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TERMINATION OF HOSTILITIES

Statements and Messages Regarding the Termination of Hostilities and the Conclusion of the Armistice

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 11 Announcement by President Wilson
Of the signing of the armistice.
1
Nov. 11 The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Salute to democracy and to Wilson as its leader.
1
Nov. 12 The Secretary of State to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ( Balfour ) (tel.)
Expression of joy felt by the U. S. Government and people, and their admiration for the British nation.
1
Nov. 12 The Secretary of State to the French Minister for Foreign Affairs ( Pichon ) (tel.)
Congratulations and expression of admiration of the American people for the French people.
2
Nov. 13 The French Minister for Foreign Affairs ( Pichon ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Appreciation of the French nation for telegram of congratulation.
2
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 13] The Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs ( Uchida ) to the Secretary of Stale (tel.)
Congratulations on the triumphant conclusion of an armistice.
2
Nov. 13 (3847) The Greek Legation to the Department of State
Felicitations from the Greek nation; appreciation of the United States as the benefactor of small nations; pledge of continued cooperation.
3
Nov. 14 President Wilson to the British Prime Minister ( Lloyd George )
Commendation upon Lloyd George’s speech of November 12.
3
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 14] The British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ( Balfour ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Appreciation for telegram of November 12; expression of hope that the two nations will be bound ever closer together.
4
Nov. 15 The Secretary of State to the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs ( Uchida ) (tel.)
Response to telegram of congratulation.
4
Nov. 16 King Victor Emanuel of Italy to President Wilson
Salute to the people of America.
4
Nov. 16 President Wilson to the French Ambassador ( Jusserand )
Feeling of deep gratification at message which Monsieur Clemenceau sent through Mr. Tumulty.
5
[Page XVIII]Undated [Rec’d Nov. 19] The British Prime Minister ( Lloyd George ) to President Wilson
Expression of thanks for the President’s message of November 14.
5
Nov. 20 President Wilson to King Victor Emanuel of Italy (tel.)
Response to His Majesty’s message of November 16.
6
Dec. 11 The Acting Secretary of State to the Greek Minister ( Roussos )
Expression of thanks for felicitations from the Greek Government.
6

AMERICAN PLANS AND PREPARATIONS FOR THE PEACE CONFERENCE

Organization and Work of “The Inquiry”

Date and number Subject Page
1917 Aug. 4 The Third Assistant Secretary of State ( Long ) to the Secretary of State
Proposal for the establishment of a bureau for the study and preparation of the questions likely to be proposed at the Peace Conference.
9
Sept. 15 Confidential Memorandum on Preparatory Work for Peace Conference
Plan for inviting specialists in various fields to supply in condensed articles such information as U. S. negotiators may need at Peace Conference, these articles to be accompanied by appendices containing pertinent documents, statistics, quotations, etc.
(Footnote: Information that memorandum appears to have been prepared in the Department and may be the one referred to in Colonel House’s letter of September 20, 1917.)
10
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Queries to be considered prior to Conference.
11
Sept. 20 Colonel E. M. House to the Secretary of State
Colonel House’s plans to be in Washington and desire for conversation concerning work planned for him in regard to proposed organization.
12
Oct. 27 Mr. Walter Lippmann to the Secretary of War ( Baker )
Need for creative study of disarmament problem; inquiry as to whether the Secretary considers it advisable to have matter studied in War Department and as to who could be assigned to study it.
12
Nov. 1 The Secretary of War ( Baker ) to Mr. Walter Lippmann
Suggestion that General Bliss might study disarmament problem, with possible help of General Enoch H. Crowder.
13
Nov. 5 Mr. Walter Lippmann to the Secretary of War ( Baker )
Belief that Secretary Baker’s suggestion is ideal.
14
Nov. 5 The Secretary of State to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Anticipation of an opportunity for a complete understanding as to how the Department can be of service to Dr. Mezes in his work.
14
[Page XIX]Nov. 9 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Plans to be in Washington the next week and to get in touch with the Secretary in regard to matter mentioned in the Secretary’s letter of November 5. Draft of an outline of subjects to be dealt with in the Inquiry (text printed).
14
Nov. 10 Dr. S. E. Mezes to Mr. Walter Lippmann
Preliminary outline of subjects to be dealt with in the Inquiry (text printed); memorandum of needs as to data and proposals on various subjects (text printed).
16
Undated A Preliminary Survey
Concerning ways in which the Inquiry can be of help to the Peace Conference.
17
Nov. 19 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Request for a statement of the agreement once contemplated between the United States and the other American republics mutually guaranteeing sovereignty and territorial integrity.
22
Nov. 21 The Secretary of State to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Text of the proposed pan-American agreement requested by Dr. Mezes; request that it be kept confidential.
22
Nov. 23 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Intention to make a draft of the principles involved in the pan-American treaty and submit it to the Secretary for consideration as a general plan that might be studied by the Inquiry.
25
Nov. 23 The Secretary of War ( Baker ) to Mr. Walter Lippmann
Growing conviction that Germany must be made livable to her own people after the war but that resources can be supplied to her only upon assurances that they will be used in the interest of civilization.
25
Dec. 11 Mr. Walter Lippmann to the Division Chiefs of the Inquiry
Outline of the organization of the Inquiry.
26
Undated [c. Dec. 15] Memorandum on the Context of the Inquiry
Analysis of probable course of events as already indicated.
27
Undated The Inquiry.—Report of Progress to December 15, 1917
Covering the general assignments of personnel, theory upon which work is planned, and research already under way.
34
Dec. 19 Mr. Walter Lippmann to Colonel E. M. House
Belief that it would be feasible for the Inquiry to make an analysis of the problem of internal reconstruction following the war, and to prepare a number of alternative programs which could be placed at the disposal of the President.
39
Undated The Inquiry.—Memorandum Submitted December 22, 1917
Exposition of the war aims and peace terms suggested by the present situation, including an evaluation of the position of the Allied and Associated Powers in terms of their assets and liabilities.
41
[Page XX]Dec. 28 Mr. Walter Lippmann to Colonel E. M. House
List of the questions of international law which seem to come within the sphere of the State Department rather than that of the Inquiry.
54
1918 Jan. 16 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Director of the American Geographical Society ( Bowman )
Expression of appreciation for office space made available to the Inquiry and for assistance given by the staff of the Society.
55
Mar. 20 Report on the Inquiry: Its Scope and Method
Statement of the scope and method of the Inquiry, with a list of topics of research and a tentative list of issues to be studied.
55
Apr. 17 Mr. Walter Lippmann to Dr. S. E. Mezes and Mr. D. H. Miller
Outline of questions which may be expected to arise at the Peace Conference.
72
Apr. 17 The Secretary of State to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Suggestion that it might be wise to make studies of the countries of South and Central America in case they should come up for discussion at the Peace Conference.
76
Apr. 22 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Explanation that plan had been to postpone studies of South and Central America until the current work had progressed further, since the present budget would not be adequate for a simultaneous investigation; estimate of expenditure necessary to make such studies at once. Outline of some of the data needed for South America.
77
Apr. 24 The Secretary of State to President Wilson
Request that the President make an allotment of the amount of money that would be necessary to extend the work of the Inquiry to South America at once, if he approves of the work.
81
May 7 The Secretary of State to Colonel E. M. House
Information that the President approves the continuation and expansion of the work of the Inquiry and will furnish the necessary funds.
82
Undated Report on the Inquiry, May 10, 1918
Giving the sections into which the work had been divided and the status of each section.
82
May 16 Mr. Walter Lippmann to the Secretary of War ( Baker )
Report that the work of the Inquiry goes along steadily but that there is a dearth of men of sufficient genius to deal with certain problems, especially those relating to Russia, the Balkans, Turkey, and Africa.
97
June 7 The Secretary of State to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Transmittal of French outline of preparatory work. Suggestion that Dr. Mezes impress upon those working with him the importance of an unbiased treatment of the subjects under consideration.
98
[Page XXI]June 10 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Explanation that the members of the Inquiry look upon themselves as engaged in forging instruments in aid of judgment and are in entire accord with the Secretary’s idea concerning the importance of an unbiased approach.
98
July 9 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Division Chiefs of the Inquiry
Instruction that, in order to prevent confusion, all requests for information or assistance be submitted to him before being sent to various Departments in Washington.
99
July 10 Mr. David Hunter Miller, Major James Brown Scott, and Mr. L. H. Woolsey to the Secretary of State
Report as to the scope and progress of the work in the field of international law which was undertaken in compliance with the Secretary’s direction.
99
July 13 Dr. Isaiah Bowman to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Observation that confusion mentioned in Dr. Mezes’ memorandum of July 9 is due to present loose organization of the Inquiry and that the time has come for a stricter division of functions.
102
Aug. 3 The Executive Officer of the Inquiry ( Bowman ) to Professor C. H. Haskins
Announcement of the composition of the Research Committee and plans for its first meeting.
(Footnote: Information that identical letters were sent to certain other members of the Inquiry.)
103
Undated Memorandum on the Organization of the Inquiry
Showing present personnel set-up.
104
Aug. 17 Dr. Isaiah Bowman to Colonel E. M. House
Expression of confidence in the composition and work of the new Research Committee; need for more funds in order to develop the work with stronger men and at greater speed.
(Footnote: Colonel House’s reply, August 22, that he had not answered Dr. Bowman’s letter because he preferred to discuss the matters with him in person.)
105
Sept. 18 Professor C. H. Haskins to Mr. H. Nelson Gay
Request that Mr. Gay prepare, for the use of the Inquiry, a full statement of the general questions which will concern Italy at the Peace Conference.
106
[Sept. 21] The Research Committee of the Inquiry to the Division Chiefs
List of government organizations with which the Inquiry is in touch; explanation that liaison with the Military Intelligence Division, General Staff, provides means for tapping practically any source of information in the country.
107
Oct. 15 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Treasurer of the Inquiry ( Miller )
Authorization by Colonel House of an increased monthly expenditure in order to speed up the work of the Inquiry.
108
Oct. 19 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Conclusion of Dr. Mezes and Colonel House that work on Latin America can be completed on the balance of the fund originally allotted for it.
108
[Page XXII]Oct. 19 Dr. S. E. Mezes to Professor C. H. Haskins
Colonel House’s idea that the Inquiry should now be organized in the way in which it could function most effectively when the Conference is in session and his belief that the administrative plan with heads rather than committees would be most effective.
(Footnote: Information that identical letters were sent to the other members of the Research Committee.)
109
Oct. 22 Professor C. H. Haskins to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Comments upon the proposed changes in organization.
110
Oct. 23 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Colonel House’s request that the Secretary be advised that the present fund would bring in the minimum of essential material on Latin America but that an expenditure of about $5,000 a month for two or three more months would bring in valuable supplementary material.
110
Oct. 25 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Chart prepared by Colonel House showing proposed organization of the Inquiry.
111
Oct. 29 President Wilson to the Secretary of State
Opinion that plan of organization prepared by Colonel House is too ambitious; request that a simpler one be worked out; also that Dr. Mezes be advised that it is unlikely that anything but the main issues will be settled at the Conference and that he should make his plans accordingly.
113
Undated Memorandum by the Secretary of State
Simplified plan for organization of the Inquiry.
113
Oct. 30 (22) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For Polk from Auchincloss: Colonel House’s desire to be fully advised by cable concerning the work of the Inquiry since his departure.
115
Oct. 31 The Secretary of State to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Suggestion that Dr. Mezes come to Washington for a conference on the organization of the Inquiry.
115
Nov. 2 (10) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
From Mezes: Report on the progress of the work of the Inquiry.
115
Nov. 6 The Secretary of State to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Information that the President approves the expenditure of $5,000 a month for the next three months in order to continue the work of the Latin American Division of the Inquiry.
116
Nov. 8 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Confirmation of telegram giving proposed list of specialists (text printed).
116
Nov. 9 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Suggestion that new plan be changed to the extent of providing a position suitable for Dr. Bowman, since the work would be seriously embarrassed without his services.
117
[Page XXIII]Nov. 13 The Secretary of State to Dr. S. E. Mezes
Agreement that Dr. Bowman should be included in the group.
7
Nov. 14 Dr. S. E. Mezes to the Secretary of State
Suggestion that two changes be made in list of specialists.
(Footnote: Secretary’s reply, November 15, agreeing to changes.)
118

