File No. 812.00/18450

The Secretary of Foreign Relations of the de facto Government of Mexico to the Secretary of State

[Translation]

[Left at the Department of State by Mr. Arredondo]

Mr. Secretary: I am instructed by the First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army in charge of the Executive Power of the Union, to transmit to your excellency the following note:

1. The Mexican Government has just been informed that a body of American troops, crossing the international line, has entered Mexican territory, and is at present near a place called El Pino, some 60 miles to the south of the frontier.

The passage of these troops, again carried out without the consent of the Mexican Government, gravely endangers the harmony and good relations which should exist between the Government of the United States and that of Mexico.

This Government is forced to consider this act as one violating the sovereignty of Mexico, and, in consequence, urgently requests that the Government at Washington give the matter its most careful consideration with a view to define, once for all, the policy which it should pursue as regards the Mexican nation.

In order to show as clearly as possible the motives prompting the request made in the present note, it is necessary, before all, to examine carefully the events which have occurred up to the present moment.

2. As a result of the raiding of Columbus, New Mexico, by a band headed by Francisco Villa, on the morning of the 9th of March, of the present year, the Mexican Government, sincerely lamenting the occurrence, and with a view to effectively protect the boundary, expressed the desire that the Governments of the United States and Mexico should reach an agreement providing for the pursuit of the raiders. The Mexican Government made this proposition, guided by the precedent established under similar conditions prevailing in the years 1880 to 1884, and made a concrete request that permission be given Mexican troops to pursue raiders into American territory, [Page 553]under the same reciprocal conditions governing the passage of American troops to Mexican soil, in case such raids as that on Columbus should be repeated at any other point along the border.

As a result of this proposition, made in the Mexican note of March 10th, the Government of the United States, either in error or precipitately, formed the opinion that the friendly attitude shown by the Mexican Government was sufficient to consider itself authorized to cross the frontier, and effectively, without awaiting a formal agreement in the matter, ordered a large body of American troops to enter Mexican territory in pursuit of Villa and his band.

3. The American Government, on this occasion, gave emphatic assurances to that of Mexico of its good faith, stating that the only object in crossing the boundary was to pursue and capture or destroy the band of Villa which had raided Columbus; that this act was not to be taken as signifying an invasion of our territory, nor an intention to violate the sovereignty of Mexico; and that as soon as the object of the expedition had been practically accomplished, the American troops would be withdrawn from Mexican territory.

4. The Mexican Government was not informed that American troops had crossed the frontier until the 17th of March, when the fact was brought unofficially to its attention, through private sources from El Paso, that some American troops were already on Mexican territory. This Government then sent a note to that of the United States stating that inasmuch as the terms and conditions of the agreement to be formally made between the two countries for the passage of troops had not been decided upon, the American Government could not consider itself authorized to carry out the expedition.

The Washington Government explained the sending of the troops into Mexico by stating that it regretted that there should have existed a misinterpretation of the attitude of the Mexican Government in the matter of the passage of troops from the frontier of the United States in pursuit of Villa, but that this had been done under the impression that the previous exchange of messages implied the full consent of Mexican Government, without further formalities.

The Government of the United States further explained its attitude by the necessity of rapid action, and added that it would gladly receive any indications which the Government of Mexico might wish to make in regard to the terms of a definite arrangement covering the operation of the troops in one or the other countries.

5. Both Governments then lent themselves to a discussion of the terms of an arrangement, according to which the reciprocal passage of troops should be settled. Two proposals of the Mexican Government and two counterproposals of that of the United States were submitted.

In the discussion of this agreement the Mexican Government constantly insisted that the passage of troops should be limited, as to the zone of operations on foreign soil, to the time that said troops should remain thereon, to the number of soldiers which should constitute the expedition, and to the class of arms to compose said expedition. The Government of the United States refused to accept these limitations, and, finally, when it did accept the last counter proposal, it stated that in consenting to sign the agreement, [Page 554]it was on condition that said agreement should not apply to the Columbus expedition.

6. This attitude of the American Government was the cause of the Mexican Government sending its note of the 12th of April, in which, leaving aside all discussion of the agreement, once that it was not to cover the Columbus case, it asked the American Government to withdraw its troops, inasmuch as their presence on Mexican soil was not founded on any agreement, and as there was no further object in their remaining, once that the Villa bandits had been scattered and destroyed.

