” No record of a follow-up meeting or conversation has been found. (Ibid.)


419. Paper Prepared in the Department of State, Washington, October 5, 1970.

The Department of State reported on the activities of the inter-agency commission set up by President Nixon to examine social and economic development in the Caribbean, and recommended that the commission be sent only to Jamaica to avoid duplicating the work of a similar commission that had already been established by the OAS.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Confidential. Sent as an enclosure to an October 5 memorandum from Under Secretary John Irwin to President Nixon. In an October 27 memorandum to Alexander Haig, Howe reported that the inter-agency commission was “expected to depart for Jamaica in late November.” (Ibid.)


420. Intelligence Memorandum, Washington, December 11, 1970.

Intelligence analysis of the Jamaican political situation suggested that foreign control of the Jamaican bauxite industry could become a major issue in the next elections.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Secret; No Foreign Dissem. Forwarded to Haig under a December 11 covering memorandum from Helms. (Ibid.) The report of Shearer informing de Roulet that Jamaica would follow Guyana’s lead on bauxite is in telegram 3011 from Kingston, December 7. (Ibid.)


421. Telegram 7 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, January 4, 1971, 2251Z.

The Embassy reported that in separate conversations Prime Minister Shearer, opposition leader Michael Manley, and high-ranking members of the Jamaican Government told the Ambassador that if foreign-owned bauxite companies in Guyana capitulated in negotiations with the Burnham Government, then internal political pressures would force Jamaica to make similar arrangements with the bauxite industry.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 15 JAM. Confidential. Repeated to Georgetown and Port-au-Spain. In telegram 50 from Kingston, the Embassy reported that a bauxite industry principal informed the Ambassador about “the degree to which the companies were cooperating in their mutual problems here in Jamaica.” (Ibid.)


422. Telegram 49571 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Jamaica, March 24, 1971, 2249Z.

The Department of State instructed the Embassy to influence the Jamaican Government to maintain a dialogue with the bauxite companies and avoid direct involvement in any potential negotiations.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Secret; Exdis. A stamped notation on the telegram indicates that it was received in the White House Situation Room at 11:43 a.m. on March 25.


423. Memorandum From the Acting Secretary of State (Irwin) to President Nixon, Washington, April 13, 1971.

The Department of State reported on the inter-agency commission that had been sent to Jamaica to examine social and economic problems there. The commission recommended selective assistance through AID, trade relations, and international organizations.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. No classification marking. The “Report of the Commission to Jamaica” was not enclosed. Irwin’s memorandum was forwarded to Haig under a April 16 covering memorandum from Nachmanoff, in which Nachmanoff stated, “I am holding the full report in my files,” which he did not believe was worth sending to the President. Haig concurred with Nachmanoff’s decision by initialing and writing, “OK.”


424. Telegram 1782 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, July 22, 1971, 2122Z.

The Embassy reported that in a speech before the Jamaican Parliament, Prime Minister Shearer stated that the Jamaican Government planned to maintain good relations with foreign investors, and discouraged harassment of foreign bauxite companies. The Embassy concluded that Shearer had no plans to nationalize the bauxite industry.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL JAM. Confidential. In telegram 134034 to Kingston, the Department replied, “We are heartened by the general views expressed by Shearer regarding the United States, and by his constructive stand on the question of foreign investment. It is particularly encouraging that he does not regard Guyana as an inevitable model for Jamaica.” (Ibid.)


425. Letter From the Ambassador to Jamaica (de Roulet) to the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Haig), Kingston, October 14, 1971.

Ambassador de Roulet reported on the upcoming Jamaican national elections, the potential for radicalization, and U.S. neutrality during the electoral process.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Secret. A handwritten note from Haig appears on the letter, which reads, “Arnie, reply please for my signature.” In an October 23 letter to de Roulet, Haig replied, “It seems that you have things under control in Kingston, and I will pass on to Dr. Kissinger the information you provided.” (Ibid.)


426. Airgram A–316 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, Kingston, November 17, 1971.

The Embassy analyzed the coming Jamaican national elections and speculated on what it would mean for U.S. relations with Jamaica if the opposition should win.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 12 JAM. Secret; Limdis. Drafted on November 9 by Kenneth Rogers; approved by DCM Roberts; and signed by Ambassador de Roulet. Attached but not published is the enclosed PNP Election Program. Stamped notations on the Airgram indicate that it was received at the Department of State at 8:20 a.m. on November 19, and at the RS/AN Analysis Branch.


427. Telegram 538 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, March 2, 1972, 2015Z.

The Embassy reported on the outcome of the Jamaican national elections, concluding that the incoming Manley Government had a clear mandate for change.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 12 JAM. Confidential. Repeated to Bridgetown, Georgetown, Port-au-Spain, USCINCSO, and CINCLANT.


428. Airgram A–144 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, Kingston, June 16, 1972.

The Embassy reported on a June 6 speech by Jamaican Governor General Sir Clifford Campbell, in which he spelled out the policy guidelines of the new PNP Government, led by new Prime Minister Manley. Among the issues discussed, the Embassy noted that the new government planned to examine Jamaica’s bauxite arrangements, and that the country’s foreign affairs would stress improved relations with Africa and the developing world.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 15 JAM. Limited Official Use. Drafted on June 14 by Falkner; cleared by Slater and Rogers; approved by Roberts; and signed by de Roulet. Stamped notations on the Airgram indicate that it was received at the Department of State at 8:32 a.m. on June 26, the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs on June 29, and at the RS/AN Analysis Branch.


429. Telegram 2024 From the Embassy in Jamaica to the Department of State, August 9, 1972, 1650Z.

The Embassy reported that Prime Minister Manley told Ambassador de Roulet that the Jamaican Government had no intention of establishing diplomatic or trade relations with Cuba while U.S. restrictions were still in effect.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 17 JAM–CUBA. Confidential. In telegram 1928 from Kingston, July 29, the Embassy reported that Manley denied press reports that his government had invited Fidel Castro to attend Jamaican independence day celebrations. (Ibid.)


430. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 16, 1972.

Secretary of State Rogers met with outgoing Jamaican Ambassador Richardson, who indicated that the new Jamaican Government was under pressure from radical elements. Richardson voiced the concern that as the new government sought to take actions to narrow economic disparities, those actions might be misinterpreted as a move to the left.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL JAM–US. Confidential. It was drafted by Burke (ARA/CAR). In telegram 3104 from Kingston, November 1, the Embassy reported that the Jamaican Government had launched a “massive campaign” to refute claims that it was leading the nation to the far left. (Ibid., POL 12 JAM)


431. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, November 6, 1972.

Executive Secretary Eliot reported that Prime Minister Manley told Ambassador de Roulet that the Jamaican Government, along with the Governments of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, and Guyana planned to establish diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 786, Country Files, Latin America, Jamaica, Vol. I. Confidential. Richard W. Mueller signed for Eliot above Eliot’s typeset signature. An NSC routing slip indicates that Jorden forwarded the memorandum to Kissinger for information on November 9. On December 8, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, and Guyana established diplomatic relations with Cuba. On January 17, 1973, Dick Campbell forwarded the memorandum back to Jorden, asking “Is the attached memo OBE or should it be re-submitted for HAK’s info?” On January 19, Jorden noted in the routing slip that the memorandum “OBE.”