Sources

The National Archives and Records Administration is the key repository for the majority of the important documents related to the Johnson administrations public diplomacy efforts. The single most important source of documentation is Record Group 306, the records of the United States Information Agency (USIA)/United States Information Service. These collections are a fertile source of information about USIA, the agency in Johnson’s administration specifically tasked with public diplomacy and outreach. The USIA Historical Collection includes Subject Files (containing records relating to USIA function, mission, organization, and programs compiled by former USIA archivist Martin Manning), Office of the Director Files (containing biographical material on USIA senior personnel and major speeches), and Reports and Studies Files. The Office of the Director Files is also an excellent source of high-level documentation; particularly useful files include the Director’s Subject Files. The files of the Office of Policy (after 1966 the name changed to Office of Policy and Research), as well as the Research and Reference Service (which was absorbed into the Office of Policy and Research in mid-1966), contain a variety of USIA printed products, including the Foreign Opinion Notes, Briefing Papers, Special Reports, and Research Memoranda. Please note that following the completion of the research for this volume, several entry numbers for Record Group 306 have changed, including the following: UD–WW 101, UD–WW 108, and UD–WW 257, which are currently P–331; and UD–WW 151, which is currently UD–WW 379.

The Presidential papers of Lyndon Johnson are another important source of high-level decision making documentation on public diplomacy. A number of collections from the National Security Affairs (NSA) files are relevant to research in this area, particularly the USIA Agency and Vietnam Country files. The Leonard Marks files, in the Office of the President Files, as well as the S. Douglas Cater and Harry McPherson files in the Office Files of the White House Aides contain the most relevant public diplomacy documentation. Beyond the National Security Affairs files, the White House Central Files are also an excellent source of documentation on public diplomacy. Additionally, the Subject Files yield substantial material on USIA on a wide range of topics.

Records of the Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (CU) also are important to consult on the Johnson administration’s public diplomacy policy-making. Although the bulk [Page XII] of CU files were transferred to the special collections of the University of Arkansas Libraries in 1983, significant CU records remain in RG 59 at the National Archives. Of the files that remain at the National Archives, the Subject Files in the Records of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs and the Records of the Multilateral Activities of the Secretariat to the U.S. Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs and to the Advisory Committee on the Arts are especially rich. Among the records housed at the University of Arkansas, the files of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and Cultural Affairs Historical Collection (Manuscript Collection 468), Government Advisory Committee on International Book and Library Programs (Group VII) are of particular interest for this volume. Group VII contains 5 series. Series 4, which contains the Correspondence records of the Chronological Files, yielded revealing documentation on the U.S. Government’s international book and library programs.

In addition to the paper files cited below, a growing number of documents are available on the Internet. The Office of the Historian maintains a list of these Internet resources on its website and encourages readers to consult that site on a regular basis.

Unpublished Sources

  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
      • Central Files.
      • In February 1963 the Department of State switched from a decimal file system to a subject-numeric system for its Central Files
      • CUL 8–1, culture; policy, plans, guidelines
      • POL 1, US-Viet S, general policy, U.S.-South Vietnam
      • POL 27 VIET S, military operations in Vietnam
      • Lot Files.
      • PA Files: Lot 67D131 (Entry A1-5226)
        • Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, Subject Files, 05/17/1961-10/15/1965
    • Record Group 306, Records of the United States Information Agency
      • General Records Relating to the Joint U.S. Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO), 1966–1975 (Entry A1–31)
      • Subject Files 1955–1971: Acc. #74–0044 (Entry UD WW 102)
      • Subject Files, 1955–1971, Acc. #69–H-3445 [A] (Entry UD WW 200)
      • General Subject Files, 1949–1970 (Entry UD WW 264)
      • Policy Guidance Files, 1953–1969 (Entry UD WW 266)
      • Executive Secretariat
        • Secretariat Staff, Subject Files, 1973–1978 (Entry P–116)
        • Memorandums of the Executive Secretariat, 1964–1976 (Entry A1-5195)
      • USIA Historical Collection
        • Subject Files, 1953–2000, Entry A1 1066
        • Office of the Director, Biographic Files Relating to USIA Directors and Other Senior Officials, 1953–2000 (Entry A1 1069)
        • Agency History Program, Subject Files: 1926–1975 (Entry A1–1072)
      • Bureau of Information
        • Office of Information and Research, Library Programs Division, Special Collection, Branch Office of the Historical Librarian, Subject Files: 1953–1999 (Entry P–195)
      • Office of the Director
        • Director’s Subject Files, 1963–1967 (Entry UD WW 101)
        • Director’s Subject Files, 1967–1967 (Entry UD WW 108)
        • Director’s Files, 1962–1965 (Entry UD WW 191)
        • DIRCTR Files Bx 33–36, 1966: Acc. #69–A–3445 [E] (Entry UD WW 193)
        • DIRCTR Sub Files, 1963–69, Bx 6–29 63–69: Acc: #72A5121 (Entry UD WW 257)
      • Office of Policy and Plans
        • General Subject Files, 1953–1971 (Entry UD WW 151)
      • Office of Public Information
        • Office of Public Information, Staff Meeting Notes, 1953–1965 (Entry P–123)
      • Office of Research
        • Research Reports, 1960–1999 (Entry P-142)
      • Office of Research and Reference
        • Office of the Assistant Director For Research Analysis: Research Programs Files, 1961–1966, (Entry P–89)
        • Reports to Congress; 8/1953–1979 (Entry P–180)
    • Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
      • Marks Papers
      • National Security File
        • Agency File
        • Country File
        • Country File—Vietnam
        • Subject File
      • Office of the President File
        • Marks, Leonard
      • Office Files of the White House Aides
        • S. Douglas Cater
        • Harry McPherson
      • Special Files
        • Handwriting File
        • Tom Johnson’s Notes of Meeting
      • President’s Daily Diary
      • Recordings and Transcripts of Telephone Conversations and Meetings
      • United States Information Agency Records
      • White House Central Files
        • Confidential File
        • Country Files
        • Subject Files
    • University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
      • University Libraries, Special Collections, Manuscript Collection 468; Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Historical Collection (CU), Group VII: Government Advisory Committee (GAC) on International Book and Library Programs, Series 4: Chronological Files

