On February 14, 1950, the Governments of the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China signed a 30-year Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance which was ratified by both sides and entered into force on April 11, 1950. In addition, the two states concluded two agreements and three exchanges of notes. The agreements dealt with (1) the eventual restoration to full Chinese control of the Chinese Changchun Railway, Port Arthur, and Dairen, and (2) extension by the Soviet Union of a $300-million credit over a 5-year period to the People’s Republic of China. The major exchange of notes provided for the annulment of the August 14, 1945, Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Soviet Union and the Republic of China as well as for mutual recognition of the independence of the Mongolian People’s Republic. For the texts of the above documents, see United Nations Treaty Series, volume 226, pages 3 ff. The two other exchanges of notes of the same date—February 14, 1950—dealt with the return to China of Japanese property acquired by the Soviet Union in 1945 and the transfer to China of Soviet buildings in the military compound of Peking.
For comments on the Sino-Soviet agreements by Secretary Acheson in an address in San Francisco on March 15, see the Department of State Bulletin, March 27, 1950, page 467. Previously, in his January 12 speech on United States policy in Asia, the Secretary had made critical observations on Soviet penetration of Northern China; see the Department [Page 312] of State Bulletin, January 23, 1950, page 111. Background material relating to Mr. Acheson’s remarks was released on January 25; see ibid., February 6, 1950, page 218. On March 31, the Secretary of State issued a further press release on Soviet exploitation of oil and mineral resources in Sinkiang; see ibid., April 10, 1950, page 568.