Marshall Mission Files, Lot 54–D270
Document Prepared by the Staff of General Marshall
Cessation of Hostilities Plan13
To arrange for the immediate cessation of hostility between the Central Government and Communist Armies in China and the establishment [Page 4]of the necessary executive headquarters to properly implement agreed terms of the armistice.
- Representatives of the Central Government and the Communist Parties have agreed to effect immediate cessation of hostilities. A selected representative from each of the Central Government and the Communist Party have called on General Marshall to discuss the terms and execution of such agreement.
- The problem at hand covers only the immediate aspects of the terms and implementation of the armistice and is a military problem. It must not be confused with the broader aspects such as integration of the Central Government and Communist Armies, civil rule in occupied areas, etc. which are matters for discussion in the Political Consultative Council.
- The necessary steps to effect and secure a cessation of hostilities appear to be as follows:
a. Cease Fire Orders
Field orders containing cease fire instructions to the two armies in question should be dispatched simultaneously. The field orders to the Central Government troops should be signed by the Generalissimo and that to the Communist troops by Mao Tse-tung. Such orders should include the necessary instructions to insure proper action until establishment of the executive headquarters hereinafter mentioned. They should definitely include the order to cease destruction of communication lines, the cessation of troop movements within China except those Nationalist Forces destined for Manchuria, and such other instructions as may be necessary to establish the desired state of tranquility in the battle areas until further orders can be issued. Preparation of actual field orders is of course a function of the respective Chinese organizations. The important aspects of such field orders will probably be drafted by the committee of three (General Marshall, the representative of the Nationalist Government and the representative of the Communist Government) for submission to the Generalissimo and Mao Tse-tung for their approval. The pertinent portion of these directives should therefore be prepared immediately for use by General Marshall in his discussions.
b. Formation of Executive Headquarters
An executive headquarters will be required to carry out on the ground, the implementation of the terms of the armistice and perform such other functions as described herein. The headquarters should [Page 5]be composed of one member designated by the Central Government, one member designated by the Communist party and one American designated by General Marshall with the American to act as the chairman. In addition to the above, an executive section must be organized preferably under the supervision of an American officer, to carry out and implement the decisions of the executive headquarters.
The executive headquarters must be organized and located in a central position within the present lines of conflict at the earliest possible date. Its location must be determined by its proximity to the headquarters of both armies as well as near the center of gravity of important lines of communication within North China. It must have sufficient American representation to permit the dispatch of combined Chinese and American delegates to the numerous army and communication points of conflict. It must have the required transportation, ground and air, to allow rapid means of transit of all of its members. It must have a signal organization to carry out efficiently and with security, radio communications with its outlying command posts, General Marshall in Chungking, and theater headquarters in Shanghai. It must be provided with its own immediate security and be furnished necessary housing and office space as required.
In establishing the above organization, plans must be prepared not only to cover the American participation, but the entire organization, and should include organization, location, strength, and operating procedure. The executive headquarters will function under the executive order of the Generalissimo. It shall make recommendations to the Generalissimo on such immediate problems as restoration of communications, to include formation of the required military police, acceptance of Japanese surrenders, initiation of repatriation of the Japanese from North China, etc. While this committee must function under the order of the Generalissimo, it is understood that agreements reached by the executive headquarters will be confirmed and approved by the Generalissimo so that the executive headquarters will be in effect a military agency with plenipotentiary powers.
c. Governmental Directive to the Executive Headquarters
There must be prepared immediately an executive order which will be issued by the Generalissimo establishing the executive headquarters in b above. It should define in general terms its functions and responsibilities. Simultaneously with this executive order, a public statement should be made by the Generalissimo announcing the establishment of such an executive headquarters, the members thereof, and the general powers conferred thereon.[Page 6] [Page 9]
- This is the first of a series of draft plans which General Marshall ordered prepared by his staff, in order to “thresh out the practical procedure so far as they could guess and so far as I could foresee, so that if a meeting [of a committee of three] was agreed to I would be prepared mentally to put forward what seemed to me a practical procedure.” The annexed drafts are undated, but since they are so closely related both in the original documentation and in subject-content, and since they were already in use by January 4, they are inserted at this point.↩
- Not printed: it is the same except for appropriate changes in names.↩
- This draft was the one that was used for discussion of the organization of the Executive Headquarters at the third meeting of the Committee of Three on January 8, p. 76; it was based on an earlier draft, not found in Department files, discussed on January 6 at a meeting between General Marshall and General Chang Chun.↩
- In an earlier draft, not found in Department files, there was inserted at this point a sentence which read: “Over-all security will be furnished principally by the National Government and Chinese Communist Party forces”; see Notes on the Conference of Three (Meeting No. 3), January 8, pp. 76, 90.↩
- Not printed.↩
- Not printed; it is the same except for appropriate changes in names.↩