Sources

Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major foreign policy decisions and actions of the U.S. Government. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. This access is further defined in formal agreements concluded between the Historian and the various relevant agencies. The editors believe that in terms of access this volume was prepared in accordance with the standards and mandates of this statute and the implementing agreements.

The editor had complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Departmentʼs Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. Access is also ensured to the sensitive intelligence files maintained in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have had full access to the papers of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Eisenhower and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from other federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Department of State historians also have access to records of the Department of Defense, particularly the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretaries of Defense and their major assistants.

Since 1991, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided expanding access to Department of State historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records in the custody of that Agency. This access is arranged and facilitated by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, pursuant to a May 1992 memorandum of understanding. Department of State and CIA historians continue [Page XVI]to work out the procedural and scholarly aspects of identifying the key portions of the intelligence record.

All of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of these agencies, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1961-1963, Volume X

All sources for this volume are briefly identified in the list below.

Collections in the Kennedy Library were primary sources for this volume. Among the Kennedy Library materials, the single most important collection was the National Security Files. Within this collection, the extensive Country Series for Cuba and the smaller but still important Country file for Cuba within the Presidentʼs Office Files were key. The file on the Taylor Report in the Cuba Country Series contains the records submitted to the Taylor committee and transcripts of testimony taken by the committee. Within the Meetings and Memoranda Series, the file on the Special Group (Augmented), which was not publicly listed among the Libraryʼs holdings and not open to researchers until the research done for this volume, is central to an understanding of Operation Mongoose. The Meetings and Memoranda Series also has papers of key members of the White House Staff, among them Walt W. Rostow, Carl Kaysen, and Chester V. Clifton. The files of Clifton, who was Military Aide to the President, include the memoranda of the Presidentʼs meetings with the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Collections of papers of individuals important in the Kennedy administration held by the Kennedy Library also yielded significant material. The papers of George Ball are important for the records of telephone conversations which often illuminate policy decisions where no other records exist. The papers of Theodore Sorensen provided documentation on contacts with Soviet officials. The papers of Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., are a rich source of documentation on the Bay of Pigs crisis. The papers of Robert Kennedy are not yet open for research, but the Kennedy Library staff provided some documentation from these papers bearing on Operation Mongoose.

Because very few officials in the Department of State were privy to the planning for the Bay of Pigs invasion and Operation Mongoose, the files of the Department are thin on these central policy issues relating to Cuba. There is some material bearing on the Bay of Pigs and a little material relating to Operation Mongoose in the Departmentʼs central and lot files. Department of State files are more important in documenting the diplomatic repercussions from the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion, and for the policy reassessment which followed after the failure. Documentation on such aspects of Cuba policy as the diplomatic efforts to [Page XVII]contain the threat of Cuban subversion in Latin America is printed in Volume XII, American Republics.

Central Intelligence Agency files contain the most important collections dealing with the Bay of Pigs and Operation Mongoose. Job 85-00664R is a central collection of files on the Bay of Pigs crisis maintained by the CIA History Staff. A good number of documents dealing with the crisis selected for publication from other collections are replicated in this collection. Job 78-01450R, the files of the Deputy Director for Plans for 1961, and Job 67-01083R, the chronological files of C. Tracy Barnes are also important on the Bay of Pigs. Job 80-B01285A, the files of Director of Central Intelligence John McCone, is invaluable for McConeʼs memoranda of conversation and memoranda for the record dealing with Operation Mongoose and the significance of the Soviet build-up. These files contain some of the famous “honeymoon” cables relating to the Soviet build-up which are extensively summarized in the volume and printed in the microfiche supplement.

Another central collection of documents bearing on the Bay of Pigs invasion is the papers of Admiral Arleigh Burke maintained as the Bumpy Road Materials by the Naval Historical Center. The Burke papers are most valuable for documenting the crisis in April, especially as it is illuminated by the cable traffic between CINCLANT headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia, and the fleet units commanded by Admiral Clark on the USS Essex off of Cuba.

