Interest of the United States in international civil aviation matters 1
For previous documentation regarding United States policy with respect to international civil aviation matters, with particular reference to the International Civil Aviation Conference held at Chicago, November 1–December 7, 1944, see Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. ii, pp. 355 ff. It may be noted that the Chicago Conference formulated a Convention on International Civil Aviation, establishing an International Civil Aviation Organization and containing provisions relating to air navigation and international air transport, which was opened for signature on December 7, 1944 (Department of State, Treaties and Other International Acts Series No. 1591, or 61 Stat. (pt. 2) 1180). The Conference also concluded an Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation, establishing a Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (Department of State Executive Agreement Series No. 469, or 59 Stat. (pt. 2) 1516); an International Air Services Transit Agreement (the so-called “Two Freedoms Agreement”) (Executive Agreement Series No. 487, or 59 Stat. (pt. 2) 1693); and an International Air Transport Agreement, commonly known as the “Five Freedoms Agreement” (Executive Agreement Series No. 488, or 59 Stat. (pt. 2) 1701).
See also documentation regarding the conclusion of interim arrangements between the United States and the United Kingdom concerning commercial air services between the two countries and regarding United States policy with respect to the conclusion of civil air transport agreements with the countries of the Near and Middle East, printed in vols. vi and viii.
[The Department of State announced in a press release of February 9, 1945, that the signature of the United States Delegates on the Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation, the International Air Services Transit Agreement, and the International Air Transport Agreement signed at the International Civil Aviation Conference at Chicago on December 7, 1944, constituted “acceptances by the Government of the United States of America and obligations binding upon it.” On February 8 the Department sent a circular telegram instructing its missions to notify the other Governments of this action; for text of the press release of February 9, incorporating text of the circular telegram, see Department of State Bulletin, February 11, 1945, page 198.
Letters were exchanged between the Assistant Secretary of State (Acheson) and the Attorney General of the United States (Biddle) on January 13, and February 8, 1945, respectively, as to the question of whether the “Two Freedoms Agreement” and the “Five Freedoms Agreement” might “be made operative as executive agreements under existing legislative authority”. These are found in the Department’s central indexed files under 800.796/1–1345 and 800.796/2–845, respectively.
The Convention on International Civil Aviation was sent to President Roosevelt for transmission to the Senate in a covering letter from [Page 1456]Acting Secretary of State Grew dated March 5, 1945, Department of State Bulletin, March 18, 1945, page 436.]
800.796/4–1645: Circular telegram
 The Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (Clayton) to the Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Harriman)
[Received July 12.]
811.79600/7–545: Circular telegram
 The Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board (Pogue) to the Director of the Office of Transport and Communications Policy (Taft)
740.00119 Council/12–1345: Telegram