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List of papers by topics, incoming papers chronologically under date of receipt

PRE-WAR PAPERS: NEGOTIATIONS RELATIVE TO THE CONCLUSION OF TREATIES FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF GENERAL PEACE

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
June 15 To the Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs (telegram). President Wilson’s plan for peace treaties accepted in principle by thirty-four countries; Great Britain, France, Norway, and Uruguay to accept soon. Copy of treaties sent to Greece. 3
July 15 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Seventeen peace treaties already signed providing for investigation of all disputes prior to war. Form of British and French treaties agreed upon to be signed after submission to self-governing colonies for ratification. Germany urged to ratify on same day. 3
July 18 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). No chance of Germany’s signing peace treaty. 4
Aug. 14 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquiry as to when Great Britain will sign peace treaty. Others awaiting action of Great Britain and France. 5
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Inquiry when France will sign peace treaty. 5
376 Aug. 15 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Promises definite answer soon as to signing of peace treaty. War causing delay. 5
Aug. 17 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram).
The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary and the Ministers in Belgium, Spain, and Greece.
Eighteen peace treaties ratified; four more to be ratified soon. Again urging Germany to sign before Congress adjourns. 6
Aug. 21 [Rec’d] Aug. 22] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). No hope for peace treaty_ _ _ _ 6
47 Sept. 4 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). British Ambassador authorized to sign peace treaty. French treaty ready, United States Government having accepted all changes suggested by France. Spanish Ambassador instructed to sign. Twenty-two treaties already signed. 6
[Page XXIV]49 Sept. 8 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). France arranging to sign treaty on same day as Great Britain. 7
Sept. 15 To the Minister in Belgium (telegram).
The same to the Ambassadors in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.
United States has just signed peace treaties with Great Britain, France, Spain, and China; in all, has treaties with more than two-thirds of population of globe. Desires treaty with Belgium also. 7
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 22] From the Minister in Sweden (telegram). Swedish Government has agreed to peace treaty and is ready to sign at same time as France and England. 7
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 24] From the Russian Ambassador (telegram). Russian Government has directed him to sign peace treaty. Will prepare draft and come to Washington. 8
272 Sept. 27 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Peace treaties with Great Britain, France, and Spain ratified. Treaties with Russia, Sweden, and Greece to be signed in few days. If Germany and Austria will agree to similar treaties success of plan will be complete. Will be gratified to make treaty with them. 8
Sept. 29 To the German Ambassador (telegram). Great Britain, France, and Spain just ratified treaties of peace. Preparing treaties with Russia, Sweden, and Greece. Austria and Germany have already approved principle. United States will consider any change in detail. Desires early signature. 8
Oct. 1 From the German Ambassador (telegram). Requests copy of last treaties to send to Germany. 9
Oct. 5 Memorandum of Secretary of State. German Ambassador expressed interest in peace treaties; will endeavor to induce German Government to sign one. 9
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Gratification of United States over education of War Minister’s brother and sons at Robert College. Proposes Turkey sign peace treaty with States. Most of great powers have done so. Form of Netherland treaty the one generally followed. Suggests bringing it to attention of Turkish Government. 9
Oct. 7 From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Telegram concerning arbitration plan submitted to Foreign Office; promise given that it will receive attention. 10
[Page XXV] Oct. 9 [Rec’d Oct. 12] From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. Copies of peace treaties received and submitted to Government. 10
Oct. 16 To the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Just signed thirtieth peace treaty. Ask Japanese Government if it will consider similar treaty. 10
Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Japan reluctant to join in peace treaties. United States and Japan have conflicting views on China. Dissatisfaction in Japan concerning California legislation Fear of hostile legislation. 11
12 Nov. 16 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Minister in Belgium. Belgium formerly interested in peace treaties but has no time at present for calm and careful consideration. 11

PART I: THE OUTBREAK AND SPREAD OF THE WAR—PROJECTS OF MEDIATION

The Crisis

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
July 25 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Russian intervention inevitable in case of Austro-Servian conflict. 15
July 26 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Mobilization of army ordered to begin immediately. 15
July 27 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Situation less acute. Chances of peace improved. Army clamoring for war. 16
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Possibility of matters being arranged without general European war. 16
July 13 [Rec’d July 27] From the Vice consul General at Budapest. War between Austria-Hungary and Servia unavoidable. Army being mobilized. Cordon being drawn around Servian frontier and in Bosnia. News suppressed and sale of horses to foreigners forbidden. 16
171/res. July 24 [Rec’d July 27] From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. Demands made of Servia as result of assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, and because of the stirring up on the part of the Servian Government of the Slav population in the southern pas of the Monarchy. 17
July 28 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Austrian declaration of war against Servia causing excitement. Russian Army mobilizing. Emperor strongly influenced to declare war. 17
178/res. July 26 [Rec’d July 28] From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. Servia’s answer to ultimatum of Austria-Hungary unsatisfactory. Diplomatic relations broken off. Servia mobilizing. 17
[Page XXVI] July 27 [Rec’d July 28] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). War in Balkans certain. Germany gives moral support to Austria. Italy neutral. Montenegro and Roumania aid Servia. Bourse closed. Martial law. War loan of 300 million crowns planned. 18