Choice of Place for the Conference and Arrangements for the Accommodation of the Commission to Negotiate Peace

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Oct. 28 (3) The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Observations concerning choice of a place for the Peace Conference; request for advice as to the President’s preference.
119
[Oct. 28] (2) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House )
Opinion that place of meeting should be neutral; preference for Lausanne.
119
Nov. 1 (28) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Suggestion that the Secretary discuss with the President the advisability of authorizing House to secure options for accommodations for U. S. representatives at the Peace Conference, since it may be necessary to take quick action as soon as place is decided.
119
Nov. 2 (9) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Authorization to Colonel House to secure options at his discretion.
120
Nov. 5 (49) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For Polk from Auchincloss: Suggestion that it would be advisable for McCormick to secure certain assurances from the Swiss Government in view of the present decision to hold the Peace Conference in Switzerland.
120
[Nov. 7] (11) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House )
Belief, on second thought, that Versailles may be the best place to hold the Conference.
121
Nov. 11 (93) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Opinion that within the next few days the decision will be made to hold the Peace Conference in Paris. Proposed plan for securing accommodations for U. S. representatives.
122
Nov. 13 (34) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Instructions to proceed with plan for securing accommodations for U. S. delegation.
123
Nov. 14 (154) The Minister in Belgium ( Whitlock ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Earnest desire of the Belgian Government to have the Peace Conference held in Brussels.
123
[Page XXIV]Nov. 20 (130) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President and the Secretary of State: Attitude of the British Government that the question as to where the Peace Conference is to be held must be finally decided by the Inter-Allied Conference. Indications, however, that once the organizations are set up in Paris it will be difficult to move them for the final Conference.
124
Nov. 22 (141) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Report that satisfactory progress is being made in securing the Hotel Crillon for the U. S. delegates and in the physical organization of offices in quarters previously occupied by the American Red Cross at 4 Place de la Concorde.
124
Nov. 22 (5968) The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Details of arrangements for taking over the Hotel Crillon.
125
Nov. 29 (200) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Arrangements for the transfer of the lease for the property at 4 Place de la Concorde from the Red Cross; tentative arrangements for taking over space in building at 3 Rue Royale.
126
Dec. 5 (2) The Acting Secretary of State to the Secretary of State (tel.)
From Colonel House: Information that so far as the British Government are concerned December 16 would be a convenient date for the first meeting of the Inter-Allied Conference but that Clemenceau has expressed view that it might be too early.
126
Dec. 7 (4) The Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
For Colonel House: The President’s suggestion that arrangements for meeting of Inter-Allied Conference be postponed until after preliminary informal discussions.
127

President Wilson’s Trip to Europe

Date and number Subject Page
1918 [Nov. 10?] (12) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House )
Willingness to leave for Peace Conference immediately after delivering message to Congress on December 2; question as to whether a preliminary visit to England would be wise if Italy could not also be visited beforehand.
128
Nov. 11 (90) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Opinion that landing in England is essential and that visit could be made to Italy later. Proposed time schedule for trip.
128
[Page XXV]Nov. 13 (100) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: British Government’s invitation to the President to land in England, and assurances of warm welcome.
129
[Nov. 13] (14) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House )
Expression of hope that it is understood that his coming to Peace Conference depends upon Prime Ministers being delegates also; assumption that he will be selected to preside.
129
Nov. 13 (101) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Desire of Allied Governments to know approximate date of the President’s arrival so that plans for preliminary and final conferences can be made.
130
[Nov. 13] President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Expectation of sailing December 3.
130
Nov. 14 (107) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Information that if Conference assembles in France, Clemenceau will preside; opinion of Americans in Paris and British and French leaders that it would be unwise for the President to sit in Peace Conference; suggestion that if the President does not deliver valedictory lecture at Oxford, he come directly to Paris and visit England and Italy later. Information that French, English, and Italian Prime Ministers will head their delegations.
130
Nov. 15 (108) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Telegram from Clemenceau to Lloyd George (text printed) expressing view that it would be neither possible nor desirable for President Wilson to sit in the Peace Conference.
131
Nov. 15 (110) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Communication from the British Ambassador in France (text printed) conveying message of the King extending invitation to President and Mrs. Wilson to be the guests of the King and Queen at Buckingham Palace during their stay in London.
132
Nov. 15 Senator Key Pittman to President Wilson
Lists of some of the points urged (1) by those who think it would be a mistake for the President to attend the Peace Conference and (2) by those who think it will be necessary for him to attend.
132
[Nov. 16] (15) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House )
Statement that telegram No. 107 of November 14 upsets every plan made. Belief that English and French leaders desire to exclude him for fear he will lead weaker nations against them. Request for Colonel House’s independent judgment.
134
[Page XXVI]Nov. 16 (15) The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Opinion that the President should sail for France December 3 and decide upon arrival what share he will take in the proceedings.
135
Nov. 16 (16) The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Information that he has constantly contended that the President should sit in Conference but that Ambassador Sharp is practically the only one who agrees. Reiteration that there is no need for a decision until the President reaches France.
135
Nov. 18 (43) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
President Wilson’s reply (text printed) to be made to the invitation of the King and Queen of England, expressing regrets and hope of coming to England later.
136
Undated (16) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Announcement issued by the President (text printed) stating his intention of going to France for the purpose of taking part in the discussion and settlement of the main features of the treaty of peace. Belief that it would be unwise to come as if on another errand. Readiness to propose the Prime Minister of France as president of the Conference.
136
Nov. 19 (18) The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Confidence that everything will now work out satisfactorily.
137
Nov. 19 (2380) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Information that if the President comes to Europe he will be expected to visit Italy and that failure to do so might have unfortunate effect.
137
Nov. 21 (135) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Information that Prince Murat has placed his residence at the disposal of the French Government to be offered to President Wilson for his use while in Paris.
138
Nov. 22 President Wilson to the Counselor of the Department of State ( Polk )
Names of those going to Europe in Presidential party; request that arrangements be made for their passports.
138
Nov. 23 (150) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President and the Secretary of State: Description of residence referred to in telegram No. 135 of November 21; advice that he has already expressed to Foreign Office his certainty that the President will be pleased with it.
139
[Page XXVII]Nov. 23 The Acting Chief of the Bureau of Citizenship, Department of State ( Flournoy ), to the Private Secretary to the Secretary of State ( Crane )
Explanation that President and Mrs. Wilson’s passport applications have been taken, since they wished to go through the usual routine. Inquiry as to whether Secretary and Mrs. Lansing wish to have their applications taken.
140
Nov. 24 (161) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Desire for confirmation of understanding that the President intends to sail direct to France and not pass through England.
140
Nov. 25 (17) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Intention to sail direct to France.
140
Nov. 26 (181) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Request for the names of the persons, other than President and Mrs. Wilson, whom the President wishes to have stay in Prince Murat’s house.
141
Nov. 26 President Wilson to the Secretary of State
List of names to be cabled to Colonel House in answer to his telegram No. 181, November 26.
141
Nov. 26 (1864) The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) (tel.)
Plans of the President and Secretary of State to sail for France about December 4. Explanation that the President has made no plans for visiting Italy but may do so before his return to the United States.
141
Nov. 27 (184) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Suggestion that it would be more pleasant to take southern route to France and land at Marseille.
142
Nov. 27 (2415) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Urgent advice to the President not to come to Europe without visiting Italy.
142
Nov. 28 (2423) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Audience accorded to Congressman Carlin by the Pope in which the latter stated that he would receive the President most cordially should he come to Rome. Understanding from several sources that the President would be left entirely free to do as he liked should he visit Italy.
142
Nov. 29 (89) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
From the President: Conviction, after conference with Navy officials, that it would be wiser to keep to original plan and land at Brest.
143
[Page XXVIII]Dec. 4 (6519) The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) (tel.)
President Wilson’s acceptance of invitation by the President of France for luncheon on December 14.
143
Dec. 9 (19) Colonel E. M. House to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Outline of plans for the first few days of the President’s stay in Paris; desire of a committee of laboring men and socialists to stage a demonstration for him. Statement by Clemenceau that it has become impossible to begin the formal conferences before January 3 or 4.
144
Dec. 9 The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Translation of an advance copy of the address of welcome which President Poincaré expects to deliver at the luncheon on December 14 (text printed).
144
Dec. 10 The Secretary to President Wilson ( Close ) to the Secretary of State
President Wilson’s request that message be sent to Colonel House (text printed) expressing acquiescence in program as outlined for his first few days in Paris, but asking if demonstration by laboring men and socialists could be avoided in some tactful way.
146
Dec. 10 The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Foreign Office desire to receive advance copy of President Wilson’s reply to President Poincaré’s address, and also to know whether it will be delivered in French.
147
Dec. 11 The Secretary to President Wilson ( Close ) to the Secretary of State
Request that advance copy of President Wilson’s reply to President Poincaré (text printed) be sent to the Ambassador in France, with information that it will be delivered in English.
147
Dec. 12 The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Verbatim copy of the salient points of an address which the laboring men and socialists wish to present to the President.
148
Dec. 16 (1785) Copy of Telegram From the British Ambassador in France ( Derby ) to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ( Balfour )
Conversation between Clemenceau and President Wilson in which the latter expressed his very strong desire to attend the Peace Conference. Clemenceau’s intention to support the President’s request, and desire for views of British Foreign Minister and Prime Minister.
149
Undated [c. Dec. 18] The Secretary to the President ( Tumulty ) to President Wilson
Tumulty’s hope that the President will consider influence Pope can wield in favor of Wilsonian ideals before declining invitation to the Vatican.
150
[Page XXIX]Dec. 21 (20) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Ambassador in Great Britain ( Davis ) (tel.)
The President’s arrangements for his trip to England on December 26.
150
Dec. 29 (42) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Schedule for President Wilson’s visit to Italy; Italian Government’s request that it be submitted to the President for approval.
151
Dec 29 (5) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) (tel.)
From House: Schedule for the President’s visit to Italy.
152
Dec. 30 (8) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) (tel.)
From House: List of persons who will accompany the President to Rome.
152
1919 Jan. 2 (71) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Information from Secretary of War that steamer George Washington sailed January 1 and will arrive at Brest about 10th and that it could make return trip with troops and be back in France about February 12. Inquiry as to whether the President will need the ship before February 12.
152
Jan. 7 (58) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Suggestion that some of the American Colony in Paris might be looked after, in view of report that propaganda against President Wilson is going on in that city.
153
Jan.11 (65) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Description of President Wilson’s visit to Italy.
153
Jan. 11 (253) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Information that the present schedule for the George Washington is entirely satisfactory to the President and that he hopes that if he returns on this vessel in February, the War Department will ship as many troops on her as possible.
154

