Appendix A.3 U.S.A. 19671
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MAN: Yearender, USA, 1967. Europe [INAUDIBLE]
[TYPEWRITER KEYS STRIKING]
MR. VICTOR BEASLEY: I’m Victor Beasley. On Monday, November 20, 1967, near the middle of the day, the number of Americans was estimated to have reached 200 million.
MR. JOHN BATCHELDER: I’m John Batchelder. Of that number, 98 million were males, the other 102 million, females, which was very good news for girl-watchers.
MR. BEASLEY: In the past we’ve been reporting on America by means of television, motion pictures, the radio, magazines, books and all the means one nation uses to communicate with the others in the family of man. This then is a summing-up, a quick look back to 1967 at the people and events that had an effect on each of our 200 million.
MR. BATCHELDER: 1967 was a good year for most Americans, and for many others, too. It marked the 20th anniversary of both the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine. The one saw Europe build its recovery from World War II with American assistance and cooperation. The other gave aid to Greece and Turkey at a time of urgent need.
MR. BEASLEY: Americans could look back in 1967 to 20 years of steady progress to a better life, not only for themselves, but for others around the world.
Two meetings in a house named Holly Bush, in a small New Jersey town, sought peaceful change in 1967. The participants: the President of the United States, Lyndon Johnson, accompanied by his Secretary of State, Dean Rusk, and Mr. Alexei Kosygin, the premier of the Soviet Union. Both were accompanied by members of their family, as people everywhere watched, and waited, and wished them well. The results, hopefully a move toward a substantive agreement, a chance of mutual appraisal and higher hopes, and when the talks were ended, of more friendship in the future.
And, yet, maybe there was more. In August, in Switzerland, the Geneva Disarmament Conference reached a new stage in efforts to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. The United States and the Soviet Union agreed after months of talk on the wording of a draft treaty and submitted identical drafts to a 17-nation conference. America’s chief negotiator, William Foster, said it indicated common concern over nuclear dangers, as witnessed in UN resolutions in the past five years. And so talks which began in 1962 moved closer to agreement. So who can say if the spirit of Holly Bush might not have done much to secure blessings of peace in 1967, and in the years to come.
MR. BATCHELDER: A moment ago, I said American women numbered 102 million. 7.5 million of them are aged 20 to 24. At one time or another they all have hopes of winning a beauty contest. So we give them a chance, in towns, and cities, and nationwide. We chose a Miss America, a Miss Potato Week, a Miss Policeman’s Ball, a Miss Most Likely to Succeed in Business, and even a Miss Universe.
It’s harmless fun, and it gives the girls a chance to be queen for a day or so. We even export them overseas in tougher competition.
[LOUNGE MUSIC PLAYING]
In London, in 1967, the loveliest ladies of them all from all over the world brought beauty and pleasure to those who won.
[LOUNGE MUSIC PLAYING]
The earnest judges made up their minds, and Miss USA was only one of many who lost the beauty race.
The winners: in third place, Miss Guyana; in second place, Miss Argentina; and the winner, Miss Peru.
There was something for the boys, too, in 1967. The Boy Scouts, that is. In August, the first World Scouting Jamboree to be held in the USA was met in the state of Idaho. For Friendship was the theme of the meeting, as scouts from more than 100 nations, some 15,000 strong, spent 10 days together in the open fields.
[ORCHESTRAL POPS THEME PLAYING]
America’s Scouts started 57 years ago when a Chicago businessman met Britain’s Sir Robert Baden Powell, whose widow attended the jamboree and brought the idea back to the USA. Their aims are high—to be trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent.
MR. BEASLEY: But not all nations lived up to those lofty aims in 1967. Old resentments and new provocations combined to bring the Middle East to a boil. Efforts to stop it failed. And so in June war broke out between Israel and the United Arab Republic, Syria, and Jordan. The rest of the world looked with apprehension.
[GENTLE WOODWIND THEME PLAYING]
In New York at the United Nations diplomats and statesmen work day and night to arrange a cease-fire. By June 10, the fighting stopped, but the uneasy truce was to be punctuated by sporadic outbreaks and hostile acts.