The First Suggestion of Mediation by the United States (July 28)—The Opening of Hostilities

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
July 28 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Situation in Europe gravest in history. Civilization threatened. Laboring classes against war. Fear Germany. Suggests strong plea from United. States for moderation and delay. 18
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Inquiries whether offer of good offices of United States would be acceptable in Europe under Article 3 of Hague convention. 19
July 28 [Rec’d July 29] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegrams). Transmits Austria-Hungary’s formal declaration of war against Servia. 19
250 July 29 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Good offices of United States offered to Sir Edward Grey. 19
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Stock Exchange action deferring settlements for 30 days has quieting effect upon market. French hopeful of confining hostilities to present belligerents. 20
July 30 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Mobilization decree issued. German and Austrian Ambassadors ready to leave. 20
Undated [Rec’d July 30] From the Consul at Gibraltar (telegram). Garrison mobilized 20
July 31 [Rec’d July 30] From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). British naval vessels in China dismantled and crews sent to Weihaiwei anticipating hostilities with Germany. 21
July 30 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany’s efforts for peace fruitless. General European war certain. 21
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Vice Consul at Kingston, Jamaica (telegram). Jamaica forts manned, regiments sent to Kingston. German cruiser near. 21
[Page XXVII]147 July 13 [Rec’d July 30] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Conditions in Austria-Hungary influenced by assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Archduke’s death heavy blow; practical head of army with long years of training; moving spirit of navy; closest friend of Kaiser. Conditions unstable, decline of market values, slackening of domestic industries. Emperor’s health affected thereby. New heir, Charles Francis Joseph, adequate to task; well trained in army. 22
July 30 [Rec’d July 31] From the Consul General at Hamburg (telegram). Imperator will not sail 23
July 31 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Russia’s mobilization makes war inevitable. United States asked to take over Russian and French Embassies. Food prices doubled. Requests food, gold, and navy vessel for Americans desiring to leave Germany. 23
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To Ambassadors, Ministers, and Principal Consular Officers in European Countries (telegram). Instructions to telegraph Department daily as to military, financial, and political situation. 24
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Extremest military muster of realm, including Landsturm. 24
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Great Britain has proposed in vain an ambassadorial conference in Europe to avoid war; desires to know if United States has offered good offices at Vienna, St. Petersburg or Berlin. 24
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Allard Bank closed, failed to get money from Russia, Germany, or England. Bank of France refused assistance. Other banks suspend payments. Rumors of mobilization. Permission to issue emergency passports requested. 25
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ German Ambassador in France instructed to ask French Government if it will maintain neutrality. German Ambassador in Washington has asked United States to take charge of German Embassy in France in event of negative reply. 25
[Page XXVIII] July 31 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Will accede to a German request that United States take over German interests in France, but only with the understanding that we will do the same for other countries. 26
July 31 [Rec’d Aug. 1] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Country unanimous for war. Complete mobilization. Railways disorganized. Advising American tourists to leave. Unfortunate if we are again asked to look after interests of Russia’s enemies, as in the war with Japan. 26
Aug. 1 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Foreign Minister asks if United States will take over German embassies in France, Russia, and any other countries with which Germany may be at war. State Department is asked a second time for instructions and for gold and ships for stranded Americans. Germans think Japan will attack United States. 26
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Russia will move immediately if operations against Servia do not cease. Country on war basis. Business crippled; stock exchange closed; gold unobtainable; paper depreciated; traffic closed except for troops. 27
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Sweden (telegram). Germany endeavoring to persuade Sweden to attack Russia. 27
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in France (telegram). No hope of avoiding hostilities. Some, changes in cabinet. 28
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassain Great Britain (telegram). Anticipate war between Germany and Russia. Crowds flocking from Continent, detained because of canceling of transatlantic ships. British troops concentrating in North Sea. 28
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Germany declares war against Russia. Requests United States to take charge of German interests there. 28
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). United States anxious to avert war. President asks if British can suggest any way for mediation. 29
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Orders for mobilization to-night. 29
Aug. 1 [Rec’d Aug. 2] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Italy (telegram). Despite existing treaties, Italy can not declare war in support of Austria, her enemy and her rival in Adriatic and Balkans. Fleet mobilizing at Gaeta. Financial situation good. 29
[Page XXIX] Aug. 2 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Third request for instructions as to United States taking over German embassies in countries with which Germany is at war. Asks permission to take over any embassies in Germany if requested. 30
Aug. 1 [Rec’d Aug. 2] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Austrian Ambassador, though un-instructed, asks if United States will take charge of Austrian Embassy in Russia if he receives orders to leave. 30
Aug. 2 From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Great uncertainty and timidity in financial circles. 30
Aug. 1 [Rec’d Aug. 2] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Sweden (telegram). Sweden declares neutrality 31