7. Though the American Government gave no answer to the said note of the 12th of April, nor did it take steps to withdraw its troops, it deemed it opportune that representatives of the armies of both countries should meet at some point on the frontier to treat of the military aspect of the situation, and to see if it were possible, in this way, to reach a satisfactory solution, which, on the part of Mexico, consisted in the withdrawal of American troops from its territory.

With this end in view, a conference was arranged at Ciudad Juarez and El Paso between Generals Hugh L. Scott and Frederick Funston, representing the American Government, and the Secretary of War and Marine of Mexico, General Alvaro Obregon. A series of sessions was held and was marked by a spirit of frank cordiality. During these conferences the military situation and all data and explanations relating thereto were fully discussed.

As a result thereof there was submitted for the approval of the Governments of Washington and Mexico a project of a memorandum, in which General Scott declared that the destruction and dispersion of the Villa band had been accomplished, and that in consequence thereof the American Government had decided to begin the withdrawal of its troops, under the promise of the Mexican Government to guard the frontier in such a manner as to prevent a recurrence of raids similar to that on Columbus.

8. The Mexican Government refused to give its approval of this class of agreement, as it provided, furthermore, that the American Government might suspend the withdrawal of troops if any further incident might happen which would lead it to believe that Mexico was not able to protect the frontier as agreed upon.

The Mexican Government could not accept this conditional clause, as the evacuation of its territory is a matter which pertains entirely to the sovereignty of the country and is conditional, in no case, on the criterion of the American Government. On the other hand, it was very possible that some incident might occur which would give an aspect of legality to the indefinite stay of American troops on Mexican soil.

9. This point was still being discussed by Generals Scott, Funston, and Obregon when, on the 6th of the present month of May, a party of bandits attacked an American garrison at Glen Springs, on the American side, crossing immediately thereafter the Rio Bravo and interning themselves by way of Boquillas, in Mexican territory.

10. In view of this and fearing that the American Government might hasten the sending of more troops into Mexico in pursuit of the bandits, the Mexican Government gave instructions to General [Page 555]Obregon to notify that of the United States that it would not permit the further passage of American troops into Mexico on this account, and that orders had been given to all the military commanders along the frontier not to consent to same.

11. On learning the attitude of the Mexican Government, Generals Scott and Funston assured General Obregon that no orders had been issued to American troops to cross the frontier on account of the Boquillas raid, and that, furthermore, no more American troops would cross into our territory.

This statement was made personally by Generals Scott and Funston to General Obregon at the time of the suspension of the conferences and was reiterated by General Scott himself, thereafter, in a private conversation with Licenciado Juan Neftali Amador, Subsecretary of Foreign Relations, who had taken part in the said conferences between the military representatives of the United States and Mexico.

12. As a result of the Glen Springs or Boquillas incident, and to prevent groups of bandits from organizing and arming near the frontier and repeating their raids, and in order to bring about an effective military cooperation between the American and the Mexican forces, this Government suggested, through its representative, General Obregon, to the representatives of the United States, Generals Scott and Funston, the advisability of settling upon a military plan providing for the distribution of troops along the frontier in order to insure an effective vigilance of the entire region, and in this way prevent, as far as possible, a recurrence of the raids. The Mexican Government in this way demonstrated not alone its good faith and intentions, but also its real desire to cooperate effectively with the Government of the United States, and to avoid new causes of friction between the two Governments.

This reciprocal plan for the distribution of American and Mexican forces, in their respective territories along the frontier, was proposed in order to avert any immediate new cause of difficulty, the right being reserved, always, to reach a subsequent agreement for the reciprocal passage of troops as long as the abnormal conditions existed in our territory.

13. The conferences between Generals Scott, Funston and Obregon were suspended on the 11th of May without an arrangement having been reached for the unconditional withdrawal of American troops. General Scott insisted on the preparation of a memorandum for the conditional withdrawal of American troops, but did not take into consideration the plan proposed by the Mexican Government for the protection of the frontier by a distribution of troops along the same.

Under these conditions the work of concluding the negotiations initiated at Ciudad Juarez and El Paso reverted to the Governments of Washington and Mexico. Up to this moment no complication had arisen in regard to the new incident at Boquillas, and all the assurances given by Generals Scott and Funston led one to suppose that the incident would not cause new difficulties.