Personnel of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Oct. 22 The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson
List of persons (text printed), other than members of the Inquiy, whom it might be wise to have at the Peace Conference as advisers on different subjects.
155
[Page XXX]Nov. 6 (7) The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Advice that Clemenceau and Lloyd George seemed to approve of suggestion that England, France, Italy, and the United States should each have five representatives at the Conference table and that the other belligerent powers should have from one to three. Desire for the President’s opinion.
156
[c. Nov. 7] (10) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House )
Concurrence in views with regard to representation at the Peace Conference.
157
Nov. 9 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) (tel.)
For House from Polk: Concern of Department over revolutionary committees in Switzerland. Bitterness of Republicans toward McCall because of attitude on election day; suggestion that a Western representative such as Borah might be desirable.
157
Nov. 10 (10) The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Question whether, in view of Republican resentment of McCall, it might not be wise to increase number of delegates to seven and include another Republican of the standing of Root.
158
Nov. 13 (33) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
For Grew: Notification of selection as secretary of the U. S. Commission to the Peace Conference; designation of Harrison and Patchin as assistants.
158
Nov. 15 (106) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Gratification at selection as secretary of the U. S. Commission to the Peace Conference.
158
Nov. 14 Associate Justice Day, of the Supreme Court, to President Wilson
Regret at not being able to accept offer of a place upon the Peace Commission.
159
Nov. 16 President Wilson to the Secretary of the Navy ( Daniels )
Unwillingness to appoint Mr. Bryan as a Peace Commissioner, as it would be thought, unjustly but certainly, that he would be too easy and would pursue some Eutopian scheme.
(Footnote: Information that this letter was in reply to a letter from the Secretary of the Navy, November 14, urging the appointment of William J. Bryan as a member of the Peace Commission.)
159
Nov. 18 (119) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Suggestion that Miss Ida Tarbell be sent to Paris to keep in touch with liberal elements there and report on their activities.
160
[Page XXXI]Nov. 20 (126) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President and the Secretary of State: Suggestion that no announcement be made concerning U. S. delegation until England, France, and Italy are committed to a definite number of delegates. Information that the French are urging that official language of the Conference be French; intention to take up matter with the British.
160
Nov. 20 (127) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For Polk from Auchincloss: Report that staff in Paris is handicapped by illness of several members.
161
Nov. 20 (54) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
For Auchincloss from Polk: Information that the President’s plan in regard to representatives of various boards seems to be to telegraph for them when needed.
162
Nov. 20 Mr. Henry White to President Wilson
Expression of appreciation for appointment as a member of the delegation to the Peace Conference.
162
Nov. 20 President Wilson to Senator Henry L. Myers
Belief that it would not be wise to include Mr. Bryan among the Peace Commissioners, even though it would personally gratify the President to do so.
(Footnote: Information that this letter was in reply to a letter from Senator Myers, November 18, suggesting appointment of Mr. William J. Bryan.)
163
Nov. 21 The Commander in Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces ( Pershing ) to the Special Representative ( House )
Statement concerning Inter-Allied committees and A.E. F. members (text printed), giving data requested by Major Straight, of Colonel House’s staff.
163
Nov. 22 (59) The Acting Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
From the President: Opinion that United States is justified in insisting upon five delegates and upon official use of English as well as French language.
167
Nov. 22 (142) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For Harrison from Grew: Information that he is proceeding with provisional organization of the Secretariat on the assumption that it should be in running order when the Commission reaches Paris.
167
Nov. 22 President Wilson to the Secretary of the American Federation of Labor ( Morrison )
Explanation that number of delegates will be small and that special representation of particular groups would seem to be out of the question.
168
Nov. 23 The Secretary of the Treasury ( McAdoo ) to President Wilson
Transmittal of a letter from Mr. William McAdoo suggesting the appointment of Elihu Root to the Commission to Negotiate Peace.
169
[Page XXXII]Nov. 23 The Secretary of War ( Baker ) to President Wilson
Secretary Baker’s belief that he should not go abroad with the President, since Secretary of the Treasury has resigned and that post will have to be filled by a new man. Suggestion of General Bliss as a Peace Commissioner.
169
Nov. 23 (152) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Advisability of the President’s securing a small body of advisers on the subjects of finance, commerce, and the use of American raw material and food.
170
Nov. 24 (159) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Assurances that he will take up with the British the matter of the use of English at the Conference, and that he is working to secure an agreement that England, France, Italy, and the United States should each have five delegates.
170
Nov. 24 (164) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Mr. Balfour’s opinion that the French will not consent to English as the official language; hope of persuading the British to take a more positive position.
171
Nov. 25 (172) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Feeling that the informal assurances received from the British and French as to number of delegates are sufficiently satisfactory to justify the President in making announcement concerning U. S. delegates.
171
Nov. 25 President Wilson to the Secretary of the Treasury ( McAdoo )
Unwillingness to appoint Mr. Root, because of his reactionary attitude, as a member of the Commission to Negotiate Peace.
171
Nov. 26 (75) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
For Grew: List of members of Commission, excluding the President’s party.
172
Nov. 26 The Secretary of Labor ( Wilson ) to President Wilson
Transmittal of a letter from Mr. Frank P. Walsh, urging the naming of Mr. Gompers as a member of the Peace Commission.
173
Nov. 27 President Wilson to the Secretary of Labor ( Wilson )
Opinion that there should be no representation of special classes or interests.
173
Nov. 27 (191) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Mr. Balfour’s statement, “that delegates on panel system would suit us best”; intention to ask for explanation. Balfour’s suggestion that question be taken up with Clemenceau as to use of both English and French as official languages.
173
[Page XXXIII]Nov. 29 (92) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Corrections in list telegraphed in No. 75, November 26.
174
Nov. 30 (201) Colonel E. M. House to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For Polk from Auchincloss: Informal efforts to get financial, shipping, and general economic representatives prepared for conferences; discussion of men available and suggestion that someone be sent over to represent the Alien Property Custodian. Belief that economic questions will be the basis of almost every dispute at the Conference.
174
Nov. 30 Form of Credentials
Issued to Commissioners Plenipotentiary.
175
Nov. 30 Form of Commission
Of individual Commissioners Plenipotentiary.
176
Dec. 2 (112) The Secretary of State to Colonel E. M. House (tel.)
For Auchincloss from Polk: Hope that the Secretary will have opportunity to take up with the President the matter of the financial representative and also the representative of the Alien Property Custodian.
177
Dec. 4 (229) Colonel E. M. House to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
For Polk from Auchincloss: Belief that Davis would be most satisfactory man to act as Treasury’s adviser on Peace Mission.
177
Dec. 5 (1) The Acting Secretary of State to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Request by French Government that Gompers be asked to go over soon, as his influence would be useful in Germany.
178
Dec. 5 (2) The Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
President Wilson’s reply to an inquiry by Gompers that he saw no objection to the holding of an international labor conference and that he thought it advisable for Gompers to be in Paris in any event.
178
Dec. 7 (1) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Steps taken in building up an organization for the Commission to Negotiate Peace in order that the Commission may be in a position to begin its proper functions upon arrival.
178
Dec. 8 (3) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Navy’s decision that it does not wish to handle telegraphic communications at the Paris end in view of Department’s decision to handle them at the Washington end; probability that the six coding clerks being sent out by Department will be inadequate.
180
Dec. 9 (153) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Grew: Urgent advice to hold telegraphic communications situation as it is until the President’s party arrives.
181
[Page XXXIV]Dec. 19 (53) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Grew from Phillips: Information that various persons returning from Paris seem to have the impression that large numbers of men are being appointed to American Mission because of their social prominence.
181
Dec. 19 Lieutenant Ralph Hayes to the Executive Officer of the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence, Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Bowman )
Excerpts from a confidential report made to General Pershing in which suggestion was made that General Churchill be designated as Director of Army Peace Personnel.
182
Undated Memorandum Regarding the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence of the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Explanation that the Intelligence Section is an outgrowth of the Inquiry and represents a new idea in international relations.
(Footnote: This memorandum bears no indication of date or origin.)
183
Dec. 21 The Chief of the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence ( Mezes ) to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Memorandum containing substance of a conference between Mezes and Grew regarding proposed designation and responsibilities of General Churchill as officer in charge of military personnel.
184
Undated Memorandum Presented to the Commissioners Plenipotentiary by General Tasker H. Bliss
Recommendation that the Secretary of the Commission be given a title equivalent to that of his British colleague; further recommendation that an attempt be made to eliminate all unnecessary assistant personnel.
185
Dec. 23 Memorandum for the President
Resolution adopted by the Commissioners Plenipotentiary (text printed) recommending that the Secretary of the Commission be given a title equivalent to that of his British colleague. Proposal that he be given the title of “Supervising Director with Ministerial Rank.”
187
[Dec. 23] (56) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
For Phillips from Grew: Résumé of facts and circumstances answering the criticism that officers have been selected by the Commission on the basis of social prominence rather than ability.
188
Dec. 27 Mr. William C. Bullitt to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Colonel House’s request that Mr. Grew bring up before the Commission the question of the proposed appointment of Major Birch Helms to assist in transmitting information to and from leaders of the Republican Party.
189
[Page XXXV]Dec. 28 The Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew ) to Mr. William C. Bullitt
Information that the Commissioners disapproved the proposed appointment of Major Birch Helms.
189
Dec. 30 Minutes
Of the meetings of the Commissioners Plenipotentiary on Monday, December 30, 1918.
(Footnote: Information that minutes of other meetings before January 31, 1919, have not been found in Department files.)
190
Dec. 30 (111) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Instructions to send official notification to British, French, and Italian Governments of the names of the American Commissioners.
191
1919 Jan. 6 The Chargé in France ( Bliss ) to the French Minister for Foreign Affairs ( Pichon )
Official notification of the composition of the American Mission.
192
Jan. 10 The Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew ) to the Secretary of State
Observations in connection with a statement by the Secretary of War that he hears much comment to the effect that there are too many military men connected with the Commission.
192