Aug. 2 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Americans are being registered preparatory to being sent home. Trying to effect route from Finland to Stockholm. Consular reports sent through Embassy. 31
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Reports that German Army advanced through Luxemburg into France. 32
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Russian Ambassador (telegram). Germany has declared war on Russia. 32
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Greece (telegram). Greece’s attitude dependent upon Bulgaria and Turkey. Bombardment of Belgrade by Austria. 32
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the German Chargé d’Affaires (telegram). Germany at war with Russia since August 1. 33
Aug. 2 [Rec’d Aug. 3] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Reported hostilities between Germany and France; neither desirous of being first to declare war. German Ambassador still in France. 33
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Vice Consul General at Budapest (telegram). Hostilities against Servia extensive. Servia offers stubborn resistance. Prices advance 50 per cent. Situation extremely bad. 33
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Emperor delivered speech before court and military officers; received with enthusiasm by orderly crowds. Minister for Foreign Affairs promises to help foreigners leave country. Fifty thousand troops in Riga; harbor mined; fleet near by. 34
Aug. 3 From the Minister in Norway (telegram). Norway to maintain strict neutrality. Mobilization for coast defense. Export of food prohibited. 34
[Page XXX] Undated [Rec’d Aug. 3] From the Consul General at Antwerp (telegram). Germany refused permission to enter Belgium. Martial law declared. Antwerp in state of siege. Thousands of Americans present. 35
Aug. 3 From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Germany demanded privilege of sending troops through Belgium. Upon refusal, Germany invaded Belgium. Engagement at Visé with many fatalities. 35
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Request for financial assistance for American tourists. German Ambassador left no money to help Germans nor to pay Embassy employees. 35
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Belgian group, Interparliamentary Union, requests neutral countries to take steps to safeguard peace and respect for treaties. 36
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Movement of troops toward Russia. Imperial family and nobility working for Red Cross. Great enthusiasm. Large contributions to war. Americans aided in departing. 36
Aug. 2 [Rec’d Aug. 3] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Italy (telegram). Italy to remain neutral. Treaties require her support for defense, not for aggression; was not consulted by Austria. Export of food prohibited. Stock exchanges closed. 37
258 Aug. 3 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). In opinion of British Foreign Office, no chance for mediation in European affairs. 37
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). United States will be allowed to act for Germany in Russia. Americans unable to leave yet. 37
259 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Czar gave assurances that Russia would not fight unless attacked. Germany’s answer was declaration of war. British believe Germany and Austria planned war long ago and now deliberately carrying it out. Germany the aggressor. Thousands of Americans besiege the Embassy seeking to return home. 38
Aug. 3 [Rec’d Aug. 4] From the Consul General at Moscow (telegram). Many provinces under martial law. Germans assaulted. Business situation critical. Government bank safe. Lighthouses and navigation closed. 39
[Page XXXI] Aug. 3 [Rec’d Aug. 4] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Italy (telegram). Two hundred thousand called to colors, not considered mobilization. Maneuvers on sea. Navy has one million lira available for munitions of war. 39
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Germany tries to justify her acts in Belgium by claiming France intended violating Belgian neutrality. German Minister remains in Belgium. Belgium temporizing until England makes known her position. 39
Aug. 4 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Martial law proclaimed. German Ambassador has left Paris turning over Embassy to United States. Raids by French aeronauts in German territory and violation of Belgian neutrality by Germans. 40
Aug. 3 [Rec’d Aug. 4] From the German Chargé d’Affaires (telegram). France has attacked German territory several times since August 1. Germany declares war on France. 40
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). complete mobilization of forces, including territories. Expeditionary force to be sent to Continent. 41
Aug. 4 From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). King to lead army. German note virtual declaration of war. England to support Belgium. 41
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Regrets telegram from parliamentary group received after war was declared. 41

The Offer of Good Offices (August 4–5)—The Spread of Hostilities

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 4 To the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Same to Ambassadors in Russia and Germany and on August 5 to Ambassadors in France and Great Britain. Good offices of President Wilson in interest of European peace. 42
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany proposes that if Great Britain remains neutral, no attack will be made on north coast of France by German fleet nor on French merchant marine, provided German merchant marine is not molested. Great sums voted for war, amid great enthusiasm. 42
[Page XXXII]263 Aug. 4 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Germany’s answer to England’s ultimatum expected hourly. German and Austrian Ambassadors preparing to leave, turning over their interests to United States. 43
269 Aug. 5 [Rec’d Aug. 4] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ War declared between Great Britain and Germany. Large Britain force landed in Belgium. French and English Fleets in North Sea to engage German Fleet. 43
271 Aug. 5 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ A state of war exists between Great Britain and Germany. 44
265 Aug. 4 [Rec’d Aug. 5] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Ultimatum to German Government: Germany must with-draw her demands on Belgium and respect treaty insuring her neutrality. Designs of Germany to acquire Belgium, Holland, and Denmark. Germany has already asked Sweden to join German side. 44
Aug. 5 Memorandum of the Office of the Secretary of State. Belgian Government announces that Germans have violated Belgian neutrality and entered her territory. Belgium will resist by force. 45
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Capital may be removed to Antwerp. Diplomatic corps may follow. 45