Published Sources

  • Alpert, Hollis. “Know the Enemy.” Saturday Review, December 10, 1966.
  • Beck, Charlotte H. Robert Penn Warren: Critic. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 2006.
  • Chicago Tribune
  • Christian Science Monitor
  • Congressional Record
  • Cull, Nicholas J. The Cold War and the United States Information Agency: American Propaganda and Public Diplomacy, 1945–1989. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Federal Register. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1957–1962.
  • Frankel, Charles. The Neglected Aspect of Foreign Affairs: American Educational and Cultural Policy Abroad. Washington: Brookings Institute, 1966.
  • The New Republic
  • The New York Times
  • Office of the Federal Register. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, September 6, 1965. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1965.
  • ______. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, April 3, 1967. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967.
  • Report of the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1964.
  • Twenty-First Report of the U.S. Advisory Commission on Information, 89th Congress, Second Session, House Document No. 403. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966.
  • The Twenty-Second Report of the United States Advisory Commission on Information to the Congress of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office, January 26, 1967.
  • United States. House of Representatives. Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1964: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Eighty-Eighth Congress, First Session, Department of State, Subcommittee on Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963.
  • ______. House of Representatives. Departments of State, Justice, Commerce, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1967: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Eighty-Ninth Congress, Second Session. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966.
  • ______. House of Representatives. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on State Department Organization and Foreign Operations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, United States House of Representatives, 90th Congress, Second Session on S. 633. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968.
  • ______. House of Representatives. Implementation of Florence and Beirut Agreements: Hearings Before the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, 88th Congress., 2nd Session., on H.R. 8664, H.R. 15271, and H.J. Res. 688, June 6 and 7, 1966. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966.
  • ______. House of Representatives. A Special Study on the Effectiveness of the Past Educational and Cultural Exchange Programs of the U.S. Department of State: A Report to Congress From the U.S. Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs Pursuant to Public Law: 87-256 Also Constituting the First Annual Report of the U.S. Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs, 88th Cong., 1st. sess. House Document 93. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963.
  • ______. House of Representatives. USIA Foreign Service Personnel System: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on State Department Organization and Foreign Operations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninetieth Congress, Second Session, on S. 633, April 4, May 20, and June 26, 1968, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on State Department Organization and Foreign Operations. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968.
  • ______. House of Representatives. Winning the Cold War: The U.S. Ideological Offensive: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, 88th Cong., 1st sess., Part I, March 28, 29, April 2 and 3, 1963, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963.
  • United States. Library of Congress. Sixty-Ninth Annual Report of the Register of Copyrights For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1966. Washington: Copyright Office, The Library of Congress, 1964.
  • United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman , 1947. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1948.
  • ______. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1954.
  • ______. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1962, 1963. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963–1964.
  • ______. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963–1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968–1969. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1965–1970.
  • United States. Senate. Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, The Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations, 1965, Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, 88th Congress, 2nd sess. on H.R. 11134. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1964.
  • ______. Senate. Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, 88th Congress, Second Session on H.R. 11134. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1964.
  • ______. Senate. International Education Act: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 88th Congress, 2nd Session on S. 2874 and H.R. 14643, August 17, 19, and September 19, 1966. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966.
  • ______. Senate. International Migration of Talent and Skills: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 90th Congress, 1st Session, March 6 and 19, 1967. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968.
  • United States. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Nominations of Edward R. Murrow and Donald M. Wilson (United States Information Agency): Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eighty-seventh Congress, first session, on the nominations of Edward R. Murrow to be Director, and Donald M. Wilson to be Deputy Director of the United States Information Agency. March 14, 1961. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1961.
  • Wall Street Journal
  • Washington Post