International Information Policy, Public Diplomacy, and Cultural Affairs


84. Memorandum From President Nixon to the Director-Designate of the United States Information Agency (Keogh)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 295, Agency Files, USIA, Vol. IV, 1972 [1 of 2]. No classification marking. Printed from a copy that Nixon did not initial. A copy was sent to Kissinger.


85. Memorandum From the Deputy Director for Policy and Plans (Towery) to the Director (Keogh) and Deputy Director (Kopp) of the United States Information Agency

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Records of the USIA, Executive Committee File, 1973, Accession 306–89–0043, Meeting No. 178. No classification marking. Keogh wrote “Excom” at the top of the page to indicate that the subject was to be addressed by the USIA’s Executive Committee.


86. Minutes of a Meeting of the United States Information Agency Executive Committee

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Records of the USIA, Executive Committee, File, 1973, Accession 306–89–0043, Meeting No. 178. No classification marking. Drafted by Executive Secretary Henry A. Dunlap. A list of attachments is attached but not printed. On March 29, Keogh sent a memorandum to the heads of USIA’s offices and services indicating that he intended to use the Committee, created in 1969 by Shakespeare, “as the central decision-making body in the Agency. In addition the Committee is also serving as the main Agency forum for the discussion and development of major policy.” (Ibid., Executive Committee, File, 1973, Accession 306–89–0047, EXCOM Procedures) Keogh, who succeeded Shakespeare as Director on February 8, chaired the Committee, which was composed of Deputy, Associate, and Assistant Directors and other invited officials, and which met regularly over the ensuing 4 years to discuss programmatic and administrative issues as needed.


87. Memorandum From the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (Ash) and the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Special Files, Subject Files, Confidential Files, 1969–1974, Box 26, Federal Government (FG) 352, Presidential Study Commission on International Radio Broadcasting [1971–74]. No classification marking. Printed from a copy that neither Ash nor Kissinger initialed. A stamped notation at the top of the page reads: “The President Has Seen.”


88. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–241, Policy Papers (1969–1974), NSDM 223. Confidential. Sent for action. Although no drafting information appears on the memorandum, Michael A. Guhin and David D. Elliott of the NSC Staff sent it to Kissinger under a June 15 memorandum, with the recommendation that he forward it to Nixon for approval. (Ibid.) A stamped notation at the top of the page reads: “The President Has Seen.”


89. National Security Decision Memorandum 223

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–241, Policy Papers (1969–1974), NSDM 223. Confidential. Copies were sent to the Acting Secretary of Defense, the DCI, the Administrator of AID, and the Director of USIA.


90. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 295, Agency Files, USIA, Vol. IV, 1972 [1 of 2]. Administratively Confidential. Sent for information. Although no drafting information appears on the memorandum, Sonnenfeldt forwarded it to Kissinger on July 31 with the recommendation that he sign it. (Ibid.) A stamped notation at the top of the page reads: “The President Has Seen,” and an attached correspondence profile indicates that Nixon noted it on August 8. He wrote a note on the memorandum addressed to Keogh: “Thanks. Excellent report.”


91. Memorandum From Michael Guhin of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft)

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 39, Chronological File. No classification marking. Sent for information. Sent through David Elliott of the NSC Staff. A copy was sent to Richard Kennedy of the NSC Staff. Forwarded to Kissinger by Eagleburger under his September 10 memorandum, Document 92.


92. Memorandum From Lawrence S. Eagleburger of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 39, Chronological File. No classification marking. Sent for information. Printed from a copy that Eagleburger did not initial. Copies were sent to Guhin and Elliott of the NSC Staff. Kissinger was nominated by Nixon on August 22 to replace Rogers as Secretary of State, confirmed by the Senate on September 21, and sworn in on September 22.


93. Memorandum From Helmut Sonnenfeldt of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 306, Agency Files, Voice of America. Limited Official Use. Sent for information. Kissinger initialed the memorandum, and an attached correspondence profile indicates that he noted it on October 18.


94. Address by the Director of the United States Information Agency (Keogh)

Source: Department of State Bulletin, January 21, 1974, pp. 57–63. Keogh delivered his address before the New York Chapter of the Public Relations Society of America.