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in Denmark (telegram). Denmark declares neutrality 45
Aug. 6 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Peace offers come too late for Russia. 45
1166 Aug. 4 [Rec’d Aug. 6] From the Italian Chargé d’Affaires. Italy intends to remain neutral 46
284 Aug. 6 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Rumored that Austria will not join Germany against England, also that Italy may join France and England. Jewish banks forced to help England, France, and Russia. Most important that no belligerent power have wireless on our shore and no belligerent warships leave our ports disguised as merchantmen. 46
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Move Legation if desirable 46
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Legation can render more service by remaining at Brussels. 47
[Page XXXIII] Undated [Rec’d Aug. 6] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Diplomatic Corps to move to Antwerp. Best for legations to remain in Brussels, especially those entrusted with protection of interests of belligerent powers. 47
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Russian Ambassador (telegram). Austria-Hungary has declared war on Russia. 47
Aug. 6 [Rec’d Aug. 7] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Reply to President Wilson’s message: France appreciates interest of United States in the destiny of France; message proof of mutual love of peace; France not the aggressor, notwithstanding numerous provocacations. 48
Aug. 7 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Denmark (telegram). Denmark has mined her waters and is mobilizing. 48
Aug. 6 [Rec’d Aug. 7] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Austria having declared war against Russia, United States to take charge of Austrian affairs. Need increase in Embassy staff. 48
Aug. 7 To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Minister directed to use own judgment about remaining in Brussels. 49
Aug. 7 [Rec’d Aug. 8] From the Vice Consul General at Cairo (telegram). British Army of Occupation renders Egypt liable to attack by enemies of Great Britain; consequently, Egypt claims protection of Great Britain. 49
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). President Wilson’s message presented to Emperor. Reply: Will accept with thanks mediation when honor of flag will permit and when objects of war are attained. 49
298 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Interview with Sir Edward Grey: England at war only to preserve her place among the nations; will welcome mediation when favorable opportunity arrives; appreciates offer. 50
299 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ President’s message delivered to King, who expressed his appreciation and the hope that his offer of mediation might later be accepted. 50
Aug. 8 From the Ottoman Embassy. Ottoman Empire to observe strict neutrality. Mobilization for defense only. 50
[Page XXXIV] Aug. 9 From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Had received from, The Hague a telegram, purporting to be from German Government, proposing that Belgium allow Germany to hold Liége as base of operations against France, and requiring Belgium to detach herself from France, offering in return protection from further attack from Germany. The proposal an insult and a repetition of the ultimatum already refused by Belgium. Had refused to present this to Belgian Government, but confidentially allowed the Minister of Foreign Affairs to read it. 51
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Belgian Government would reject Germany’s proposal, if presented. 52
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Norwegian Minister (telegram). Norwegian and Swedish Governments mutually agree to remain neutral and friendly toward each other. 52
Aug. 10 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Austria-Hungary declared war against Montenegro on August 9. 52
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Germany’s proposal to Belgium authentic. Answer was indignant refusal. 53
Aug. 9 [Rec’d Aug. 10] From the Guatemalan Minister. Note from President Cabrera tendering good offices. 53
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 11] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Austria-Hungary has given French Ambassador passports. 53
Aug. 10 [Rec’d Aug. 12] From the French Chargé d’Affaires. Statements of Germany as to who started hostilities, challenged by French Chargé. Germans claim French aviators threw bombs over German territory and also violated Belgian territory. French protest to German Government against violations of French territory, violation of Luxemburg, and ultimatum to Belgium. Germany trying to shift responsibility for war. 54
Aug. 11 [Rec’d Aug. 13] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Austrian troops on the French-German frontier constitute an operation against France. Diplomatic relations severed. 55
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 11] From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Suggested to the Minister for Foreign Affairs the mediation of the President. Reply: The time may come; Italy will be glad to exchange views. 54
[Page XXXV] Aug. 12 [Rec’d Aug. 13] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Emperor requests President Wilson’s message in writing. 56
Aug. 13 From the Vice Consul General at Cairo (telegram). Great Britain has declared war against Austria. Diplomatic relations between Egypt and Germany have ceased; similar action will be taken against Austria. 56
350 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great writing (telegram). Notification that war exists between Great Britain and Austria. 56
13 July 30 [Rec’d Aug. 14] From the Consul at Georgetown, British Guiana. Forwards copy of Official Gazette containing proclamation of the Governor ordering instant mobilization. 56
138 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Consul at Cardiff. British Admiralty has taken over coal for use of navy. Shippers indemnified. News of its destination censored. 57
13 July 31 [Recd Aug. 14] From the Consul at Cork. Report of military and naval activity in the south of Ireland; Queenstown Harbor transferred to military authority. The harbor had been guarded by England against “gun-running” by the Irish for purposes of insurrection. International situation engulfed this issue. Troops hurried to harbor; ships placed on guard; supervision of traffic tightened up; and searchlights used as precautionary measure. 58
796 Aug. 1 [Rec’d Aug. 14] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Denmark. Copy of Denmark’s declaration of neutrality transmitted. Only partial mobilization for defense of Copenhagen, in order not to antagonize Germany. 60