14. The Mexican Government, nevertheless, has just been advised that some 400 men of the 8th Regiment of the American Army are on Mexican soil, having crossed the line near Boquillas about [Page 556]the 10th or the 11th instant. They are at present near a place called El Pino, some 60 miles to the south of the frontier. This fact reached the knowledge of the Mexican authorities through the commander of the American forces which crossed the frontier, he having sent the Mexican military commander a communication from Esmeralda, in Sierra Mojada, stating that he had crossed the frontier in pursuit of the bandits who had attacked Glen Springs, in virtue of an agreement existing between the American and the Mexican Governments providing for the passage of troops and also with the consent of a Mexican consular officer at Del Rio, Tex., whom he stated he had informed of the passage of the troops of his command.

15. The Mexican Government can not suppose that the American Government has, for the second time, committed an error in ordering the passage of its troops into Mexico without the consent of this Government. It is difficult to understand how an officer of the American Army could enter Mexican territory without the due authorization of his superior officers, or that he should think for a moment that permission for the passage of his troops could be obtained from a consular officer.

The explanation given by the American Government for the sending of troops from Columbus has never been satisfactory to the Mexican Government, but the new invasion of our territory is not now an isolated fact, and leads the Mexican Government to believe that it has to treat with something more than a simple error.

16. This last act of the American forces creates new complications with the Mexican Government, renders more distant the possibility of a satisfactory solution, and creates a more complicated situation between the two countries.

The Mexican Government can not but consider this last act an invasion of our territory by American forces contrary to the expressed wish of the Mexican Government, and it is its duty to request, and it does request, of the American Government, that it order the immediate withdrawal of these new forces, and that it abstain from sending any further expedition of a similar nature.

17. The Mexican Government understands the obligation incumbent upon it to guard the frontier, but this obligation is not exclusively Mexican, and it hopes that the American Government, on which falls a similar obligation, will appreciate the material difficulties to be met with in so doing, inasmuch as it appears that the American forces themselves, notwithstanding their numbers and the further fact that their attention is not divided by other military operations, find themselves physically unable to protect effectively the frontier on the American side.

The Mexican Government has made every effort on its part to protect the frontier without, on the other hand, abandoning the work of pacifying the rest of the country, and the American Government should understand that if from time to time these lamentable incursions into American territory are perpetrated by bandit groups, this fact is rather a matter of pecuniary reparation and a reason to provide for a combined defense, but never the cause for the American forces to invade Mexican soil.

The raid of the bandit groups into American territory is a lamentable affair to be true, but one for which the Mexican Government, [Page 557]which is doing all possible to avoid a recurrence of such acts, can not be held responsible. The passage of American regular troops into Mexican territory against the expressed wish to the Government does, indeed, constitute an act for which the American Government is responsible.

18. The Mexican Government believes, therefore, that the time has come to insist that the American Government withdraw the new expedition from Boquillas and that it abstain in the future from sending further troops across the border. At all events, the Mexican Government, having expressed clearly its nonconformity with the crossing of additional troops into Mexico, is forced to consider this as an act of invasion of its territory and, in consequence, will be obliged to defend itself against any body of American troops on its soil.

19. In regard to the troops which are now in the State of Chihuahua and which crossed as a result of the Columbus affair, the Mexican Government is forced to insist upon their withdrawal.

The Mexican Government is aware that in case of a refusal to retire these troops, there is no further recourse than to defend its territory by appeal to arms, yet at the same time it understands its duty to avoid, as far as possible, an armed conflict between both countries, and relying on Article 21 of the Treaty of February 2, 1848, it considers it its duty to resort to every pacific method to solve the international conflict pending between the two countries.

20. The Mexican Government considers it necessary to take advantage of this opportunity to request of the American Government a more categorical definition of its true intentions toward Mexico. In this respect it hopes that, in expressing itself with entire frankness, its words be not so interpreted as intending to wound the susceptibilities of the American Government, but it finds itself in the necessity of laying aside diplomatic euphemisms and expressing itself with all possible clearness. If in stating the grievances which follow the Mexican Government uses the utmost frankness, it is because it considers it its duty to bring the point of view of the Mexican people as clearly as possible to the attention of the Government and the people of the United States.

21. The American Government for some time past has been making assurance of friendship to the Latin-American people, and has taken advantage of every opportunity to convince them that it wishes to respect their sovereignty absolutely.

Especially with respect to Mexico the American Government has declared on various occasions that it was not its intention to intervene in any manner in its interior affairs and that it desires to leave it to our country to work out alone its difficult and varied problems of political and social transformation.