Arrangements for Securing Information

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 8 (61) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President and the Secretary of State: Recommendation that U. S. agents be sent into Austria, Bohemia, and the Ukraine to obtain accurate and unbiased information; suggestion that Mr. Grew have charge of the work.
194
Nov. 12 (99) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Amplification of telegram No. 61 of November 8, setting forth proposed plan for dealing with whole problem of political intelligence, establishing adequate counter-espionage organization, and providing protection for the American Mission.
194
Nov. 15 (36) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Approval in principle of plan regarding political intelligence and counterespionage organization; information that Secretary of War has undertaken to provide protection for American Mission.
196
[Page XXXVI]Nov. 16 (112) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
List of queries to be sent to Berne, Copenhagen, and Stockholm.
197
Nov. 18 (118) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For Polk from Auchincloss: Request for explanation of plans of the Committee on Public Information. Information that Grew is ill; intention to go ahead with plans outlined in telegram No. 99, November 12, unless instructed to await Grew’s recovery.
197
Nov. 18 (47) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
For Auchincloss from Polk: Promise to find out about Committee on Public Information. Suggestion that he await a definite answer to telegram No. 99, November 12, and then go ahead with organization.
198
Nov. 19 (123) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Intention to ask Hoover, with the assistance of Gibson, to lay foundation for political intelligence system during his visit to Central Powers; statement that Grew will supervise political intelligence section at Paris; suggestion that Gibson remain at Vienna.
199
Nov. 21 (132) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Names of State Department men whose services are desired for intelligence work in Central Europe; names of Army officers now available for such work; suggestion that the agents be designated by Hoover as members of the U. S. Food Administration; request for authorization to draw on Secretary of State up to $50,000.
199
Nov. 26 (71) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
Approval of suggestion that Gibson remain at Vienna.
201
Nov. 26 (72) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
For Grew: Information that, with the exception of Gibson, the State Department men desired are not available; approval of choice of Army officers and of suggestion that they all be furnished with credentials by Hoover; authorization to draw up to $50,000.
201
Nov. 26 The Secretary of State to All Missions in Europe Except Paris (cir. tel.)
Instructions to telegraph to the U. S. Embassy in Paris, for Colonel House, copies of all cables dispatched to the Department which deal with political developments in the country of origin.
202
Nov. 26 The Secretary of State to President Wilson
Request for allotment of $50,000 for the organization of the political intelligence service.
202
[Page XXXVII]Nov. 27 President Wilson to the Secretary of State
Question as to whether this is the political intelligence work being planned through Colonel House in response to his cables.
202
Nov. 27 (194) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Information that Hoover is in accord with plan for securing political intelligence from the new central states and is willing to designate as members of U. S. Food Administration all men assigned to the field.
203
Nov. 29 The Secretary of State to President Wilson
Statement that letter of November 26 does relate to the arrangements for gathering political intelligence which are being planned through Colonel House.
203
Dec. 5 (10) Memorandum by the Executive Officer of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Patterson )
Enumeration of the services placed at the disposal of the Commission by the Overseas Courier Service.
203
Dec. 5 (6144) The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Embassy’s practice of showing all outgoing telegrams of importance to Colonel House.
205
Dec. 5 (232) Colonel E. M. House to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Explanation that delay in agreement among the Allies as to relief policies has made it impossible to send out political intelligence agents accredited as representatives of Food Administration, and that the only method which suggests itself is to utilize Army officers and send them out in civilian clothes as representatives of the State Department.
206
Dec. 10 The Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew ) to the Ambassador in France ( Sharp )
Request to be officially accredited to appropriate Departments of the French Government in order to be in a position to take up official matters on behalf of the Commission.
206
Dec. 12 (7) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Grew: Request that consuls in Allied and neutral countries and countries bordering the Mediterranean be instructed to send to the American Mission copies of reports dealing with political situation.
207
Dec. 19 (54) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Auchincloss from Polk: Notification that John Foster Dulles, representing the Central Bureau of Planning and Statistics, will sail December 21.
207
[Page XXXVIII]Dec. 20 The Executive Officer of the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence ( Bowman ) to Messrs. Beer, Day, Dixon, Haskins, Hornbeck, Jefferson, Lord, Lunt, Mezes, Seymour, Shotwell, Westermann, and Young
Information that arrangements have been made whereby each of the division chiefs is authorized to see nationalist leaders in order to learn views of the various groups.
208
Dec. 21 The Chief of the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence ( Mezes ) to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Plans for the organization of a Division of Current Intelligence Summaries, with Mr. William C. Bullitt in charge.
208
Dec. 23 The Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew ) to Mr. William C. Bullitt
Notification of appointment as chief of the Division of Current Intelligence Summaries.
209
Dec. 31 (122) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Decision that agents going into the field for political information should go as agents of the Commission itself; that accordingly Ellis Dresel has been sent into Germany, and that a group under the leadership of Prof. A. C. Coolidge have started for Vienna.
209
1919 Jan. 9 The Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Explanation that Mr. Bullitt now receives incoming intelligence and each day gives each Commissioner an oral digest thereof.
210

Censorship and Relations With the Press

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 16 (114) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Request for a cablegram which may be shown to the British and French authorities in order to induce them to discontinue the political censorship upon U. S. press despatches.
212
Nov. 18 (42) The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) (tel.)
The President’s reply (text printed) expressing his hope and expectation that the British and French authorities will entirely remove the political censorship upon U. S. press despatches.
212
Nov. 21 (137) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President and the Secretary of State: Communication from the French Foreign Ministry stating that censorship will be removed (text printed).
213
[Page XXXIX]Nov. 22 (146) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Report from press correspondents that their messages are now permitted to pass through without interference by the French censor.
213
Nov. 28 (195) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Advice that the British Government has abolished the political censorship of U. S. press despatches.
213
Dec. 17 President Wilson to the Secretary of State
Conclusion that the best way to handle press relations is for the Commissioners to hold a brief meeting each day to which newspapermen will be invited; hope that Commissioners will agree to the appointment of Mr. Ray Stannard Baker to handle preparation of all press material to be issued from the Commission.
214
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 19] (29) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
For Polk from Auchincloss: Message for Tumulty from the President setting forth arrangements which the President has made for handling newspaper publicity, and his desire to be kept informed concerning tone and discretion of the American press.
214
Dec. 20 (67) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Report that press stories from Paris are often contradictory. Associated Press statement that U. S. delegation has resolved to advocate sinking of the surrendered warships; suggestion that Department be authorized to contradict story if it is untrue.
215
Dec. 23 (76) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Information that American Mission has not discussed the question of the surrendered warships.
216
Dec. 31 The Chief of the Press Bureau ( Baker ) to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Interview with Mr. George Adam, Paris correspondent of the London Times, during which Mr. Adam expressed the desire of the British newspapermen for an opportunity to meet the Commissioners.
216
1919 Jan. 2 The Chief of the Press Bureau ( Baker ) to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Letter to Mr. George Adam (text printed) stating that it is felt that if the Commissioners should appoint meetings with the British correspondents, they would also have to set a time for the French and Italian correspondents.
217
[Page XL]Jan. 3 The Chief of the Press Bureau ( Baker ) to the Private Secretary of the Secretary of State ( Kirk )
Plan to give the newspapermen a daily list of the names of those with whom the Commissioners have had conferences; inquiry as to whether it will be convenient to have an orderly call for these reports at 6:30 each evening.
218
Jan. 7 (1) The Chief of the Press Bureau ( Baker ) to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Anxiety of newspapermen to know whether initial meeting of the Peace Conference is to be an open one at which they may be present.
218
Jan. 8 The Assistant Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Harrison ) to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Information that provision will probably be made for the newspaper correspondents to be present at the first formal meeting of the Conference.
219
Jan. 9 (114) The Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew ) to the Executive Officer of the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence ( Bowman )
Request that there be placed at the disposal of Mr. Ray Stannard Baker any information in the possession of the Intelligence Section which he may desire.
219
Jan. 17 The Chief of the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence ( Mezes ) to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Mr. Baker’s desire that members of the Intelligence Section prepare memoranda for and make oral explanations to the press representatives; willingness of the members to do so if the Commissioners approve, despite risk involved.
220