Aug. 14 [Rec’d Aug. 15] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Communication from the Kaiser to President Wilson, in which Emperor claims Prince Henry extracted promise from King George V that England would remain neutral in a war on the Continent. Later, message from Grey that England would interfere only in case France was likely to be crushed. Because of Russia’s complete mobilization Germany forced to act. Germany would promise not to touch France if England would guarantee French neutrality. Declaration by England 1hat she must protect Belgium’s neutrality. Germany claims France ready to attack Belgium. 60
[Page XXXVI] Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 16] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). General mobilization ordered. Moratorium proclaimed. Parliament adjourned. French and Austrian guard-ships departed. 61
Aug. 7 [Rec’d Aug. 16] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Turkish Cabinet divided. Ministers of Marine and Finance favor France; Minister of War favors Germany; Minister of Interior for neutrality. Invasion of Caucasus probable. 62
Aug. 8 [Rec’d Aug. 16] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Great disappointment that British Government deprived Turkey of dreadnought. Censorship of newspapers and telegrams. Missions, Girls College, and tourists without money. Requests for relief. 62
Aug. 11 [Rec’d Aug. 16] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Turkey purchased Goeben and Breslau. Ships’ officers to enter Turkish service. Request for gold to help American citizens. 62
Aug. 16 To the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Replies to President’s offer of mediation received from Germany, Austria, Great Britain, and France. Inquiry as to whether there will be any further reply from Czar. 63
Aug. 3 [Rec’d Aug. 17] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Greece (telegram). Mobilization expected. Fleet near Dardanelles. Coal for Government sufficient; supply for private use for 15 days only. 63
Aug. 15 [Rec’d Aug. 17] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Spain (telegram). Minister of State spoke of financial condition of stranded Americans; expressed desire for more intimate relations between Spain and United States; suggested that the two countries might work together for the advancement of peace and civilization. 63
Aug. 11 [Rec’d Aug. 17] From the Minister in Roumania (telegram) Roumania disregards agreement of 35 years ago because no provocation was given and no advice asked of her; action depends upon Bulgaria. Bombardment of Belgrade continues and forces advancing into Bosnia. 64
Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 17] From the French Chargé d’Affaires. French Government, through Sir Edward Grey, presented a virtual declaration of war on Austria-Hungary, declaring that the latter had sent troops through Germany to menace the French frontier and had declared war with Russia, the ally of France. 64
[Page XXXVII] Aug. 17 To the Guatemalan Minister. The Secretary of State acknowledges with pleasure the receipt of memorandum of President of Guatemala looking to conclusion of European war. 65
Aug. 17 [Rec’d Aug. 18] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Government removed to Antwerp. Legation will remain in Brussels to take care of German and British interests. Spanish Minister remains also, protecting French and Russian interests. Our Consul General in Antwerp recognized in a pseudo-diplomatic capacity. 65
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Representatives of Grand Vizier believed to be attempting a compact with Roumania and Bulgaria. Turkey anxious for provisions and printing paper from America or from India. 66
Aug. 15 [Rec’d Aug. 18] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Americans in imminent danger. Urgent request for warships. Demands of Beirut and Smyrna justified. Anti-Christian feeling among Moslems. Goeben and Breslau damaged, Turkey unwilling to pay Germany price agreed upon. Triple Entente charge Germany with steering Turkey’s course so as to provoke Russia into declaration of war. 66
Aug. 19 To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). His course of action approved 67
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Italy preparing to take sides against Austria. 67
797 Aug. 3 [Rec’d Aug. 19] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Denmark. Parliament enacted precautionary measures: Punishment against violations of neutrality; conserving currency of country; strict harbor regulations. Partial mobilization. Britain advises caution and promises aid of fleet. 67
Aug. 20 [Rec’d Aug. 21] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Greece (telegram). Greece willing to sign peace treaties with United States but with no other country. Government requests regulations concerning neutral commerce. Greece to remain neutral unless Turkey or Bulgaria enter war. 68
Aug. 21 To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). President advises Legation to move to Antwerp in order to be in immediate touch with Belgian Government. 69
[Page XXXVIII] Aug. 21 [Rec’d Aug. 22] From the Minister in Roumania (telegram). Roumania urged to join Turkey in favor of Austria and Germany. This unlikely as Roumania is strong enough to act independently. 62
Aug. 22 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Italy making great preparations quietly. Troops sent to north-east border; factories running night and day; Government buying stores and coal from United States. Roumania dangerous, Turkey restless, Islam threatening, British sending 20,000 Indians to Egypt, Japanese seeking medicaments. 69
Aug. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Following for Navy Department: Italy to declare war on Austria; fleet at Taranto, Abruzzi, Commander in Chief; Austrian vessel sunk; French-English fleet near Corfu. 70
Aug. 23 [Rec’d Aug. 24] From the Ambassador in Spain (telegram). Spain desirous of strengthening cordial relations with United States and anxious to cooperate in securing European peace. Peace treaty between Spain and United States to be urged. Spanish sympathy with French and English; however, will remain neutral. Department is asked to express to Spanish Ambassador thanks for assistance rendered American citizens. 70
Aug. 20 [Rec’d Aug. 24] From the Belgian Minister. In 1839, Prussia, France, England, Austria, and Russia became guarantors of the treaty which made Belgium an independent and perpetually neutral state. Germany has broken her treaty and invaded Belgium; therefore it is duty of Belgium to resist. 71
131 July 31 [Rec’d Aug. 24] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Italy. Italy bound to Germany and Austria by the Triple Alliance; in reality, antagonistic to Austria for holding Italian-speaking provinces on the Adriatic. She is opposed to war and wishes to remain neutral. 72