Ambassador Goldberg urged acceptance of President Johnson’s five principles, all essential to lasting peace in the area—the right to national life, an end to belligerence, free maritime passage, justice for the refugees, and political independence and territorial integrity for all nations.
After months of arduous negotiations, the Security Council adopted a British resolution embodying those principles, and authorized the appointment of a special emissary of the Secretary General who has gone to the region to meet with the disputants.
[ORCHESTRAL THEME PLAYING]
And in Vietnam, in September 1967, 83% of the Vietnamese eligible to vote cast their ballots for a president, a vice president, and a bicameral national parliament.
Over 100 observers of many nations reported the balloting both fair and just, as Chief of State Nguyen Van Thieu won the people’s support and the first national election.
Later, in October, Vice President Humphrey of the United States, among other dignitaries, was on hand in Saigon for inaugural celebrations.
A huge step forward toward nation building in Vietnam.
It was ironic, however, that as the South Vietnamese came closer to order in their national affairs, disorder in some American cities made world headlines. While the violence that occurred in 1967 was not the work of most Afro-Americans, it underlined the fact that despite the progress made by many Negroes, many felt left behind in a time of social change. By the summer’s end, President Johnson appointed a special committee to investigate the causes and possible solutions to racial violence. That committee will submit its report to the President early in 1968.
Americans of African descent want more opportunity and deserve it. President Johnson has said the nation could afford to spend more on social progress and keep his overseas commitments at the same time. By the end of 1967, new programs to finance social improvements were voted by the Congress, and all Americans were forcefully reminded that no struggle for sweeping social and economic change has ever been neat and clean.
MR. BATCHELDER: Change in social matters takes many forms, not least in the world of fashion. To women the world over, fashions are to her a very serious matter, so they’re always alert to spot new trends, new styles, new ideas, no matter, it seems, the cost.
Perhaps the greatest outside influence on American women in 1967 came from Africa.
[JAZZ MUSIC PLAYING]
In New York, bold new designs—new to us, at least—caught the ladies’ eyes. Bright colors, batiks, new patterns all conspired to raise the eyes of our women from New York and Paris to the offerings of Africa.
And so our women watched with a gleam in their eye as Africa spoke with elegance and style in the leading fashion houses.
And the sight was well worth watching.
MR. BEASLEY: But while American women may have shifted their attention somewhat from the fashion centers of Europe, American statesmen viewed Europe with continuing close attention in 1967. In two weeks of early April, Vice President Hubert Humphrey paid visits to seven European capitals to discuss America’s relations with Europe as a whole. The mission was meant to convey the fact that the United States had not diminished its aims or attentions in support of European objectives.
[ORCHESTRAL FANFARE PLAYING]
“In Bonn and elsewhere,” he said, “our objective is but one thing—progress with understanding, and cooperation and strengthening of bonds.”
In October, the 15-nation North Atlantic Treaty Organization moved to its new headquarters in Brussels. With its 1,300 offices and 15 conference rooms, the building was large enough to accommodate the NATO Council and the military committee, plus communications with NATO capitals and NATO commands. And the United States assured its continuing support to its defensive aims.
And from another quarter of the Western alliance, Australia, there was another visitor to Washington. President and Mrs. Johnson were host to Prime Minister Harold Holt, whose tragic death in December was mourned by all the world. Prime Minister Holt was received on the White House lawn with full ceremonial honors.
Mr. Holt made it clear his nation will continue to do what it can to protect the integrity of South Vietnam.
In April, Konrad Adenauer died. President Johnson joined with other world leaders to pay last tribute to Der Alte.
Said President Heinrich Lubke, “In strengthening friendly ties to other nations, especially the United States, the Chancellor’s work will continue to bear fruit.”
MR. BATCHELDER: And in early December, in New York, the Family of Man Award, founded in 1962, was given to the noted French economist Mr. Jean Monnet, a driving force for international economic cooperation.
Former American Under Secretary of State George Ball made the award on behalf of the honored guests at the formal affair.