REPRESENTATION OF COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES AT THE PEACE CONFERENCE

American Republics

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 15 The Ambassador in Brazil ( Morgan ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Inquiry by Brazilian Foreign Minister as to whether it is desired that Brazil be represented at the preliminary Allied conferences; Foreign Minister’s belief that he should go to the Peace Conference with the Brazilian delegation.
223
Nov. 19 The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Brazil ( Morgan ) (tel.)
Department’s attitude that it is not essential that Brazil be represented at preliminary conferences but that it would be desirable for Foreign Minister to be present at the Peace Conference.
223
[Page XLI]Nov. 25 The Ambassador in Brazil ( Morgan ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s opinion that Brazilian Minister at Paris should represent Brazil at the preliminary conferences; information that Foreign Minister’s selection as delegate to the Peace Conference awaits President Alves’ return.
223
Nov. 25 The Uruguayan Minister ( Cosio ) to the Secretary of State
Inquiry as to whether U. S. and Allied Governments have considered the question of the representation at the Peace Conference of those countries which have broken relations with Germany.
224
Nov. 29 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Peru ( McMillin ) (tel.)
Statement, for the information of the Minister, that the Associated Governments have not as yet discussed the question of the representation at the Peace Conference of those countries which have broken relations with Germany but have not declared war.
224
Nov. 29 The Secretary of State to the Minister in Panama ( Price ) (tel.)
Statement, for the Minister’s information, that the U. S. Government does not think it necessary for all the interested countries to be represented at the preliminary conferences.
(Instructions to repeat to Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Similar telegram on the same date to the Minister in Cuba with instructions to repeat to Haiti.)
225
Dec. 8 (240) Colonel E. M. House to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Promise to see if matter of Brazilian representation at preliminary conferences can be arranged.
225
Dec. 16 The Ambassador in Brazil ( Morgan ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Urgent request for information as to how invitations to Peace Conference will be issued and whether less important Allied countries may participate on their own initiative.
226
Dec. 19 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Brazil ( Morgan ) (tel.)
Department’s understanding that invitations will be sent out from Paris; lack of any further information.
226
Dec. 21 (89) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Substance of telegram from Ambassador in Brazil requesting information concerning invitations to Conference.
226
Dec. 24 (124) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Memorandum by Uruguayan Foreign Minister (text printed) recommending that countries such as Uruguay be invited to Peace Conference with the arrangement that they shall intervene only in matters affecting America. Inquiry whether invitations are to be extended to the Central and South American countries (1) which declared war on Germany, (2) which broke relations with Germany.
227
[Page XLII]Dec. 27 (90) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Assurances that at the appropriate time the U. S. Commissioners will use their good offices with regard to Brazil’s representation at the Conference; suggestion that Brazil send delegates to Paris provisionally.
228
Dec. 27 (91) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Statement that the American Commission will use its good offices on behalf of the Central and South American countries which declared war on or broke relations with Germany.
228
Dec. 27 (29) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Telegram from Montevideo, December 24 (text printed), transmitting memorandum by the Uruguayan Foreign Minister (text printed) in which he sets forth reason why Uruguay should be represented at Conference.
228
Dec. 30 (42) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Communication from Ambassador in Argentina, December 20 (text printed), explaining that Argentina bases its request for a place at the Conference upon its desire to join the League of Nations.
229
Dec. 31 The Acting Secretary of State to the Minister in Uruguay ( Jeffery ) (tel.)
Instructions to inform Foreign Minister that American Commission will use its good offices on behalf of the Central and South American countries which declared war on or broke relations with Germany.
230
Dec. 31 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Brazil ( Morgan ) (tel.)
Instructions to inform Foreign Minister that U. S. Commissioners will use their good offices with regard to Brazil’s representation at the Conference. Secretary’s suggestion that Brazil send delegates to Paris provisionally.
230
1919 Jan. 2 (62) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Report that Argentine Chargé called to express his Government’s anxiety to know if Argentina would be invited to be represented at Conference.
231
Jan. 3 The Minister in Uruguay ( Jeffery ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Foreign Minister’s statement that his Government is greatly pleased with U. S. position regarding Uruguayan interests in the Peace Conference.
231
Jan. 7 The Acting Secretary of State to the Peruvian Minister ( Tudela )
Reply to Minister’s inquiry concerning representation of Latin American countries which broke relations with Germany; information that American Commission will use its good offices in their behalf.
231
[Page XLIII]Jan. 7 The Acting Secretary of State to the Minister in Panama ( Price ) (tel.)
Information, to be used in answering inquiries, that the American Commission will extend its good offices in behalf of the Latin American countries which declared war on or broke relations with Germany.
(Instructions to repeat to Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Similar telegram sent on January 8 to the Minister in Peru with instructions to repeat to Ecuador and Bolivia; also to the Minister in Cuba with instructions to repeat to Haiti.)
232
Jan. 9 (161) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Request by Brazilian Foreign Minister that American Commission assist him in securing admission of four delegates from Brazil.
233
Jan. 10 (228) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Information that there seems to be a sympathetic feeling toward representation of neutral nations a any conference in which questions affecting their interests will be discussed.
233
Jan. 10 (178) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Presentation of reasons why it might be desirable to give Brazil four delegates.
234
Jan. 10 The Brazilian Chargé ( Moreira ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Cable from Foreign Minister (text printed) requesting Acting Secretary’s intercession in obtaining acceptance at the Conference of all four of Brazil’s delegates.
234
Jan. 11 (256) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Request that Brazilian Foreign Minister be informed that Secretary will try to arrange for admission of Brazilian delegates.
(Footnote: Information that the Supreme Council on January 13 agreed to give Brazil three delegates.)
235

Scandinavian Countries

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 21 (1363) The Minister in Norway ( Schmedeman ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Anticipation that representations will soon be made by the Norwegian Government concerning its desire to participate in the Peace Conference in order to advance its views on certain matters.
236
Dec. 7 The Danish Minister ( Brun ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Copy of a note addressed by the Danish Minister at Paris to the French Government (text printed) proposing that Denmark be allowed to participate in the discussions regarding the League of Nations and all questions directly affecting Denmark.
236
[Page XLIV]Dec. 7 (1100) The Minister in Norway ( Schmedeman ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Transmittal of copy of a note addressed by the Norwegian Government to the French Government (identical with the note addressed by the Danish Minister at Paris to the French Government, supra). Foreign Minister’s suggestion that neutral Foreign Ministers be invited to the Conference.
238
Dec. 14 The French Chargé ( Chambrun ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Request of the Ministers of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden at Paris that the attitude of their Governments in regard to representation at the Peace Conference be made known to the other Governments concerned.
239

China

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 15 (6282) The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) (tel.)
Instructions to support the request of China to be represented on the Supreme War Council whenever questions concerning China and the Far East are being discussed.
241
Nov. 16 The Minister in China ( Reinsch ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For Third Assistant Secretary of State: Appointment of Mr. W. W. Willoughby as adviser to the President of China, to assist in presentation of China’s case before the Peace Conference. Willoughby’s desire for approval of appointment.
241
Nov. 18 The Secretary of State to the Minister in China ( Reinsch ) (tel.)
President Wilson’s opinion that it would be unwise for an American to have official connection with another government in connection with peace negotiations; hope, therefore, that the Minister will discourage Willoughby’s appointment.
241
Nov. 18 The Minister in China ( Reinsch ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Intimations by Japanese Legation that Japan might settle the Shantung question in accordance with the declaration of 1914, thus removing any necessity for China to be represented at the Conference.
242
Nov. 19 (5920) The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
French Foreign Minister’s attitude that China’s request to be represented on the Supreme War Council should be granted only upon joint recommendation of France, Italy, Great Britain, and the United States; his opinion that there would be no objection.
242
Nov. 20 The Minister in China ( Reinsch ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Renewal of recommendation that Mr. Willoughby be allowed to accept appointment as adviser to the President of China.
243
[Page XLV]Nov. 21 (5956) The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Foreign Office statement that as yet the French Government has not received Chinese Government’s request to be represented on the Supreme War Council during discussions pertaining to the Orient.
243
Nov. 22 The Minister in China ( Reinsch ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Information that if Mr. Willoughby cannot accompany the Peace Conference delegation, the Foreign Office will probably desire to send their adviser, Dr. W. C. Dennis.
244
Nov. 25 The Secretary of State to the Minister in China ( Reinsch ) (tel.)
Reiteration of Department’s position that no American citizen should serve as adviser to the Chinese peace delegation.
244
Dec. 13 The Acting Secretary of State to the Minister in China ( Reinsch ) (tel.)
Authorization to mention to the proper authorities the desire of the Southern Chinese party that there be a representative from the South on the peace delegation.
244
1919 Jan. 4 (93) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Information that the Chinese Commission sailed on January 2 with C. T. Wang as delegate.
245

Finland

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 27 (1327) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Secretary of State
Information that the Finnish Government has made a request to be represented at the Peace Conference, and desires that the U. S. Government be informed of this request.
245

Hejaz

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 20 (1305) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Secretary of State
Information that King Hussein has expressed his intention of sending a representative to the Peace Conference to take part in discussions concerning the definite settlement of Arab countries; British Government’s suggestion to him that he appoint Emir Feisal for this purpose.
247
Nov. 22 (1317) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Secretary of State
Notification that Emir Feisal is proceeding to Paris as King Hussein’s representative.
247
[Page XLVI]

Liberia

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Dec. 5 The Chargé in Liberia ( Bundy ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Report that Liberia expects to be represented at the Peace Conference and would appoint, if advisable, a mixed commission of Liberians and Americans; that it would be agreeable to Liberia for U. S. Government to recommend American member or members, and that Liberia is disposed to take no action until advised to do so by U. S. Government.
248
Dec. 6 (277) The Chargé in Liberia ( Bundy ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Note from the President of Liberia to the Chargé (text printed) requesting him to ascertain the views of the Department in regard to Liberia’s desire to be represented at the Peace Conference.
249
Dec. 14 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Liberia ( Bundy ) (tel.)
Department’s concurrence in suggestion that Liberia be represented at Peace Conference by mixed commission of three; likelihood that temporary loan could be arranged in the United States to cover actual expenses of delegation.
250
Dec. 23 The Chargé in Liberia ( Bundy ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Appointment of two Liberian members and one American (H. F. Worley) as delegates to Peace Conference; intention of Secretary of Treasury of Liberia to authorize Worley to negotiate loan in United States.
251
1919 Jan. 10 (226) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Suggestion that Acting Secretary indicate to Liberian Government that it would be desirable to appoint one delegate with such assistants as may be necessary.
252
Jan. 16 The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Liberia ( Bundy ) (tel.)
For the President: Information that Worley has been delayed with details of loan and suggests that the Liberian delegates meet him at Paris.
252
Jan. 17 (282) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Notification of names of the three delegates appointed by Liberian Government; request that accommodations be arranged for them.
252