[Page XXXIX] Aug. 24 [Rec’d Aug. 25] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Will make every effort to move Legation to Antwerp as soon as possible. Brussels is surrounded by armies and Antwerp at present inaccessible. Ministers of Spain and 17 other neutral powers still in Brussels. By remaining in Brussels the Embassy and staff have rendered great service to the city and to the Belgian Government. 73
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 25] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Britain and Russia wish Turkey to remain neutral; Germany wants her to be ready to prevent an invasion by Russia. Permission asked of Grand Vizier for 20 British merchant vessels to pass through Dardanelles; permission granted but ships prevented from passing through. Triple Entente request that Germans on Goeben and Breslau be returned to Germany; request disregarded. Turkish press creating strong pro-German feeling. Ambassador begs permission to be allowed to urge Turkey against war. 75
Aug. 25 To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Department accepts judgment of Ambassador concerning moving Legation from Brussels. 76
25 Aug. 10 [Rec’d Aug. 25] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Portugal. In case of war with Portugal, Germany wishes United States to take over German Legation. Instructions requested. Violence shown Germans leaving Portugal. Anti-German feeling strong, and war probable. Treaty exists with Great Britain whereby Portugal promises 10,000 troops to Britain when needed. 76
Aug. 26 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Under no circumstances must Ambassador offer suggestions to Turkey concerning her entrance into the war. If opinion and advice are asked, United States is very desirous that European conflict spread no farther, and that Turkey preserve neutrality. 77
Aug. 22 [Rec’d Aug. 26] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The German Government invokes the good offices of the United States in securing neutralization of the colonies in free-trade zone, as of Congo Act of 1885; claims that England has committed two hostile acts within free-trade zone. 77
[Page XL] Aug. 25 [Rec’d Aug. 26] From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Greek Minister inquires about rumored mediation services. German Ambassador thinks it too early for peace; that reported German victory practically decides the war. Germany would not claim territory of France but transfer of colonies only. Mobilization of Italy denied. Germany bitter towards Japan. 78
Aug. 26 [Rec’d Aug. 27] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Emperor replies to President Wilson’s message: Appreciates humanitarian sentiments; the war thrust upon Russia; contemplation of peace premature; expresses thanks. 78
Aug. 27 [Rec’d Aug. 28] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Germans have broken through lines of the Allies south of Lille and probably at Sedan. French Government contemplating moving to Bordeaux. Request for instructions for Legation. 79
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). German Ambassador, controlling spirit of military party in Turkey, states that Germany intends to prevent Russia’s taking Constantinople. Dardanelles well fortified but will not be closed to commerce unless attacked. Turkey intends to burn Smyrna if attacked. English have no intention of attacking Smyrna but will force Dardanelles if closed to commerce. 79
Aug. 28 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). United States not a party to the ratification of Congo Act of 1885, therefore is not in position to take action in the matter of neutralization of colonies of free-trade zone, as requested by German Government. 80
125 Aug. 14 [Rec’d Aug. 28] From the Minister in the Netherlands. Europe n situation: Germany’s quick action proves conflict no surprise to her Stubborn resistance of Belgium and action of English not anticipated. Dutch ports open doors for trade. Opportunity for United States to cooperate with other neutral countries for world peace. Situation in Holland: Troops massed in south along frontier. Americans receiving necessary assistance; arranging financial relief of British subjects also Refusal to transmit message in unknown cipher from Austrian Government to Austrian Legation in Belgium. 80
[Page XLI] Aug. 29 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Ambassador to use own judgment about moving Embassy. 83
Aug. 28 [Rec’d Aug. 29] From the Belgian Minister. Austria-Hungary has declared war on Belgium. 83
Aug. 28 [Rec’d Aug. 30] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). If S. S. North Carolina comes to Constantinople, permission must be secured to pass Dardanelles or other arrangements made for receiving money. Fifty naval officers and 700 sailors arrive from Germany to enter Turkish Navy. 84
Aug. 30 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). British troops withstood German troops for three days but fell back for lack of French reinforcements. French troops have arrived and conditions are more hopeful. French Government removing gold from Paris. 84
57 Aug. 7 [Rec’d Sept. 1] From the Vice Consul General at Cairo. Forwards Journal officiel announcing neutrality of Egypt. Protection by British Army of Occupation. Theoretically Egypt is vilayet of Ottoman Empire. Egypt ruled by Great Britain since 1882 in order to have military control of Suez Canal. Troops from India to guard against Turkish attack. 84
Aug. 20 [Rec’d Sept. 2] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). German troops have occupied Brussels. Small force in city; troops encamped outside. Opposition by Belgians abandoned to prevent loss of life and destruction of art treasure. 86
18 Sept. 2 [Rec’d Sept. 3] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Thanked by President of France for decision to remain in Paris; he considers it a restraining influence against destruction of art treasures by enemy. France will not accept any terms of peace. 86
565 Sept. 3 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). If Germans enter Paris, Emperor will dictate peace terms. Bureaucracy must be struck a swift, final blow at any cost. All Europe condemning German methods. Rumored that Germany is preparing a Zeppelin raid on London. All Americans urged to leave England. 87
A1108/14 Sept. 3 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the German Ambassador. Germany, in case of victory, will not seek expansion in South Africa. 87
Sept. 4 To the Belgian Minister. Acknowledges receipt of Belgian note protesting against violation of neutrality by Germany. 88
[Page XLII]433 July 31 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Sweden. Germany endeavoring to persuade Sweden to attack Russia. War unpopular with mass of Swedish people. 88
132 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Consul at Saloniki. Epirus struggling for autonomous government. European concert declared Albania independent; opposed by Greece. Epirotes received religious freedom from Mohammedans; took possession of greater part of Albania. Concentration of troops in Macedonia under French direction against Bulgaria. Refugees in and around Saloniki approximately half million; cholera reported. War imminent. 88