Only recently, on the occasion of sending the expedition from Columbus, the American Government, through the President, declared that it would not intervene in the domestic affairs of Mexico, nor invade the country; that it did not desire an inch of its territory, and that under no circumstances would any attempt be made on its sovereignty.

The Government at Washington and its representatives at the frontier have further expressly stated that it is not the wish of the [Page 558]American people to enter into a war or an armed conflict with the Mexican people.

In summing up the matter, and judging by the official statements which have for some time past been made by the Government at Washington, one would think that there was a real desire on the part of the Government and the people not to enter into conflict with Mexico.

22. The Mexican Government has, nevertheless, to confess that the acts of the American military authorities are in direct contradiction to the statements above referred to, and finds itself forced, therefore, to appeal to the President, the Department of State, the Senate and the American people, for a definition, once for all, of the true political intentions of the United States as regards Mexico.

23. It is equally imperative that the Government of the United States define, in a precise manner, its intentions as to Mexico, in order that the other Latin-American nations might judge of their sincerity, and that they might appreciate the true value of the assurances of friendship and fraternity made to them for many years past.

24. The American Government stated, through the President himself, that the punitive expedition from Columbus would be withdrawn from Mexican territory as soon as the Villa band had been destroyed or dispersed. More than two months have passed since the expedition entered Mexican territory. Generals Scott and Funston declared in Ciudad Juarez that the bands of Villa are completely dispersed, and yet American troops are not as yet withdrawn from Mexico.

The Government of the United States is convinced and is cognizant of the fact that there is no further work of a military nature to be performed by the expedition from Columbus, and nevertheless it has not yet complied with the promise made by President Wilson that these troops would be withdrawn as soon as the motive for their entry into Mexico had been removed.

The motives for preserving interior political order which might militate against the withdrawal of the troops from Mexican territory, unfounded as they are, do not justify this attitude, but, on the contrary, accentuate the discrepancy between the assurances of respect, for Mexico’s sovereignty and the actual fact that for purely political reasons in the United States this state of affairs, so unjust towards the Mexican Republic, is allowed to continue.

25. The American Government stated that its intention in sending troops into Mexico was only to defend its frontier against possible incursions. This statement is, notwithstanding, in contradiction to the attitude assumed by the Government itself in discussing the agreement in regard to a reciprocal crossing of the boundary, for while the Mexican Government insisted that this agreement limit the zone of operations of the troops of each country, the duration of the expeditions, the number of soldiers and the class to which they should belong, the American Government constantly eluded these limitations. This attitude of the American Government, which was the one which expected to cross the boundaries at such times as might be necessary, in pursuit of the bandits, is clearly indicating its intention of preparing to penetrate further into Mexican territory than the purposes of defense would seem to warrant.

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26. The punitive expedition from Columbus, as it has been called, did not have, according to statements of President Wilson, any further object than to capture and punish the band guilty of the raid, and was organized under the supposition that the Mexican Government had consented thereto. Nevertheless it has shown an attitude of manifest distrust toward the Mexican Government and a spirit of such absolute independence that it can not but justly be considered as an invasion without Mexico’s consent, without its knowledge and without the cooperation of its authorities.

It was well known that the Columbus expedition crossed the frontier without the knowledge of the Mexican Government. The American military authorities carried out this expedition without waiting to obtain the consent of the Government of Mexico, and even after they were officially advised that this Government had not given its consent thereto, they continued to send forward more troops without informing the Mexican Government thereof.

The expedition has crossed into and operated in Mexican territory without seeking the cooperation of the Mexican authorities. The American military authorities have maintained always the most complete silence respecting their movements, never informing the Mexican Government of them, as they would have done had they in reality desired to obtain the cooperation of the latter. This failure to advise and cooperate with the Mexican authorities was the cause of the encounter which took place in Parral between the American forces and Mexican citizens.

Finally, the Columbus expedition was effected not in a spirit of harmony but, on the contrary, of distrust and suspicion of our authorities, for not only was no effort made to seek our cooperation or to keep us informed regarding the military operations being carried out, but the said expedition was organized with artillery and infantry forces.

If it was intended to pursue a band of robbers, an act which, by its very nature, required rapidity, such pursuit should have been carried out by a squad of cavalry. The employment of artillery and of infantry can not be explained in any other way than as a measure of precaution against a probable attack by the Mexican forces.

Now, then, it is not possible to reconcile the declarations of friendly cooperation made by the American authorities with the use of the infantry and artillery, exclusively destined for use against the regular Mexican forces.