Montenegro

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 21 (5957) The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Report that a request to be represented at the Conference has been addressed by Montenegro through the Ambassador to the U. S. Government.
254
[Page XLVII]Nov. 21 (6794) The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Secretary of State
Note from Montenegrin Minister for Foreign Affairs, November 14 (text printed), addressing to the U. S. Government Montenegro’s appeal to be represented at the Conference
254

Persia

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 15 (43) The Minister in Persia ( Caldwell ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Report that Persian Government is contemplating sending a commission to Washington in hope of obtaining U. S. assistance in securing a seat at the Conference.
256
Nov. 15 (464) The Minister in Persia ( Caldwell ) to the Secretary of State
Explanation that Persia bases her claim to representation at the Conference upon the heavy losses which she suffered as a result of the actual fighting which took place on her soil.
257
Nov. 21 The Persian Chargé ( Ali-Kuli Khan ) to the Secretary of State
Copies of translations of two telegrams from the Foreign Minister (texts printed) emphasizing Persia’s need to be a voting member of the Conference and setting forth eight points which the Persian Government desires to have carried out by the Conference on its behalf.
257
Dec. 2 (26) The Secretary of State to the Persian Chargé ( Ali-Kuli Khan )
Statement that the U. S. Government regards with sympathy the request of the Persian Government but that a decision cannot be communicated until after the President has reached Paris.
261
Dec. 18 (216) The Persian Chargé ( Ali-Kuli Khan ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Information that British Government has indicated willingness that Persia should participate in the Peace Conference but has stated that Persian Government should approach the other Allied Governments in order to secure unanimity on the subject. Request for U. S. cooperation.
261
Dec. 21 (94) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: Request for advice as to what action should be taken in regard to request of the Persian Government.
262
1919 Jan. 7 (84) The Chargé in Persia ( White ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Indication that Persia’s chief desire is for economic independence.
263
[Page XLVIII]

Poland

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 12 The French Ambassador ( Jusserand ) to the Secretary of State
Inquiry as to sentiment of U. S. Government in regard to application of the Polish National Committee at Paris for permission to participate in the Peace Conference when questions concerning Poland are discussed.
264
Dec. 24 The Acting Secretary of State to the French Chargé ( Chambrun )
Assurance that as soon as the position of the U. S. Government is determined the French Embassy will be informed.
264

Roumania

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 11 (6700) The Chargé in France ( Bliss ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Joint telegram from Allied Ministers at Jassy, January 7 (text printed), conveying the protest of the President of the Council as a result of the report that Roumania is not to be admitted to the Peace Conference.
265
Jan. 17 (281) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Request for facts concerning report that Roumania is not to be admitted to the Conference.
266
Jan. 18 (323) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Assurance that there has never been any question regarding representation of Roumania; information that with unanimous approval she has been assigned two representatives.
266

Russia

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 20 The Russian Ambassador ( Bakhmeteff ) to the Secretary of State
Aide-mémoire setting forth Russia’s interests in the prospective peace settlement and the necessity that Russia receive proper representation (text printed). Request to be informed of position of U. S. Government in the matter.
267
Nov. 20 President Wilson to the Secretary of State
Doubt as to the feasibility of recognizing and receiving delegates from the Omsk government, as recommended in the memorandum from the Interparty League for the Restoration of Free Russia (text printed).
268
Nov. 26 The Secretary of State to President Wilson
Belief that a way must be found to solve the difficulty in connection with the representation of Russia at the Peace Conference; suggestions as to how it might be done.
270
Dec. 6 (135) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Suggestion by Russian Ambassador and Prince Lvoff that the diplomatic representatives of the old Miliukov government and other prominent Russians should be invited to the Conference.
272
[Page XLIX]Dec. 16 (37) The Consul General at Archangel ( Poole ) to the Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) (tel.)
For Colonel House: Plans of N. V. Tchikowski, President of the Russian Government of the Northern Region, to go to Paris.
272
Dec. 24 The Secretary of Embassy at Paris ( Caffery ) to Captain Walter H. Lippmann
Copy of translation of a circular telegram, December 7 (text printed), from Mr. Klutchnikoff, Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Kolchak government at Omsk, asking that the interests of Russia may not be forgotten in the peace negotiations.
272
1919 Jan. 10 The Russian Ambassador ( Bakhmeteff ) to the Secretary of State
Aide-mémoire regarding the representation of Russia at the Peace Conference, prepared by the conference of Russian Ambassadors and public men assembled at Paris (text printed).
274
Jan. 10 The Russian Ambassador ( Bakhmeteff ) to the Secretary of State
Aide-mémoire concerning the recognition of the government of Omsk, handed by the Ambassadors of Russia to the Allied Governments (text printed).
276
Jan. 15 (43) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Advice that the British Government has received from the Russian representative in London a copy of a telegram from the Omsk government urging that their representative be permitted to be present in the Peace Conference when the Russian question is discussed.
277
Jan. 20 (55) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Information that the British High Commissioner in Siberia has asked the Foreign Office to inform Monsieur Sazonoff that the Omsk government, having heard that he is going to Paris, hope that he will act as their agent and as the agent of the other new governments in Russia and of Deniken.
278

Switzerland

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 21 The Swiss Minister ( Sulzer ) to the Secretary of State
Note from the Swiss Government expressing its desire to be represented at the Peace Conference, or at least at those sessions which deal with subjects of interest to Switzerland.
279
Nov. 25 The Italian Ambassador ( Macchi di Cellere ) to the Assistant Secretary of State ( Phillips )
Request for U. S. opinion concerning desire of the Swiss Government that its representatives be admitted to the Peace Conference.
279
[Page L]Nov. 29 The Assistant Secretary of State ( Phillips ) to the Italian Ambassador ( Macchi di Cellere )
Statement that attitude of U. S. Government is to receive such requests with sympathy, but that no definite position will be taken until after the Secretary of State arrives in Paris.
280
Nov. 29 (1333) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Secretary of State
Request for expression of U. S. views on question of representation of Swiss Government at the Peace Conference.
280
Nov. 30 The Secretary of State to the Swiss Minister ( Sulzer )
Statement that U. S. Government has received with sympathy the request of the Swiss Government but is not in a position to reply until after the President arrives in Paris.
281
Dec. 5 The Secretary of State to the British Chargé ( Barclay )
Information that U. S. Government has replied to Swiss Government expressing sympathy, but stating that no decision can be made until the Secretary of State has discussed the question in Paris.
281

POLICIES AND PROPOSALS OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE ALLIES

The United States

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Undated [c. Oct. 29] (3) President Wilson to the Special Representative ( House )
Conviction that there can be no real difficulty about peace terms and interpretation of the Fourteen Points if Entente statesmen are perfectly frank and have no selfish aims.
285
Nov. 16 Memorandum on Plans for the Peace Conference, Prepared in the Office of the Secretary of State
Queries to be considered.
285
Dec. 5 Captain Walter Lippmann to the Chief of the Section of Territorial, Economic and Political Intelligence of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Mezes )
List of the most immediately pressing territorial questions.
287
Dec. 5 The Consul General at London ( Skinner ) to the Secretary of State
Copy of a communication to the Department in regard to freedom of the seas (text printed) including, for purposes of discussion, four proposals for improving administrative methods in the application of blockades.
288
Dec. 15 General Tasker H. Bliss to the Secretary of State
Belief that the principles of the League of Nations and of disarmament must be admitted before any other questions are considered by the Conference in order that the United States can use them in opposing transactions of expediency.
294
Dec. 16 The Secretary of State to General Tasker H. Bliss
Concurrence in view that the principles of the peace should be settled first.
296
[Page LI]Dec. 26 General Tasker H. Bliss to the Secretary of State
Inquiry as to what steps the American Commissioners are going to take in order to secure unanimity of understanding in regard to the questions sure to come up in the Conference.
297
Dec. 30 The Technical Advisers to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Scott, Miller ) to the Secretary of State
Transmittal of skeleton draft of peace treaty printed infra.
298
Undated Skeleton Draft of Peace Treaty
With an appendix setting forth a discussion of questions concerning signatories to the treaty.
298
1919 Jan. 8 The Commissioners Plenipotentiary ( Lansing , White , House , Bliss ) to President Wilson
List of subjects in the order in which the Commissioners believe they should be considered.
316
Jan. 9 The Technical Advisers to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Miller, Scott ) to the Secretary of State
Tentative draft of the proposed treaty (text printed) showing first attempt to put flesh on the skeleton draft, this installment consisting of: articles dealing with contracting powers, a suggestion as to a preamble, an article A ending the war and restoring peace, arid an article B setting forth a draft of an agreement for a League of Nations.
316
Jan. 9 Mr. Allen W. Dulles to the Assistant Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Harrison )
Transmittal of a possible statement in regard to use of force to secure realization of territorial ambitions (text printed), with suggestion that it would be preferable if it were made as a joint declaration of the Allies or in a speech by the President.
324
Jan. 11 The Assistant Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Harrison ) to the Secretary of State
Draft of the announcement to be made by the American Commissioners in regard to the use of force to realize territorial ambitions (text printed).
325
Jan. 12 Major General F. J. Kernan to the Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew )
Copy of a memorandum for the American Commission (text printed) giving some suggestions apropos of the American skeleton draft of a peace treaty.
326
Jan. 14 The Technical Advisers to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Miller, Scott ) to the Secretary of State
Draft of article C of the draft treaty, entitled “Declaration for Equality of Trade Conditions” (text printed).
329