95. Briefing Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs (Richardson) to Secretary of State Kissinger

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Records of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Plans, Subject Files, 1961–1977, FRC 306–81–24, CU—Monthly Report to the Secretary. No classification marking. Drafted by Neil A. Boyer (CU/OPP) and Richardson. Pickering sent a memorandum on November 6 notifying all Assistant Secretaries and Office Directors that Kissinger had asked them to submit monthly reports “covering significant items and analyzing trends in the bureau or office’s area of interest.” Pickering’s memorandum and CU’s monthly reports are ibid.


96. News Release by the United States Information Agency

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Records of the USIA, Historical Collection, Subject Files, 1953–2000, Entry A1 (1006), Box 14, Policy, 1974.


97. Address by the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs (Richardson)

Source: Department of State Bulletin, May 6, 1974, pp. 489–496. Richardson delivered his address to the Institute of International Education. Richardson’s address evidently stemmed from his September 27, 1973, memorandum in which he urged Kissinger to consider “an early initiative in the area of cross-cultural communication.” Richardson continued, “The goals would be to increase support here and abroad for purposeful efforts of official and unofficial agencies to reduce culture, ideological and other barriers to human communication, to build habits and mechanisms of intercultural cooperation, [and] to strengthen trends toward world community.” Among Richardson’s specific proposals was the cultivation of “a new focus in this country on intercultural education.” On October 3, Kissinger approved the further development of Richardson’s ideas. (Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Records of the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, Subject Files, 1960–1976: Lot 78 D 184, International Cultural Planning Group (ICPG), 1973)


98. Memorandum From the Chairman of the National Security Council Subcommittee for Joint Commission Educational and Cultural Affairs (Richardson) to the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Ingersoll)

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Records of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Plans, Subject Files, 1961–1977, FRC 306–81–24, CU—Joint Commissions. Confidential. Drafted by Deputy Assistant Secretary Hitchcock (CU) and Roth (CU/OPP). Printed from a copy that Richardson did not initial.


99. Memorandum From the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Subcommittee on International Exchanges (Richardson) to the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Ingersoll) and the Executive Chairman of the National Security Council Interdepartmental Group for Inter-American Affairs (Rogers)

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Records of the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, Subject Files, 1960–1976: Lot 78 D 184, Latin American Initiatives (NSDM 143), 1974. No classification marking.


100. Memorandum From the Director of the United States Information Agency (Keogh) to the Ambassador at Large (McCloskey)

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Records of the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, Subject Files, 1960–1976: Lot 78 D 184, Stanton Panel, 1975. Personal; Eyes Only.


102. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversation, Box 10, 3/11/75—Ford, Chairman of Panel of International Information Frank Stanton. No classification marking. The meeting was held in the Oval Office. Scowcroft’s March 11 briefing memorandum informed the President that the meeting’s purpose was to receive the Report of the Panel on International Information, Education, and Cultural Relations ( Document 103). Scowcroft advised Ford, “While it would be appropriate to express your interest in the [Panel’s] recommendations, you should refrain from indicating support for any specific suggestions until the report can be thoroughly evaluated.” (Ford Library, White House Central Files, Subject File, 1974–1977, Box 77, FG 11–5, Educational and Cultural Affairs, Bureau of (Executive))


103. Report of the Panel on International Information, Education, and Cultural Relations

Source: Panel on International Information, Education, and Cultural Relations, International Information, Education, and Cultural Relations: Recommendations for the Future. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1975. No classification marking. Annexes I–V of the report are not printed. Hosted by Georgetown University’s Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Panel, which began its work in April 1974, was chaired by former CBS President Frank Stanton, and therefore widely known as the “Stanton Panel.” Besides Stanton, its Executive Committee included Peter Krogh (Vice Chairman), former USIA Associate Director Walter Roberts (Project Director), Reader’s Digest Chairman and Editor-in-Chief Hobart Lewis, former USIA Director Marks, Leo Cherne, former Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs and USIA Deputy Director Andrew Berding, author James A. Michener, W. Phillips Davison, and John M. Shaheen. Other panelists included Thomas B. Curtis, David R. Derge, Harry S. Flemming, Rita E. Hauser, William French Smith, William C. Turner, George Gallup, J. Leonard Reinsch, Edmund A. Gullion, Kenneth W. Thompson, and Lawrence Y. Goldberg. Turner resigned from the Panel in August 1974 to accept an ambassadorship. Marks abstained from the final report. Gullion, Dean of Tufts University’s Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, dissented from the Panel’s organizational recommendations in a March 7, 1975, letter to Stanton. Gullion’s letter is Annex V to the Panel’s report.


