Memorandum by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the State–War–Navy Coordinating Committee 1
SWNCC 360/1, Enclosure “B”
Subject: Policies, Procedures and Costs of Assistance by the United States to Foreign Countries
Enclosure: J.C.S. 1769/1 (Copy No. 39).
The Joint Chiefs of Staff have considered an interim report by a Special Ad Hoc Committee of the State–War–Navy Coordinating Committee on the subject of “Policies, Procedures, and Costs of Assistance by the United States to Foreign Countries” (SWNCC 360). They note that the subject matter of this report parallels in many respects a study undertaken by them for the purpose of determining, from the [Page 735] standpoint of national security, the countries of the world, in order of their urgency and their importance to which the United States should, if possible, give current assistance (J.C.S. 1769/1) (Appendix).
The Joint Chiefs of Staff are of the opinion that the conclusions in their study provide a sound broad basis for study from the viewpoint of national security and should be considered in connection with the political basis set forth in the foreign policy assumptions in Section II of Appendix “A” of the State–War–Navy Coordinating Committee report.2 In this connection, they would point out that strategic implications, together with the facts that our national security is paramount and our powers of assistance are not without limitation, make it necessary to apply more specific consideration to individual cases than that set forth in the foreign policy assumptions referred to above.
The study of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on this matter, based upon the strategic implications and national security, is presented in J.C.S. 1769/1 (Appendix).
Referring to the listing of countries as set forth in J.C.S. 1769/1 as needing assistance, this differs from the listing in the subject paper (SWNCC 360) in that China has been inserted after Austria and Turkey has been moved to the position next below China. Also, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland have been removed from the list. It will also be noted that application of the criterion of importance to the national security to [of] the United States results in a priority listing of countries that differs considerably from the priority listing of those that should be assisted based on need alone.[Page 736]
The three major points of variance between the subject paper and J.C.S. 1769/1 are:
- The subject report proposes certain measures of aid to countries which very probably cannot in the foreseeable future be removed from predominant Soviet influence—Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia—while the Joint Chiefs of Staff believe that exclusion from current assistance of every region under Soviet control is desirable from the point of view of national security.
- The subject report gives no particular consideration to the relationship between the future security of the United States and the positions of Germany and Japan in the postwar world.
- Specific application of national security considerations changes the priority listing made in the subject paper as to the countries that should be assisted.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff would suggest that in the interest of national security, consideration be given to their views as set forth above in the revision of the subject paper and in the more comprehensive report which it is understood the Special Ad Hoc Committee is to undertake. The Joint Chiefs of Staff are enclosing J.C.S. 1769/1 on which their opinions, set out above, were based. This study (J.C.S. 1769/1) does not represent the final views of the Joint Chiefs of Staff since certain changes and additions are now being considered. However, it may be of value in its present form to the Special Ad Hoc Committee as background material for its further study. The further views of the Joint Chiefs of Staff will be furnished when available.
Captain, U.S. Navy Secretary
SWNCC 360/1 consisted of two enclosures, memoranda commenting on SWNCC 360, (April 21, p. 725). Enclosure “A”, by the War Member of the State–War–Navy Coordinating Committee, Assistant Secretary of War Howard C. Petersen, indicated fundamental agreement with SWNCC 360, but expressed the need for further studies on both economic and military aid questions and suggested the revision of certain sections of the subject paper. Enclosure “B”, printed here, was transmitted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to SWNCC on May 10; it was circulated in the Committee as SWNCC 360/1 on May 12.
SWNCC 360/2, not printed, a memorandum by the Department of State Member of SWNCC, Assistant Secretary of State for Occupied Areas John H. Hilldring, was circulated on June 30 in connection with the Committee’s consideration of SWNCC 360 and 360/1. In addition to several suggested amendments to SWNCC 360, SWNCC 360/2 contained three appendices. Appendix “A” dealt with the possible use of the United Nations in administering foreign assistance. Appendix “B” consisted of a draft directive to the Rearmament Subcommittee of SWNCC with respect to studies it should undertake. Appendix “C” was a copy of SWN 5383 of May 12, a memorandum to SWNCC from its Secretary referring to the Committee SWNCC 360 and 360/1.
At its 59th Meeting, July 23, SWNCC noted SWNCC 360 as amended by SWNCC 360/1 and 360/2 and referred the subject papers to the Special Ad Hoc Committee for consideration in connection with its final report. That report, SWNCC 360/3, October 3, a document of approximately 200 pages, is not printed. The Special Ad Hoc Committee prefaced the report with the statement that much of the data on which it was based had been made obsolete by events. The Special Ad Hoc Committee also stated that the report was intended as “a survey of the present world situation and to indicate countries to which the United States for its own security and national interests may find it desirable to extend aid during the next three to five years . . . . The attached report recommends that US capabilities be reviewed once the Marshall Plan becomes firm insofar as the application of US support to other areas of the world is concerned.” (SWNCC Files)↩
- Vol. iii, p. 208.↩
- For expression of the views of the Joint Chiefs of Staff with respect to military base rights, see the following: SWNCC 38/25, November 8, 1945, Foreign Relations, 1946, Vol. i, p. 1112; SWNCC 38/30, February 11, 1946, Ibid., p. 1142; and SWNCC 38/35, June 5, 1946, Ibid., p. 1174.↩
- Trust Territory of the Pacific.↩