Paris Peace Conf. 185.1/15
Skeleton Draft of Peace Treaty
I.—Enumeration of High Contracting Parties
II.—Preamble Stating Fundamental Principles of Justice and Rules of Law To Be Observed by High Contracting Parties
III.—Names of Commissioners Plenipotentiary, Credentials, and Powers
IV.—Article Declaring Reëstablishment of Peace
V.—Association of Nations
1. Nature and purpose
2. Machinery and procedure
4. Adherence of non-signatories[Page 299]
1. Publication of future treaties and international understandings
2. Publication of all existing treaties and international understandings
3. Status of non-published treaties
4. Procedure of publication
- Most-favored-nation Clauses
- Open door
- Equality of economic opportunity
2. Contiguous states
3. Self-governing dominions
4. Colonies, protectorates, and spheres of influence
VIII.—Freedom of Seas
1. Time of peace—public ships—private ships
- Marginal seas and coastal waters
- Lakes, straits, canals, international rivers
- Access to the sea
- Revenue, sanitation, and police
- High seas
2. Time of war
Effect of proposed association of nations upon laws of maritime warfare
IX.—Limitation of Armaments and Budgets
X.—Hague Conventions and Other International Agreements
2. Amendment[Page 300]
XI.—Effect of Peace Treaty on Existing Treaties
XII.—Boundary and Territorial Questions
- The return to France of the Alsace-Lorraine of 1815–1870.
- The further rectification of frontier proposed by Marshal Foch (this line does not coincide with the line of 1814).
Belgium will ask for some changes in the German frontier, so as to include some districts claimed to be Belgian.
Belgium will ask for changes in the Dutch frontier and a revision of the status of the Scheldt. As Holland is a neutral, the question of the consideration by the Peace Conference of such request is presented.
- The question is one of future status rather than of boundary.
- Commercial relations, Luxembourg having been included in the German Zollverein.
- Certain German rights of management of the railways of Luxembourg rest in part upon the Treaty of Frankfort of May 10, 1871 (Articles Additionels).6
5. The Rhine Provinces
These provinces, with the bridgeheads on the Rhine, being in occupation of the United States and the Allies, provision for their future will be necessary in the Treaty of Peace.
The proposed restoration of Schleswig may involve:
- The status of the Kiel Canal.
- Rights of navigation in the Little Belt.
7. The Aland Islands
Now a part of Finland, the question of their cession to Sweden is raised, involving the continuance of former agreements as a non-fortification, and to some extent, the control of the Baltic.
With the former Russian Province of Poland, the territory of the new state may include:
- Cession from Germany
- Districts in Russia
- Districts in Austria
The whole question of the Vistula and of the future of Dantzig is involved.[Page 301]
Territory of Austria and of Hungary.
The statements recently presented by the Czecho-Slovaks include demands which present:
- A possible conflict with the Poles.
- A suggestion of the incorporation of Eastern Galicia.
- A territorial connection with Jugo-Slavia over territory admittedly non-Slavic.
- Internationalization of various railroads and rivers.
10. The Adriatic
- The Italian-Jugo-Slav boundary
- Possible rights of the hinterland in Trieste, Fiume, etc.
Extent of territory in Austria and in Hungary (aside from boundary with Italy)
12. Balkan boundaries
Roumania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece (inter se)
14. Constantinople and the Straits
- Future of Turkey
(British, French and Italian spheres of influence, and Greek claims)
16. Finland-Russia boundary
Finland has made some efforts for a rectification of this frontier in her favor.
Finland and Poland are not here included.
Bessarabia has become united to Roumania.
It is deemed impracticable to attempt a list of the possible boundary and territorial questions which may be involved in Russia.
These islands, held by Italy, will be claimed by Greece. They are assigned by the Pact of London7 to Italy.[Page 302]
Formerly tributary to Turkey; a protectorate was declared by Great Britain December 18, 1914. The new status, when recognized, will bring up questions of:
- The Egyptian debt (so far as secured by the Turkish tribute).
- The various rights of the Powers under the capitulations, and possible modifications thereof.
- Franco-Spanish relations.
- The international status of Tangiers
- Consular jurisdiction
- Algeciras Act.
“Occupied and administered” by Great Britain under treaty of June 4, 1878,8 Cyprus was annexed to Great Britain November 5, 1914.
Internationally a sort of no man’s land.
Reported to be occupied by British Naval forces.
Discovery of high grade iron ores is also reported.
The status and perhaps the boundaries of Persia may be raised in connection with the existing unfortunate situation of that country.
Some Italian dissatisfaction exists regarding the Treaty of 1906,9 which guaranteed the status of Abyssinia, and this question may in some form be presented.
It is understood that some of the Powers are dissatisfied with the present administration of the Government of Liberia, and it is not impossible that some agreement may be proposed regarding this country.
26. Kiau Chau
Leased to Germany by China for 99 years in 1898 and declared a protectorate of the German Empire.
Occupied by Japanese and British forces in November, 1914, and reported to be under administration of Japan since that time.
Reports are that China will request its restoration to her.[Page 303]
The islands of Savai and Upoly became German dependencies in 1899–1900. They are now held by New Zealand.
28. Pacific islands north of the equator
Of these groups the Caroline, Pelew, and Marianne Islands (Ladrones) were acquired by Germany from Spain in 1899.
The Marshall Islands have been in German possession since 1885.
All of these islands excepting the small island of Nauru, which is being developed by a British Company, are now held by Japan.
29. Pacific islands south of the equator
This group of possessions consisting of the German part of New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the German Solomon Islands, have been in German possession since 1884–5.
They are now held by Australia.
30. German colonies in Africa
Partly under British and partly under French administration.
- The Cameroons
Partly under British and partly under French administration.
- Southwest Africa
Under the administration of the Government of the Union of South Africa.
- German East Africa
Partly under Belgian administration, and otherwise under control of Great Britain.
Under this title are considered all payments by way of restitution, reparation, etc. to be made by the Central Powers.
Questions suggested are:
- The amounts claimed:
- By Belligerents.
- By Neutrals.
- The amounts which the Central Powers can pay.
- The character of claims which are allowable.
- The correctness of the amounts claimed of each allowable character.
- The method of payment.
- The time of payment.
- The nature of the liability, that is, joint, several or joint and several, e. g. is Germany liable for reparation due from Austria?
- Securities and guarantees.
- The Powers to whom payment is to be made:
- Priorities and Apportionment:
- As to Powers.
- As to character of claims.
- As to method of payment.
- As to time of payment.
- Distribution of sums paid or to be paid, among nationals.
- Possible means of financing payments.
- Administrative machinery.
- Territory formerly of the Central Powers as to which no liability may attach (e. g. Bohemia, Jugo-Slavia) which would thus probably have the lowest taxation in Europe.
XIV.—Duration of Treaty
1. As a whole
2. Separable parts
4. Denunciation or abrogation
XV.—Adherence by Non-Signatories
1. To entire treaty
2. To separable parts
3. Act of adherence by non-signatories
- Post, p. 304.↩
- British and Foreign State Papers, vol. lxii, p. 77; see also ibid., pp. 92 and 110.↩
- Great Britain, Cmd. 671, Misc. No. 7 (1920): Agreement Between France, Russia, Great Britain and Italy, Signed at London, April 26, 1915. ↩
- British and Foreign State Papers, vol. lxix, p. 744.↩
- Ibid., vol. xcix, p. 1069.↩
- See the Department’s circular telegram of Feb. 3, 1917, 1 p.m., Foreign Relations, 1917, supp. 1, p. 108.↩