In his address, Mr. Monnet said, “World peace can be safeguarded only by the formation of larger entities in the world meeting and discussing problems inside common institutions, whether these problems be of political, defense, or monetary policy.”
MR. BEASLEY: As the year ended on a note of triumph for Mr. Monnet, we’re reminded that the year held tragedy for both the U.S. and Soviet space programs. In the Soviet Union, cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov became the first casualty of an actual space flight. After orbiting the earth, he was killed when his spacecraft crashed.
But even earlier, during a pre-launch test on the ground, fire swept through America’s Apollo rocket, and three astronauts lost their lives. It was the first time America’s space program was beset by loss of life. The nation mourned the tragedy.
Serious delay also threatened in the program to put men on the moon, but later in the year, when the Saturn rocket was rolled out, hopes revived. 36 stories tall, the work of 300,000 men and women in government and industry, the unmanned mammoth raised the spirits of the scientists as it rode away into space, and returned again, as it will, with men aboard, hopefully in this decade.
[ORCHESTRA PLAYING MARCH]
Meanwhile, other probes were sent to the moon, where they sent back pictures that would be useful when man first looked, as you’re looking now, on a lunar landing. Brave new triumphs for machines and men.
[CHAMBER ORCHESTRA PLAYING SWINGING JAZZ THEME]
MR. BATCHELDER: While all this happened, people came from everywhere to see what was happening to man and his world. The United States and 69 other nations built impressive displays at Expo ’67 in Montreal, Canada, to tell of their past, the present, and the future. It was evident there that the things that unite the family of man are more important than those that divide them. And as people mingled and talked together, saw each other’s culture on display, this world felt the smaller.
And as we caught glimpses of things to come, we wondered if we were doing enough now to make this world a better place.
MR. BEASLEY: In the world of commerce, 1967 saw major progress at Geneva. Ever since man began to trade with one another, they have disagreed over tariff, and taxes, and the movement of goods. 1967 was the year in which most ambitious attempts were made to knock down tariff walls. After four years of negotiations, agreements were reached in Geneva affecting the $40 billion a year world trade. Called the Kennedy Round because of the late president’s initiative to reduce trade barriers, the agreements opened the way, according to President Johnson, to a new era in world commerce.
[ORCHESTRA PLAYING MARCH]
And as a new era of commerce began, an old era of educational exchange was continuing. In August the International Congress of Orientalists met in its twenty-seventh assembly at the University of Michigan. It was the first meeting in the United States in the 95-year history of the organization.
As they had met in the past, more than 1,200 experts and scholars from 50 nations met to present academic papers on aspects of ancient and modern Asia. They also made time to greet old friends and to make new ones.
MR. BATCHELDER: Millions of people in more than 100 countries hail football as the world’s most popular sport. In America the game is called soccer. Now our football is a roughed-up version of rugby that rivals baseball as our national pastime.
[ORCHESTRA PLAYING MID TEMPO MARCH]
So what about soccer in the USA? This year we imported whole teams from overseas—Uruguay’s Cerro, England’s Stoke City, and Bangu of Brazil, as the rage for soccer grew.
By the end of 1967 some 1,500 secondary schools and colleges fielded soccer teams as a major sport, and two professional soccer leagues now play in major American cities. Soon, American teams will enter world competition.
Here’s Jim Ryun, world’s fastest runner for the one mile, 1,500 meter race. And here’s the way he runs.
[ORCHESTRA PLAYING SPIRITED THEME]
The scene is Bakersfield, California, June 1967, the 12-nation Commonwealth Games. That’s Ryun on the far left in the dark jersey, back of the pack. He doesn’t look like a winner here. But wait a minute, on the outside, on the turn, Ryun makes his move. He was third, second—the crowd senses something’s up, and they’re right. Now Ryun turns it on.
And at the finish, he’s still got speed to burn, and a new world record for the mile, 1,500 meters—three minutes, 51 and 1/10 seconds for Jim Ryun.
