85. Memorandum From the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Lemnitzer) to the Commander in Chief, Atlantic (Dennison)0
- “Bumpy Road”
- a. CM-152-61 Dated 24 March 1961, Subj: CIA Operation Crosspatch1
- b. CINCLANT Memo Serial Special 00029/61 Dated 28 March 19612
- c. SM-363-61 Dated 1 April 19613
- DD Support
- LSD Support
- Combat Air Patrol
- Navigational Reference Points
- Individual Ship Movement Schedule (Code Name)
- Instructions for DD Escort and CAP
- Reference a requested certain naval support for the subject para-military operation. Due to required changes in concept of movement of surface units, the requirements for U.S. Naval support as set forth in reference a are superseded by those contained in Enclosures A, B, and C hereto.
- Enclosures D and E contain the required navigational and individual ship movements information for the ships of the Cuban Volunteer Force.
- It is necessary to take precautions to assure that U.S. support of the Cuban Volunteer Force is not apparent and that support for this operation be undertaken so that the United States may plausibly deny participation. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to modify the instructions for the escorting destroyers and the combat air patrol. Accordingly, the specific “rules of engagement” as set forth in references b and c are superseded by the instructions contained in Enclosure F hereto.
- D-Day is now scheduled for 17 April 1961.
- Source: Kennedy Library, National Security Files, Country Series, Cuba, Subjects, Taylor Report. Top Secret. In a memorandum for the record summarizing the changes in the rules of engagement for the Bumpy Road operation, Commander Mitchell noted that this memorandum was drafted in response to a memorandum sent from the CIA to General Gray on April 7, modifying the U.S. naval support requirements. The modifications called for destroyers to provide area coverage, rather than convoying the CEF ships, from 0600 on D-2 to the transport area. The requirement for U.S. naval air cover was changed to provide an additional day of air protection, from 0600 to sunset on D-2 and D-1. D-Day was changed to April 17. Mitchell noted that CM-179-61 was dispatched by special courier to Admiral Dennison on April 8. He added that the naval task group assigned to screen the Cuban Expeditionary Force was already at sea and had made an anti-submarine sweep of the area off Nicaragua. (Ibid.)↩
- Not found.↩
- Document 73.↩
- Document 76.↩
- A handwritten note in the margin at this point reads: “Deleted from this copy, GAMitchell, Cdr. USN” Mitchell drew a box around the first five enclosures listed to indicate that they had been deleted from the copy included in the Taylor Report. Another copy of CM-179-61, with all of the enclosures attached, is in the Naval Historical Center, Area Files, Bumpy Road Materials.↩
- Printed from a copy that bears this typed signature.↩
- Top Secret; Limited Distribution.↩
Commander Mitchell subsequently summarized the changes in the rules of engagement, outlined in Enclosure F, as follows:
“The changes to the rules pointed out the necessity for avoiding any sign of U.S. participation. The U.S. naval air cover was to be flown in such a manner that the planes did not appear to be covering the CEF ships. During daylight hours the escorting destroyers were to maintain maximum practicable range ahead of the CEF ships and to use courses and speeds so that they provided protection but didnʼt appear to be screening the CEF ships. During the hours of darkness the destroyers could close the CEF ships to provide adequate protection. The destroyers were not to approach within 20 miles (instead of the previous 3 miles) of Cuban territory and, as soon as the San Marcos (the LSD) had withdrawn from the transfer area for the landing craft, the destroyers were to withdraw to join the U.S. naval task group (about 125 miles from Blue Beach). The rules of engagement were modified so that U.S. naval units would not open fire on Cuban ships or aircraft until they opened fire (or opened bomb bays and started a bombing run) (Note: Sea Furies and T-33ʼs do not have bomb bays) on the CEF ships. In essence, the U.S. protecting forces could only open fire if the CEF was attacked. (Instead of opening fire when a Cuban ship or aircraft made a threatening move.) If the U.S. forces intervened to protect the CEF ships, the operation was automatically cancelled. U.S. forces were then to take all steps short of firing on the CEF ships to cause them to withdraw to a port to be designated by the JCS.” (Memorandum for the Record, Rules of Engagement Operation “Bumpy Road”; Kennedy Library, National Security Files, Countries Series, Cuba, Subjects, Taylor Report)↩