104. Briefing Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs (Richardson) to the Deputy Secretary of State (Ingersoll)

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Records of the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, Subject Files, 1960–1976: Lot 78 D 184, Stanton Panel, 1975. No classification marking.


105. Memorandum From the Assistant Director for East Asia and the Pacific, United States Information Agency (Payeff) to the Director (Keogh) and Deputy Director (Kopp)

Source: National Archives, RG 305, Records of the USIA, Office of the Director, Subject Files, 1975, Entry UD–UP 7, FRC 306–84–0003, 7501300–7501309. No classification marking. Sent for information.


106. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Ford

Source: Ford Library, White House Central Files, Subject File, 1974–1977, Box 178, FG 230: United States Information Agency (Executive), 6/1/75–12/31/75. No classification marking. Sent for information. A stamped notation on the memorandum reads: “The President Has Seen.” Ford also initialed the memorandum, which an attached correspondence profile indicates he noted on June 5. Although no drafting information appears on the memorandum, Janka sent it to Kissinger on May 6 with the recommendation that he sign it and forward it to the President. (Ibid., 1/1/75–5/30/75)


107. Action Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs (Hartman) to Secretary of State Kissinger

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Records of the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, Subject Files, 1960–1976: Lot 78 D 184, Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe (CSCE). Confidential. Drafted by Melvyn Levitsky and Leonard Willems (EUR/SOV) on September 15 and cleared by John A. Armitage (EUR), Guy E. Coriden (CU/EE), and Diana J. Moxhay (USIA). Sent through Sonnenfeldt. Copies were sent to SCA and Ronald D. Palmer (D/HA). Richardson’s initials appear on the memorandum.


108. Memorandum From Secretary of State Kissinger to President Ford

Source: Ford Library, White House Central Files, Subject File, Box 30, FO 5: Information—Exchange Activities (Executive) (2). Unclassified.


109. Memorandum From the Deputy Secretary of State (Ingersoll) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, USIA Records, Historical Collection, Subject Files, 1953–2000, Entry A1 (1066), Box 7, Relations with State, 1975–1977. Unclassified. Richardson initialed the memorandum. Although no drafting information appears on this version of the memorandum, a previous version, December 17, 1975, was drafted by Frederic N. Spotts (M) and cleared by Richardson and Eagleburger. (Ibid., RG 59, Policy Planning Staff (S/P), Director’s Files (Winston Lord), 1969–1977: Lot 77 D 112, Entry 5027, Box 359, Chronological File, Jan 1–15, 1976) NSC Staff Secretary Jeanne Davis prompted the Department for its assessment of the Stanton Panel report in an October 28, 1975, memorandum to Springsteen, who replied that, as of November 5, the Department was “still studying the recommendations” and had “not yet reached any final conclusions.” Both memoranda are in the Ford Library, White House Central Files, Subject File, 1974–1977, Box 178, FG 230 United States Information Agency (Executive), 6/1/75–12/31/75.


110. Memorandum From Les Janka of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft)

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Files of NSC Logged Documents, Box 60, Additional Options on Stanton Panel Report on International Information, Education, and Cultural Relations. No classification marking.


111. National Security Study Memorandum 245

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, NSC Institutional Files (H–Files), Box 46, NSSM 245 (1). Confidential. Copies were sent to Director of Central Intelligence Bush and to Charles W. Robinson, Chairman of the NSC Under Secretaries Committee.


112. Briefing Paper Prepared in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 59, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Plans, Subject Files, 1961–1977, FRC 306–81–24, State Department—Transition. No classification marking. Drafted on January 3. All brackets are in the original. A copy was sent to Assistant Legal Adviser for Human Rights Charles Runyon (L/HR). Roth (CU/OPP) forwarded the paper to Borg under a January 3 covering memorandum, which noted that the paper was CU’s third “issue paper” requested by Lake on behalf of the incoming Carter administration. CU’s two other transition papers are ibid.


113. Memorandum From the Chairman of the National Security Council Under Secretaries Committee (Robinson) to President Ford

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box 46, NSSM 245 (2). Confidential.