The Inter-Allied Conference at London, December 1918

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 25 (173) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Telegram from Lloyd George (text printed) stating desire that Colonel House come to London December 1 for a conference with Clemenceau, Orlando, and himself. House’s hope that he will be able to be there.
333
[Page LII]Nov. 30 (203) Colonel E. M. House to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Information that Clemenceau called to give his solemn word that he would discuss nothing of importance with Lloyd George in London.
333
Dec. 3 Mr. D. H. Miller to Colonel E. M. House
Substance of conversations with various American and British officials. Information that Captain Dennis of the American Embassy at London has made a study of English political situation; summary of his views.
334
Dec. 4 Mr. D. H. Miller to Colonel E. M. House
Conversation with Sir William Tyrrell, British Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs: Tyrrell’s intimation that British claims for indemnity by Germany would not be large; also his views regarding questions of procedure for the Inter-Allied conferences and subjects to be discussed.
338
Dec. 5 Mr. D. H. Miller to Colonel E. M. House
From Wiseman: Information that at the Inter-Allied Conference at London the resolution making conclusions of Conference subject to discussion with the President was pressed through by Balfour in face of much opposition; Balfour’s willingness to appeal to Colonel House to give assent to the most urgent matters.
339
Dec. 6 Mr. D. H. Miller to Colonel E. M. House
Conviction that no program of procedure for Inter-Allied conferences can be agreed upon in advance and that it will be necessary for the President to have his own program.
340
Dec. 6 Mr. D. H. Miller to Colonel E. M. House
From Wiseman: Understanding that Balfour would like House to intimate that the President would be glad for Reading to be in Paris during peace discussions; belief that Reading would accept position of High Commissioner on Anglo-American affairs.
340
Dec. 7 (7) The Acting Secretary of State to the Secretary of State (tel.)
From House for the President: Summary of the proceedings of the conference held at London, December 2 and 3, between Lloyd George, Clemenceau, and Orlando; recommendations in regard to resolutions taken at the conference.
340
Dec. 8 (6) The Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
For House: President Wilson’s request that final conclusions with regard to certain of the resolutions be withheld until he arrives in Paris.
343
Dec. 10 Colonel E. M. House to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Decision that it would be best simply to advise Lord Derby that a summary of the proceedings had been sent to the President; information that the President had not been committed to any of the resolutions.
343
[Page LIII]

France

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 9 (8) The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Statement by Clemenceau that it was his purpose to work in harmony with the United States in all things.
344
Nov. 15 The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Remarks made by the French Foreign Office on previous peace conferences (text printed); scheme of procedure for the Peace Conference as suggested by French Foreign Office (text printed).
344
Nov. 21 (133) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
List of changes which the French Government has made in the scheme of procedure (text printed).
352
Nov. 22 Memorandum by Mr. D. H. Miller on Revised French Proposals of November 21, 1918
Consideration of the French scheme of procedure and of the changes submitted in Colonel House’s telegram No. 133, November 21.
354
Nov. 29 The French Ambassador ( Jusserand ) to the Secretary of State
Statement of the results of a study made by French Government (text printed) of problems concerning the peace preliminaries and the establishment of a general peace treaty. Request for remarks.
365
Dec. 10 (10334) The Chargé in Great Britain ( Laughlin ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Memorandum prepared by the Secretary of Embassy in Great Britain, December 7 (text printed), enclosing a paper left by the French Ambassador at the Foreign Office (text printed) which sets forth a proposed basis of the preliminaries of peace with Germany; explanation by Counselor of French Embassy that the paper is based upon belief that a preliminary peace should be concluded without delay.
371
Dec. 10 (6213) The Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Description of a trip with the Presidential party to Metz and Strassburg, where the crowds gave convincing demonstrations of loyalty toward France.
378
Dec. 24 The French High Commissioner to the United States ( Tardieu ) to Colonel E. M. House
Memorandum which the French Cabinet wishes to have submitted to President Wilson (text printed) expressing opinion that the Inter-Allied councils which guarantee supplies to the Allies should not be discontinued immediately and the wish that American representatives be maintained on these councils, at least as consulting members.
379
[Page LIV]1919 Jan. 9 Mr. Warrington Dawson to the Chargé in France ( Bliss )
Memorandum of a conversation with Marshal Joffre, January 8 (text printed), in which Joffre discussed the political situation in France and some vital points in regard to the peace treaty.
380
Jan. 9 The Chargé in France ( Bliss ) to Mr. Henry White
Transmittal of text received from the French Foreign Minister of the plan for the preliminary conversations between the Allied Ministers, dated January 5 (text printed).
385
Jan. 12 The Technical Advisers to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Miller, Scott ) to the Secretary of State
Observations on the French plan for the preliminary conversations between the Allied Ministers.
396

Great Britain

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Oct. 30 The Special Representative ( House ) to President Wilson (tel.)
Statement by Lloyd George that Great Britain would like the United States to become trustee for German East African colonies. Advice against such procedure; opinion that the British desire United States to accept something in order that they may more freely take what they wish.
407
Nov. 11 (91) The Special Representative ( House ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
For the President: Excerpts from the London Times of November 9, 1918: (1) protest by Australian Premier that Australia had not been represented in settling the terms of peace, (2) reply by British Government press bureau, and (3) editorial discussing the American elections.
407
Nov. 27 (740) The Military Attaché at London ( Slocum ) to the Chief of Staff, War Department ( March ) (tel.)
Outline of British Government’s present policy in regard to the Near East and Africa.
408
Dec. 4 (4272) The Chargé in Great Britain ( Laughlin ) to the Acting Secretary of Stale (tel.)
Report on political situation in Great Britain: declining confidence in Lloyd George and the Coalition Government, and fear that the enemy will be let off too easily.
409
Dec. 12 (4555) The Chargé in Great Britain ( Laughlin ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Information that great damage is being done by inopportune comments by the American press on the subject of freedom of the seas.
413
Dec. 19 (4759) The Ambassador in Great Britain ( Davis ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Report that the press is now chiefly occupied with the President’s visit to Paris and that the sole question concerning which any anxiety is expressed is that of freedom of the seas.
413
[Page LV]1919 Jan. 2 (8) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Acting Secretary of State
British proposal, in view of disturbances in Central Europe, that British, French, Italian, and U. S. Governments issue a joint warning that the claims of any government will be prejudiced by any attempt to occupy disputed territory by force.
415

Italy

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 12 The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Secretary of State
Three memoranda by Mr. H. Nelson Gay relating to Italian interests (texts printed); text of letter from Mr. Gay transmitting the first of these memoranda (in regard to Africa) and stating that he is preparing a series of such memoranda at the request of the chairman of the Research Committee of the Inquiry.
416
Nov. 14 (2353) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Report that Italy has in contemplation the creation of five new provinces and that plans may already have matured.
442
Nov. 15 The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Secretary of State
Memorandum prepared by Mr. H. Nelson Gay on the subject of Fiume (text printed).
442
Nov. 15 The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Secretary of State
Copy of a letter to Colonel House relating to the present situation in Italy (text printed), and transmitting the “Daily Italian Political Notes” of November 13, 14, and 15, prepared by Mr. Gino C. Speranza, of the Embassy staff (texts printed).
447
Dec. 8 (2458) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Report of political situation in Italy and of unanimity of public opinion in demanding that President Wilson visit Italy.
460
Dec. 13 The Technical Adviser to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Miller ) to General Tasker H. Bliss
Opinion, in reply to Bliss’ verbal inquiry, that there has been no formal modification of the Pact of London but that it may well be argued that the acceptance of the Fourteen Points must be considered to have modified the Pact insofar as it is inconsistent with the Fourteen Points.
463
Dec. 14 (15) The Chargé in Italy ( Jay ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Brief résumé of political situation in Italy; statement that elaborate preparations are being made for reception of President Wilson.
463
Dec. 19 (21) The Chargé in Italy ( Jay ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Report on political situation in Italy and Italian reactions to events in neighboring countries.
464
[Page LVI]Dec. 26 (29) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Report of rumor that some sort of treaty touching peace provisions has been arrived at between England, France, and Italy.
466
Dec. 26 (31) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Statement that it is thought that the understanding between England, France, and Italy contains an agreement to stand by each other in the essential results of the war, including territorial claims.
466
Dec. 28 Captain B. A. G. Fuller to Lieutenant Colonel William B. Wallace
Remarks regarding the accuracy of the Russian version of the London Treaty. Memorandum concerning the Saint Jean de Maurienne conference (text printed).
466
Dec. 28 (34) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Assurances from Baron Sonnino that there exists no such treaty or understanding as that referred to in telegrams Nos. 29 and 31 of December 26.
469
Dec. 28 (38) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Ministerial crisis caused by resignation of Bissolati, Minister of War Relief, who has insisted upon acceptance of Wilsonian peace program in its entirety.
470
Dec. 28 (39) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Report of political and industrial situations in Italy; statement that visit of King of Italy to Paris appears to have had good effect upon Italian-French relations.
471
Dec. 30 (43) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Information that Cabinet crisis growing out of Bissolati’s resignation is still unsolved; belief that Bissolati’s following is not large; information that propaganda for Italian expansion along eastern Adriatic shore is tremendous.
472
Dec. 30 (2503) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Stewart: Information from Foreign Office that a decree is about to be issued making the Trentino for economic purposes an integral part of Italy.
473
1919 Jan. 7 (57) The Ambassador in Italy ( Page ) to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the President: Profound impression created in Italy by fact of Bissolati’s having seen the President; belief that Sonnino is now ready to concede more than ever before.
473
[Page LVII]Jan. 9 General Tasker H. Bliss to the Secretary of State
Memorandum submitted by the Italian military representative on the Supreme War Council, setting forth the views of the Italian Government on the problem of the Adriatic (text printed).
474
Jan. 11 The Technical Adviser to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Miller ) to Colonel E. M. House
Opinion, in view of agreement between the Allies to effect peace settlement on the terms of President Wilson’s Fourteen Points and his subsequent addresses, that any provisions of the Pact of London inconsistent therewith are abrogated by that agreement.
487

Japan

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 13 The Ambassador in Japan ( Morris ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Report that news of the armistice is viewed by the Japanese with detachment but that keen interest is shown in Japan’s aims at the Peace Conference, chief emphasis being laid on securing recognition of Japan’s paramount position in East Asia.
489
Nov. 15 The Ambassador in Japan ( Morris ) to the Secretary of State (tel.)
Japanese preparations for the Peace Conference; statement that it is hoped by the Japanese that a League of Nations will offer an opportunity to assert the equality of the yellow race.
489
Nov. 27 (299) The Ambassador in Japan ( Morris ) to the Secretary of State
Opinions of various Japanese leaders as to Japan’s position and what she should receive by way of a settlement after the war.
490
Dec. 12 (177) The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France ( Sharp ) (tel.)
For House: Telegram from Embassy at Tokyo, December 2 (text printed), stating that all pro-German sentiment seems to have disappeared, at least temporarily.
492
Dec. 19 The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Japan ( Morris ) (tel.)
Request for information concerning recent statement alleged to have been made by Okuma, indicating Japan’s ambitions in South Sea Islands.
492
Dec. 21 The Ambassador in Japan ( Morris ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Information that statement by Okuma was probably made in a special interview with U. S. press representatives and not given out in Japan.
493
[Page LVIII]1919 Jan. 2 The Ambassador in Japan ( Morris ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Statement by Okuma that permanent peace cannot be achieved without first solving the question of equality of treatment of the races and the question of armaments.
493
Jan. 7 The Ambassador in Japan ( Morris ) to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Belief expressed by Prince Konoye that Japan should lend no ears to a peace based on Anglo-American interests alone; fear that under a League of Nations as favored by Great Britain and America those two countries would get most of the advantages while others would be deprived of the arms to resist their economic aggression. Information that a number of publicists share Prince Konoye’s views.
494