Sept. 4 [Rec’d Sept. 5] From the Minister in Roumania (telegram). If Italy takes action against Austria-Hungary and Germany, Roumania will also. 91
200 Aug. 18 [Rec’d Sept. 8] From the Ambassador in Germany. Germany demanded that Russia recall her order of mobilization. Martial law in Germany. Enthusiastic crowds calling for war. United States asked to take charge of German affairs in Russia and France. Germany declares French began war. Russians in Germany insulted and imprisoned. England has declared war. Americans in Germany, taken for English, arrested. Violence toward English; friendliness to Americans. Embassy assisting Americans to leave. Hostility toward Italy for declaring neutrality. German victories only published. 91
953 Sept. 5 [Rec’d Sept. 8] From the Belgian Minister. Communications inclosed in which Germany again offers to spare Belgium as much as will be consistent with her plan of campaign against France, and in which Belgium, with the approval of her allies, reiterates her defiance. 97
[Page XLIII]

New Suggestion of Good Offices and Mediation (September 7-8) Developments in the Near East

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Sept. 7 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Bernstorff expresses the opinion that the Kaiser will consider mediation if the other nations interested will do so. Make inquiry of Kaiser. If reply favorable, other nations will be approached. 98
621 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). No peace proposals will be entertained until militarism is crushed. 98
Sept. 8 To the Ambassadors in Great Britain and France (telegram). Proposal of mediation sent to Germany. It at least gives nations opportunity to explain their attitude, and fixes responsibility for continuation of war. 99
53 Sept. 8 [Rec’d Sept. 9] From the Ambassador in France, (telegram). Telegram from German General Staff advises Americans to leave Paris. Reply: If Germans enter Paris they are expected to protect American property and that of other countries entrusted to her care. 100
606 Sept. 10 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). England has exhausted every honorable means to preserve peace. Any terms that England will agree to must end militarism forever. Germany will propose terms that Allies can not accept, thus making it appear that Allies are responsible for continuing the war. 100
59 Sept. 9 [Rec’d Sept. 10] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). France’s reply to proposals of mediation: France not the aggressor and can not accept mediation. Will continue struggle to the end. Agreement of Entente powers not to make separate peace. 101
Sept. 10 [Rec’d Sept. 11] From the Minister in Roumania (telegram). Servian forces have taken Sem and surrounding country. Roumania about to enter war. 101
110 Sept. 12 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Proposal of mediation presented to Kaiser informally. No reply. 102
28 July 30 [Rec’d Sept. 12] From the Minister in Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria. Crisis between Austria-Hungary and Servian: Investigation into assassination; Austrian ultimatum presented to Servia; Servian reply; diplomatic relations severed; war declared. 102
[Page XLIV]130 Sept. 12 [Rec’d Sept. 13] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Foreign Office states that Great Britain, France, and Russia agree to abolish capitulations if Turkey remains neutral. Turkey has proclaimed abolition of the capitulations. Germany claims that rumors were spread by Great Britain, france, and Russia, that this was done at the instance of Germany, in order to place the blame on her in the eyes of neutrals. 104
149 Sept. 14 [Rec’d Sept. 16] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Chancellor of Germany replies to offers of mediation: War was forced upon Germany; after conquering France, Germany will have to face England and Russia; Germany can only accept a peace which will guarantee rest and security. 104
206 Sept. 2 [Rec’d Sept. 16] From the Ambassador in Germany. Germany is walking through French, English, and Russian armies; will soon be sending Zeppelins to England. United States should consider that Germany will demand French colonies in West Indies and near Nova Scotia, and possibly French Pacific Islands. One million two hundred thousand volunteers newly enrolled. Emperor at the front. Assistant Secretary Breckenridge arrived. Maj. Ryan now in charge of transportation. 105
182 Sept. 16 [Rec’d Sept. 17] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government renews its request that United States take action toward neutralization of African colonies within free-trade zone. A refusal will compromise the neutrality of the United States. 106
Sept. 14 [Rec’d Sept. 18] From the Minister in Roumania (telegram). Popular demonstration against Austria-Hungary suppressed. Roumania mill soon enter conflict. 106
192 Sept. 18 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Inquiry into request for neutralization of African colonies. Difference between a proposal of the United States on behalf of Germany and one made on her own initiative as a neutral. 107
[Page XLV]29 Aug. 19 [Rec’d Sept. 19] From the Minister in Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria. Austria jealous of greater Servia and welcomed casus belli; unfriendly to Greece because of Servian agreement for use of Aegean port; charges Russia with trying to get a hold in Balkans and of Constantinople. Embassy has taken over Austro-Hungarian interests. 107
112 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Roumania. Roumania to remain neutral, but troops augmented and country practically upon a war basis. Sends interview with Mr. Take Jonesco stating reasons why Roumania will remain neutral. 109
122 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria. Bulgarian neutrality remains unchanged; nevertheless army practically mobilized. Turkish mobilization causing misgivings. Train service between Turkey and Bulgaria interrupted. Bulgarian Government requests, without success, that Turkish troops on frontier be withdrawn. 110
228 Sept. 19 [Rec’d Sept. 20] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Turkish fleet being manned by Germans. Soon to join war. 111
Sept. 20 [Rec’d Sept. 21] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Turkish cruisers enter Black Sea to demonstrate her supremacy. German Ambassador stated that if Roumania attacked Austria, Turkey and Bulgaria would move against Roumania. 111
236 Sept. 20 [Rec’d Sept. 22] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany wishes United States to act as messenger merely to convey proposal to other powers, concerning neutralization of African colonies. 111