The papers of General Maxwell Taylor at the National Defense University are important for the work of the Taylor committee and also contain documentation from Taylorʼs period as Military Adviser to the President.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Decimal Central Files: The following files were most useful in compiling this volume.
      • 152: special missions to Central and South America
      • 611.37: U.S. relations with Cuba
      • 611.3722: U.S. blockade of Cuba
      • 731.00: political affairs and conditions in Venezuela
      • 737.00: political affairs and conditions in Cuba
      • 760.551: Eastern European military personnel
    • Lot Files: These are the special decentralized files of the policymaking level of the Department of State, including the Executive Secretariat, overseas Foreign Service posts, and U.S. special missions. A list of the lot files used or consulted for this volume follows.
      • ARA Files: Lot 62 D 24
        • Files of the Special Assistant, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs for 1961.
      • ARA/CCA Files: Lot 63 D 402
        • Files of the Officer in Charge of Cuban Affairs for 1961.
      • ARA/CCA Files: Lot 65 D 256
        • Files of the Officer in charge of Cuban Affairs for 1962.
      • ARA/CCA Files: Lot 66 D 501
        • Files of the Coordinator of Cuban Affairs for 1964, containing Top Secret material from 1961-1963.
      • INR/IL Historical Files
        • Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1980s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
      • INR/SEE Files: Lot 90 D 321
        • Latin American files of the Office of Soviet and East European Analysis, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, for the years 1960-1985.
      • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 77 D 163
        • Exchanges of correspondence between the President and heads of foreign governments, as well as certain correspondence of the Secretary of State for the years 1961-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • Presidentʼs Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149
        • A chronological record of cleared memoranda of conversations with foreign visitors for the years 1956-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • Rusk Files: Lot 72 D 192
        • Files of Secretary of State Dean Rusk, 1961-1969, including texts of speeches and public statements, miscellaneous correspondence files, White House correspondence, chronological files, and memoranda of telephone conversations.
      • Secretaryʼs Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 65 D 330
        • Memoranda of the Secretaryʼs and Under Secretaryʼs conversations for the years 1961-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • Secretaryʼs Staff Meetings: Lot 66 D 147
        • Records of the Secretary of Stateʼs staff meetings, 1961-1963, and additional ad hoc meetings, reports, papers, and memoranda of Chester Bowlesʼ telephone conversations.
      • S/P-NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1
        • Serial and subject master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence for the years 1945-1961, maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
      • S/S Files: Lot 65 D 438
        • Master file on the Cuban missile crisis, October 1962-January 1963, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State. Also contains background material from 1961 and 1962, including documentation on Operation Mongoose.
      • S/S Files: Lot 70 D 265
        • National Security Council meetings, policy papers, position papers, and administrative documents for the years 1961-1965, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/S-NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95
        • Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council files, including NSC Records of Action, for the years 1947-1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • State/JCS Meetings: Lot 70 D 328
        • Records of meetings between representatives of the Department of State and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the years 1959-1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • U. Alexis Johnson Files: Lot 90 D 410
        • Official and personal files covering the years 1958-1973. Includes files dealing with Johnsonʼs tenure as Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, 1961-1966.
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • DCI Files: Job 54-00499R
      • Files of the History Staff.
    • DCI Files: Job 85-00664R
      • Files of the History Staff, an extensive collection dealing with the Bay of Pigs invasion.
    • DDI Files: Job 89-T01385R
      • Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Intelligence.
    • DCI Files: Job 91-00741R
      • Files of the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence.
    • DCI (McCone) Files: Job 80-B01285A
      • Files of Director of Central Intelligence John A. McCone, 1961-1965.
    • DCI (Dulles) Files: Job 80-B0176R
      • Files of Director of Central Intelligence Allen W. Dulles, 1953-1961.
    • DDI Files: Job 80-R01386R
      • Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Intelligence.
    • DDO/DDP Files: Job 64-00352R
      • Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Plans covering 1960.
    • DDO/DDP Files: Job 67-01083R
      • Chronological files of C. Tracy Barnes, 1959-1964.
    • DDO/DDP Files: Job 78-01450R
      • Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Plans covering 1961.