Well they said the four-minute mile could never be run, and it took Britain’s Roger Bannister to prove it could. And now, each year, Jim Ryun keeps chipping away at the seconds. Can anybody beat him? Well maybe 1968 will tell.
MR. BEASLEY: Another race was run in 1967, a race against poverty, ignorance, and disease.
[ORCHESTRA PLAYING HOPEFUL THEME]
The scene was Punta del Este, Uruguay, where 19 chiefs of state gathered in April. It was the first such meeting in 11 years, and it held high promise for the people of the Americas.
The foreign ministers of the OAS—Organization of American States—had prepared the way so the heads of government could take action on a six-point agenda. The major goal, to increase the economic integration of the hemisphere. In an atmosphere of warmth and friendship, the proceedings began. The result, a call for the formation of a Latin American common market, more effort to produce trade earnings, and a cut in military spending.
MR. BATCHELDER: In Mexico in 1968, the 17th staging of the Olympic Games will attract world attention. Since their modern beginning in 1900 in Paris, the Games have attracted the cream of the crop of athletes from more than 90 nations. 1968 will be no exception, but the real contest may be man against nature to see if athletes can compete normally in Mexico City’s 7,400 foot, 2,300 meter altitude, and where the oxygen content of the air is 8% less than it is at sea level.
[ORCHESTRA PLAYING FAST MARCH]
So two kinds of preparation were taking place in 1967. First, the stadium and all the equipment necessary to the games were put in order. Then in October, 2,300 athletes from 45 nations met in what was called the Little Olympics, a dress rehearsal for exertions to come.
Some athletes found they had no trouble at all in the high altitude, but others were not so lucky. At high altitudes the wind resistance is lower, and this may make for new records in some events in 1968, and short distance runners depend on their anaerobic, or oxygen-less, power. But some men will need special training for the special conditions, and others may just give up.
In any case, the October Little Olympics were a testing ground for men and nature, and both scored victories.
MR. BEASLEY: In the spring of 1967, the United States Government began considerations of a very sensitive nature. There was in Switzerland a notable citizen of another country who had expressed the desire to live, at least for a while, in the United States. She was the daughter of a former chief of state, a matter of which at the highest levels required the deepest thought.
[CHEERFUL ORCHESTRAL THEME PLAYING]
So in April, in New York, when a Swiss airliner came to rest, it was a matter of high interest. Out of the plane stepped Svetlana Alliluyeva, the only daughter and the last surviving child of Russia’s Joseph Stalin.
She explained the primary reason for her leaving the Soviet Union was what she termed, “unbearable restrictions on writers and intellectuals.”
American officials said she would be welcome to visit the United States for as long as she wished.
Asked if she would become an American citizen, she said, “I think that before marriage there should be love. So if I will love this country, and this country will love me, then marriage will be settled, but I cannot say now.”
MR. BATCHELDER: Marriage and love—love of country and of all mankind, and a lifelong happy marriage between words and images. That was the proud accomplishment of the American poet Carl Sandburg, who died in 1967. “Time is a sandpile we run through our fingers,” he wrote, “and I tell you the past is a bucket of ashes.” He was an honorable and a much-honored man, a humanist, and one who probed deeply into America’s past to see where it had been and where it might be going. Most will remember him for his studies of Abraham Lincoln, who also spoke to, for, and from the heart of his people. He was a man who rubbed elbows with life and the men and women all around him who lived it with him.
[MELANCHOLY ORCHESTRAL THEME PLAYING]
“Death comes once,” he wrote, “let it be easy. Ring one bell for me, once. Let it go at that. Or ring no bell at all better yet.”
“This is the right place for thinking about Carl Sandburg,” said President Johnson at the memorial ceremonies at the Lincoln Monument in Washington.
MR. BEASLEY: That said, that was 1967. The past is prologue. We, all of us, have much to do in 1968. I’m Victor Beasley.
MR. BATCHELDER: I’m John Batchelder. Thank you and good luck.
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- Source: Johnson Library, RG 306, Film Production Materials Related to the Vice Presidency and Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson, 1961–1975, U.S.A. 1967, 1967, MP#171. Produced by the United States Information Agency.↩