If the Columbus expedition had been carried out with the consent of the Mexican Government and the cooperation of the latter had been sought, the employment of the artillery and of the infantry would have been an insult to the Mexican authorities as offering a suggestion of the possibility of treachery on their part against the American forces who had entered Mexican territory in the pursuit of a common enemy, relying on the friendship of the former. It is preferable, notwithstanding, to interpret this as a proof that the American forces crossed into Mexican territory without the consent of the Mexican Government and were, therefore, resolved to repel any aggression on the part of the regular Mexican troops, who were ignorant of their presence.

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All of this demonstrates a great discrepancy between the assurances on the part of the American authorities of a sincere and friendly cooperation and the actual purpose of the expedition, which, through its distrust, the secrecy maintained regarding its movements, and the forces of which it was composed, clearly indicated the hostile nature of the expedition and an actual invasion of our territory.

27. The American Government has stated on various occasions that the Columbus expedition had no other object than that of pursuing and dispersing Villa’s bands, and that so soon as this was accomplished its forces would retire.

The facts, however, have demonstrated that the intention of the American Government was no longer the same as during the conferences at Ciudad Juarez and El Paso. There is no other way of explaining why General Scott should have insisted so emphatically on the signing of a memorandum which stated that the American forces would not have been withdrawn if any other occurrence took place which might convince the American Government of the inability of the Government of Mexico to protect the frontier. The conclusion to be deduced from this insistence of General Scott, on the signing of this memorandum, is that the Columbus expedition entered Mexico promising to withdraw as soon as the bands of Villa had been destroyed, but that afterwards efforts were made to make use of the said expedition as a means to guarantee the protection to the frontier.

28. The American Government justly desires the protection of its frontier. If the frontier were duly protected against incursions from Mexico there would be now no reason for the existing difficulties. The American Government understands perfectly the difficulties which exist in the protection of a boundary which possesses no natural advantages for its defense, and, notwithstanding its enormous resources, the American Government itself has been unable to afford an efficient protection along the more than 2,000 kilometers which it has to cover.

The Mexican Government proposed that the military chiefs at the head of the troops of each country should discuss a plan of distribution of troops along the boundary line, and notwithstanding the assurances of the Government of the United States that it desired to find a solution to the difficulties with Mexico, General Scott would not agree to carry out this plan, which is the only rational one and the only one which could be effected without the necessity of one or the other country invading the territory of the other. The American Government prefers to maintain its troops inactive and idle on Mexican territory rather than to withdraw them and station them along the border by arrangement with the Mexican authorities who would agree to do the same. By acting as it has the American Government leads us to suppose that its real intention is to keep these troops in Mexico in the event that it may need them there later for future operations.

29. The American Government on every occasion has declared itself as desirous of assisting the Constitutionalist Government in concluding its work of pacification, and of accomplishing this in the shortest possible time. The real attitude of the American Government [Page 561]in connection with these desires appears incongruous, as, for some time past, it has been committing various acts which indicate that it not only does not lend its aid in the pacification of Mexico but that, on the contrary, it seems to place every possible obstacle in the way of attaining such an end. In reality, without considering the great volume of diplomatic representations which, under the pretext of protection of established American interests in Mexico, constantly impede the labor of the new Government in its efforts to reorganize the political, economic and social conditions of the country on new bases, a large number of other acts seem to show that the influence of the American Government is directed against the consolidation of the present Mexican Government.

The decided aid lent at one time to Villa by General Scott and the Department of State was itself the principal cause of the prolonged civil war in Mexico. Later the continuous aid extended by the American Catholic clergy to that of Mexico, which labored unceasingly against the Constitutionalist Government, and the constant activity of the American press favoring intervention and the interests of the business men of the United States, are still further indications that the present American Government can not or will not prevent the work of conspiracy which is being effected in the United States against the Constitutionalist Government.

30. The American Government incessantly demands from the Mexican Government an effective protection of its frontier, and yet the greater part of the bands which take the name of rebels against this Government are cared for and armed, if they are not also organized, on the American side under the tolerance of the authorities of the State of Texas, and, it may even be said, that of the Federal authorities of the United States. The leniency of the American authorities respecting these bands is such that in a majority of the cases the conspirators, who are well known, when they have been discovered and taken to prison, obtain their liberty by insignificant promises which allows them to continue in their efforts.

The Mexican emigrants who conspire and organize incursions from the United States side have now more facilities for doing harm than formerly, for they knew that any new difficulty between Mexico and the United States will prolong the stay of the American troops. They endeavor therefore to increase the possibilities of conflict and friction.