PROPOSALS FOR A LEAGUE OF NATIONS

Date and number Subject Page
1918 July 16 Draft of Colonel House
Suggestion for a covenant of a League of Nations.
497
Undated President Wilson’s First Draft
Covenant for a League of Nations.
501
Undated Tentative Draft of an Agreement for an Association of Nations
Prepared by Mr. D. H. Miller and sent to Colonel E. M. House on November 30, 1918, and apparently also sent to the Secretary of State.
505
Undated Note on the Agreement for an Association of Nations
Prepared and sent along with tentative draft, supra.
509
Undated Tentative Draft of a Declaration for Open Diplomacy
Prepared by Mr. D. H. Miller and sent to Colonel E. M. House on November 30, 1918.
510
Undated Note on the Declaration for Open Diplomacy
Prepared and sent along with tentative draft, supra.
511
Dec. 1 Mr. D. H. Miller to Colonel E. M. House
Tentative draft of a Declaration for Equality of Trade Conditions, with accompanying note (texts printed).
511
Undated Amendment Suggested by Dr. S. E. Mezes
To the tentative draft of an Agreement for an Association of Nations.
514
Dec. 23 (111) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Desire to call attention to act of Congress, approved August 29, 1916, requesting the President to invite all the great governments to a conference to formulate a plan for a court of arbitration or similar tribunal.
515
[Page LIX]Dec. 23 The Secretary of State to President Wilson
Desire to put forth a draft of articles of guaranty which it is believed could not be successfully opposed at home or abroad; submittal of three memoranda (texts printed): (1) the constitutional power to provide for coercion in a treaty, (2) suggested draft of articles for discussion, (3) suggestions as to an international council, for discussion.
515
Dec. 25 General Tasker H. Bliss to the Secretary of State
Letter from Brigadier General D. E. Nolan, December 6 (text printed), transmitting a preliminary report on the subject of the League of Nations prepared by Captain H. C. Bell, who had been sent to London for the purpose.
519
Dec. 26 General Tasker H. Bliss to the Secretary of State
Copy of letter (text printed) sent to Dr. S. E. Mezes containing comments on Dr. Mezes’ tentative draft of an agreement for an association of nations.
521
Dec. 31 General Tasker H. Bliss to the Secretary of State
Opinion that any constitution for a League of Nations should include a provision to prevent abuse of power on the part of the League in intervening in the domestic affairs of any nation.
525
1919 Undated [c. Jan. 6] Memorandum by the Secretary of State
As to form of international agreement to prevent infringement upon territorial and political rights.
526
[Jan. 7] Draft by the Secretary of State
For an International Agreement.
528
Undated [c. Jan. 7(?)] Memorandum by the Secretary of State
On the privilege of becoming an adherent to the treaty when not a signatory nation.
531

OTHER PROPOSALS FOR THE AGENDA OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE

International Telegraphic Communication

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Nov. 25 The Third Assistant Secretary of State ( Long ) to the Secretary of State
Memorandum on international telegraphic communication (text printed), a subject which it is believed will assume an important aspect at the Conference.
535
Dec. 15 Colonel E. M. House to the Third Assistant Secretary of State ( Long )
Expression of interest in the memorandum on international telegraphic communication which was handed to the Secretary of State (copy of which was sent to Colonel House).
538
[Page LX]

Labor Questions

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Dec. 16 (33) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Information that Gompers feels strongly that labor conference, if held, should be held in Paris at the same time as Peace Conference.
539
Dec. 18 (24) The Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Instructions to say to Gompers that the President thinks that a labor conference might very properly be held at Paris or anywhere else at any time that labor leaders deem it wise.
539
Dec. 21 (86) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Request that the President be informed that Gompers is disposed to call conference in Paris and put on the foreign governments the burden of refusing to let it take place; suggestion to Gompers that he wait and try to arrange matters with the foreign governments. Belief that it would be dangerous to hold conference in neutral country.
539
Dec. 21 (87) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the President from Gompers: Belief that the attitude of those governments which object to convening of a labor conference at the same time and place as the Peace Conference is both unjust and unwise.
540
Dec. 24 President Wilson to the Secretary of State
Agreement with judgment expressed by Mr. Gompers; inquiry as to whether matter might not be straightened out in conversations with the French and English.
541
Dec. 27 Major George L. Berry to Colonel E. M. House
Request to be assigned to act as an intermediary between the U. S. Peace Mission and the various labor groups which are to convene in Paris.
541
Dec. 30 (109) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Instructions to suggest to Gompers the advisability of naming an intermediary between the American Peace Commission and the several labor groups, informing him of Major Berry’s offer of his services.
542
1919 Jan. 3 (87) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Message from Gompers (text printed) stating that he will sail from New York on January 8 and that any arrangement for intermediary should be deferred until conference with American Mission.
542
[Page LXI]

Liberian Affairs

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Dec. 14 Memorandum by the Receiver of Customs of Liberia ( Worley )
Information that diplomatic correspondence is being conducted with Great Britain and France relative to their withdrawal from the receivership in Liberia and from the proposed financial aid to be granted to Liberia by Great Britain, France, and the United States; suggestion that Liberian financial questions should properly be decided by Great Britain, France, and the United States rather than by the Peace Conference.
543
Dec. 15 (1387) The British Chargé ( Barclay ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Suggestion that the Liberian financial questions be considered at the Peace Conference.
544
Dec. 19 (52) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Secretary Lansing: Inquiry as to whether the Secretary would be willing to say that Liberian question is not a matter for presentation at the Peace Conference but that he would be willing to discuss it in Paris with British and French representatives.
544
Dec. 24 (67) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Opinion that Liberian question should be handled by the Department with British and French officials.
545
1919 Jan. 9 (287) The Chargé in Liberia ( Bundy ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Instructions given by the President of Liberia to the Liberian Commission to the Peace Conference, January 8 (text printed).
546
Jan. 16 The Department of State to the British Embassy
Information that in the opinion of the American Peace Mission the question of the financial aid and rehabilitation of Liberia has no bearing on the questions to be considered by the Conference and should be settled directly among the governments.
547

Rules for Aerial Navigation

Date and number Subject Page
1919 Jan. 2 The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace
Note from French Chargé, December 11, 1918 (text printed), suggesting the advantage of having France, the United States, England, Belgium, and Italy join a convention for the adoption of rules of aerial navigation.
550
[Page LXII]Jan. 25 The Secretary of the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Grew ) to the Acting Secretary of State
Opinion of the American Commission that the subject of rules of aerial navigation is not one which pertains to the Peace Conference.
551

The Tacna-Arica Question

Date and number Subject Page
1918 Dec. 11 (18) The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in France ( Bliss ) (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Information that the Government of Peru has accepted President Wilson’s tender of assistance to bring about a solution of the difficulties between Chile and Peru as an offer of mediation, but that the President of Chile appears to consider it an offer of assistance only; desire to ascertain President Wilson’s views in the matter and also his views as to whether the Tacna-Arica question should be laid before the Peace Conference.
552
Dec. 13 (22) The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in France ( Bliss ) (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Department’s opinion that the President’s statement to Chile and Peru should be interpreted as merely an offer of assistance in solving the difficulty due to the disturbance in Iquique and not as an offer to mediate the whole Tacna-Arica question.
553
Dec. 13 (23) The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in France ( Bliss ) (tel.)
For the Secretary of State: Intention of Bolivian Government to send special embassy to Washington to present the case of Bolivia for the acquisition of a port by the cession of Arica to Bolivia; desire for opinion of the President as to whether U. S. Government should signify willingness to receive special embassy and as to whether question of a port for Bolivia will come up at Peace Conference,
553
Dec. 18 (23) The Secretary of State to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
Statement that the President does not desire to make an offer of formal mediation to Chile and Peru, but hopes that the question may be settled by some form of arbitration; doubt that it would be advisable to lay the Tacna-Arica question before the Peace Conference.
554
Dec. 19 (56) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
Request for further expression of views by the Secretary as to form of arbitration to be suggested to Chile and Peru.
555
Dec. 28 The Secretary of State to President Wilson
Transmittal of telegram No. 23 of December 13; opinion that it appears to be an inopportune time for Bolivian delegation to go to Washington but that they might come to Paris; request for expression of the President’s wishes in the matter in order that the Department may be informed.
555
[Page LXIII]Dec. 30 The Technical Advisers to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Scott, Miller ) to the Secretary of State
Observations concerning the Tacna-Arica question submitted in compliance with the Secretary’s request; suggestion of a diplomatic solution based on the Treaties for the Advancement of Peace which Peru, Chile, and Bolivia have concluded with the United States.
556
1919 Jan. 4 (104) The Acting Secretary of State to the Commission to Negotiate Peace (tel.)
For Lansing: List of difficulties involved in attempting to settle the Tacna-Arica question by any agency other than the Peace Conference.
558
Jan. 9 The Technical Advisers to the Commission to Negotiate Peace ( Miller, Scott ) to the Secretary of State
Opinion that the difficulties listed by the Acting Secretary do not offer any obstacle in the way of the suggestion made in the memorandum prepared by the Technical Advisers on December 30, 1918.
559
Jan. 9 President Wilson to the Secretary of State
Doubt as to the wisdom of a Bolivian delegation to the United States or to Paris at present.
561
Jan. 11 (237) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: The President’s doubt as to the wisdom of a Bolivian deputation to the United States or to Paris at present.
561
Jan. 16 (302) The Commission to Negotiate Peace to the Acting Secretary of State (tel.)
From Lansing: Suggestion that a diplomatic solution of the Tacna-Arica question based on the Treaties for the Advancement of Peace might be best suited to the present situation.
561