    • DDO/LA/COG Files: Job 52-00679R
      • Files of the Covert Collection Staff of the Western Hemisphere Division, including materials prepared for the Taylor Committee and records of Special Group meetings relating to Cuba.
    • DDO/WH Files: Job 73-00853R
      • Files dealing with liaison between the Western Hemisphere Division and the Department of State, 1955-1966.
    • ODDI Registry of NIEs and SNIEs: Job 79-R01012A
      • Copies of National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates.
  • Department of Defense
    • Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historianʼs Office, Cable Files, Cuba, January-August 1962.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
    • Herter Papers
      • Records of Christian A. Herter for the years 1957-1961.
    • Post-Presidential Papers
      • Papers of President Eisenhower, 1961-1969.
    • Project Clean Up Records
      • Project Clean Up collection. Records of Gordon Gray, Robert Cutler, H. Romer McPhee, and Andrew J. Goodpaster.
    • White House Office Files
      • Several White House office collections, including files of the Office of the Staff Secretary, and Project Clean Up, and files of the Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs.
    • Whitman File
      • Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, 1953-1961, maintained by his personal secretary, Ann Whitman. The Whitman File includes the following elements: Name series, Dulles-Herter series, Eisenhower Diaries, Ann Whitman (ACW Diaries), National Security Council Records, Miscellaneous Records, Cabinet Papers, Legislative Meetings, International Meetings, Administrative Series, and International File.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
    • Rusk Appointment Books
    • Vice Presidential Security File
  • John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
    • National Security Files
      • Chester V. Clifton series
      • Countries Series
      • Meetings and Memoranda Series: National Security Council Meetings, Staff Memoranda, NSAMs, Special Group (Augmented)
    • Presidentʼs Appointment Books
    • Presidentʼs Office Files
      • Countries
      • Staff Memoranda
    • Papers of George W. Ball
    • Papers of Roger Hilsman
    • Papers of Robert F. Kennedy
    • Papers of Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.
    • Papers of Theodore C. Sorensen
  • National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C.
    • Lemnitzer Papers
      • Papers of General Lyman L. Lemnitzer, Chief of Staff of the Army, 1959-1960; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1961-1962.
    • Taylor Papers
      • Papers of General Maxwell D. Taylor, Chief of Staff of the Army, 1955-1959; the Presidentʼs Military Representative, 1961-1962; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1962-1964.
  • United States Mission to the United Nations, New York
    • USUN Files: NYFRC 84-84-002
      • Files of the U.S. Mission to the United Nations, 1950 to date.
  • National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
    • Record Group 323, JFK Collection
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
    • Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 64 A 2382
        • General and country files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1961.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 69 A 3501
        • General and country files of the Assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1962.
      • OASD (C) A Files: FRC 71 A 2896
        • Master file on the Cuban missile crisis, maintained by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Administration. Includes files of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. Contains some background documents from the pre-crisis period.
      • OSD Files: FRC 65 A 3464
        • Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for 1961.
      • OSD Files: FRC 66 A 3542
        • Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for 1962.
      • McNamara Files: FRC 71 A 3470
        • Files of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, 1961-1968.
    • Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
      • Allen Dulles Papers
      • Stevenson papers
    • Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
      • Bowles Papers
    • Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C.
      • Area Files
        • Bumpy Road Materials: Papers of Admiral Arleigh Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, 1955-1961.

Published Sources

  • Documentary Collections, Congressional Documents, and Periodicals
    • U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962, Mary S. McAuliffe (ed.), Washington: Central Intelligence Agency, 1992.
    • U.S. Department of State, American Foreign Policy, Current Documents,1961, 1962, Washington: U.S. Government printing Office, 1965, 1966.
      • ———. Department of State Bulletin, 1961, 1962, Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961, 1962.
    • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1960-61, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962.
      • ———, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, 1962, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962.
    • U.S. Senate, Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders: An Interim Report of the Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate, 94th Congress, 1st Session, Report No. 94-465, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.