31. The American Government says it will aid the Constitutionalist Government in its labor of pacification and demands urgently that such pacification be effected in the quickest possible time, and that at the same time the protection of the frontiers shall be effected in the most efficacious manner. Yet notwithstanding this, it has on various occasions detained the shipments of arms and munitions purchased by the Mexican Government in the United States, destined to be employed in accelerating the work of pacification and in the more effective protection of the frontier. The pretexts for detaining the shipments of munitions consigned to this Government have always been futile, and a frank reason has never been given. It has been said, for example, that the munitions have been embargoed because of the fact that the true owner was not known, or [Page 562]because of the fear that they might fall into the hands of the Villistas.

The embargo on stores consigned to the Mexican Government can be interpreted in no other way than that the American Government desired to be on its guard against the emergency of a possible future conflict and for that reason tries to prevent arms and stores from reaching the Mexican Government, as they may eventually be used against the Americans themselves. The American Government would be within its rights in guarding against such an emergency, but in such a case it should not claim that it is trying to cooperate with the Mexican Government, and it would be better to show a greater frankness in its procedure.

Either the American Government really and decidedly wishes to assist the Mexican Government in reestablishing peace, and in this event it should not impede the movement of arms, or else its real intention is to prepare itself so that in the event of future war with Mexico this country may find itself less provided with arms and provisions. If the latter is true it would be better to say so.

In any event the embargo on arms and supplies consigned to the Mexican authorities, effected under the weak pretext of preventing such arms and munitions from falling into the hands of the Villistas, is a clear indication that the real acts of the military authorities are completely out of accord with the proposals of peace on the part of the American Government.

The Mexican Government does not wish war with the United States, and if this should occur it will be as a consequence of the deliberate cause by the United States. To-day these measures of precaution by the American Government show that there is a desire to be prepared for such an emergency, or, what amounts to the same thing, they manifest an attitude of hostility on the part of the United States toward Mexico.

32. Finally, the American authorities in New York, at the suggestion of a neutral society of pacifists, have ordered the detention of certain pieces of machinery which the Mexican Government removed to Mexico for the manufacture of munitions, which machinery could not be utilized for several months after bringing it to this country. This act of the American Government which tends to prevent the manufacture of munitions at a remote future time, is another clear indication that its true attitude toward Mexico is not a peaceful one, for, while millions and millions of dollars worth of arms and ammunition are exported for the European war without these societies of pacifists of the United States being perturbed thereby, the authorities of New York show themselves too much disposed to support the demands of these humanitarian societies when they deal with the proposition of exporting to Mexico machinery for the manufacture of its arms and supplies.

Mexico has the unquestionable right, as does the United States and all other nations of the world, to provide for its military necessities, above all when it finds itself confronted by a task so vast as that of accomplishing the internal pacification of this country; and the act of the United States in embargoing machinery destined for the manufacture of munitions indicates either that the United [Page 563]States wishes to place obstacles in the way of complete pacification or that this act is only one of a series effected by the authorities of the United States in providing against a possible war with Mexico.

33. All the circumstances hereinbefore mentioned indicate that the real objects of the military authorities of the United States are in absolute contradiction to the continued declarations of friendship on the part of the American Government toward Mexico.

34. The people and the Government of Mexico are absolutely sure that the American people do not desire war with Mexico. There are none the less great American and great Mexican interests anxious for a conflict between the two countries. The Mexican Government firmly desires to maintain peace with the American Government, but to this end it is indispensable that the American Government explain frankly its true attitude toward Mexico.

It is indispensable that this contradiction between the assurances of friendship on the part of Washington and the acts of suspicion and distrust and aggression on the part of the military authorities should disappear.

The people and Government of Mexico must know what to expect, and wish to be sure that the assurances so many times expressed by the Government of the United States correspond really to its sincere desire for friendship between the two countries, friendship that should exist not only in the statements but which should be crystallized into acts.

The Mexican Government invites the Government of the United States to bring about a cessation of this situation of uncertainty between the two countries and to support its declarations and assurances of friendship with real and effective acts which shall convince the Mexican people of the sincerity of its proposals. These acts at the moment can not be other than the immediate withdrawal of the American troops which are to-day on Mexican territory.

In complying with the instructions of the Citizen First Chief, I avail myself of this opportunity to offer your excellency the assurances of my most distinguished consideration.

C. Aguilar