Sept. 23 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same to the Ambassador in France and the Minister in Belgium. Forwards communication from the German Government signifying the willingness of Germany to observe the neutrality of African colonies in free-trade zone according to treaties. 112
18 Sept. 24 [Rec’d Sept. 25] From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). War between Greece and Turkey-imminent. Italy can not long, continue neutral. 112
661 Sept. 1 [Rec’d Sept. 25] From the Ambassador in France. Transmits official notification August 4 of hostilities: between France and Germany, and French protest against the violation of neutrality of Belgium and Luxemburg and the attack upon France contrary to existing treaties. 112
[Page XLVI] Sept. 27 [Rec’d Sept. 28] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). English Admiral compelled a Turkish torpedo boat desiring to enter Mediterranean to return to Dardanelles, because of German officers on board. Turkey has closed Dardanelles. 113
Sept. 26 [Rec’d Sept. 28] From the German Ambassador. Russian Minister of War assured German Military Attaché that Russia had not given orders for mobilization, although order had gone forth two days before. 114
Sept. 29 From the Minister in Roumania (telegram). War will be declared by Roumania. Popular demonstrations in favor of such action. 114
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Turkish Government has notified England that Dardanelles will remain closed until English and French ships leave its mouth. 114
43 Sept. 11 [Rec’d Sept. 29] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Greece. Greece as well prepared for war as possible. Public opinion pro-French. Germany striving to win over Greece. 115
Sept. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 1] Unsigned telegram from Constantinople to the British Embassy at Washington. If Turkey can secure coal from United States she will probably go to war. Can difficulties be put in the way? Christians in Turkey will be in danger, especially missionaries. 115
Oct. 2 From the Minister in Portugal (telegram). Unofficially affirmed that Portugal, in accordance with English treaty obligations, will enter the war as soon as preparations are completed. 116
301 Aug. 31 [Rec’d Oct. 3] From the British Ambassador. Requests that United States take charge of British affairs in Turkey in case of war between the two countries. 116
514 Oct. 5 To the British Ambassador. United States will take over British affairs in Turkey in case war is declared. 116
163 Oct. 3 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Forwards note from Foreign Office, Bordeaux: Germany having already started hostilities in the Congo basin against the French and Belgian possessions, France can no longer abide by treaties. 117

Further Appeals for Peace (October—November)—Turkey Enters the War

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Oct. 5 Memorandum by the Secretary of State. Spanish Government pleased to act with United States when time for mediation arrives; asked to guarantee that copper shipments would not be reexported. 117
[Page XLVII] Oct. 7 To the Ambassadors and Ministers in Belligerent Countries (telegram). Pursuant to proclamation of the President, prayer offered in churches for speedy restoration of peace in Europe. 118
478 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 13] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Hostilities between Turkey and Russia to begin soon. Turkish Fleet to attack Russian Fleet in Black Sea. 118
Oct. 13 To the Ambassadors and Ministers in Belligerent Countries (telegram). Governing board of Pan American Union conveys to belligerent countries, through the Secretary of State of the United. States, hope for peace, universal sympathy, and regrets over disturbance of commercial interests of world. 118
288 Sept. 29 [Rec’d Oct. 14] From the Minister in Venezuela. Venezuela bitter against England because of her determination to prolong the conflict. War a greater hardship to South American commerce than to Europe. Proposition that South American countries appeal individually to Europeans at war. 119
Oct. 19 [Rec’d Oct. 20] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Warlike preparations in vicinity of Egyptian boundaries causing apprehension in England. Massing of Turkish troops at Caucasian frontier and Turkish fleet in Black Sea threatening Russia. British Ambassador fears assassination; reassured by Grand Vizier. 119
Oct. 22 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Italy reported to have landed troops at Avlona. 120
Oct. 24 From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). French, British, and Russian representatives move documents and valuables to American Embassy, anticipating early departure from Turkey. Turkish Secretary of War declares country ready for any emergency. Minister of Public Instruction visited Girls College and Robert College for first time. 120
133 Oct. 2 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Minister in Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria. King of Roumania pro-German; people in sympathy with France. Germany’s failure to subjugate France in short campaign and Russia’s conquests in Austria-Hungary change situation. Roumania ambitious to annex provinces peopled by Roumanians but held by Austria-Hungary. 121
[Page XLVIII]152 Oct. 14 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Minister in the Netherlands. The fall of Antwerp has thrown 400,000 Belgian refugees upon the mercy of Netherland people. An attack on Antwerp by water would involve neutrality of Netherlands. 122
39 Oct. 9 [Rec’d Oct. 28] From the Minister in Portugal. Portugal will certainly enter war as soon as army is reorganized. 123
Oct. 28 To the Minister in Portugal (telegram). If war has been declared by Portugal against Germany, send full report. 123
Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 29] From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). New Minister of War appointed from the army; Government holds to neutrality while preparing for war. Minister for Foreign Affairs ill. A new minister may mean a new policy. 124
Oct. 29 [Rec’d Oct. 30] From the Minister in Portugal (telegram). War not yet declared. Portuguese commission conferring in England. 125
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). To prevent invasion of Egypt by Turks, British decided to destroy certain wells in the Sinai Desert. Turkey had induced Bedouins to try to prevent this destruction but upon request Bedouins recalled. No immediate danger of war between Turkey and Great Britain. 125
Oct. 29 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Bedouins advancing on Egypt; British demand that Turkey recall them. 125
Oct. 29 [Rec’d Oct. 30] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ British report Odessa raided. Russian gunboat sunk; two Russian steamships damaged; French ship damaged with loss of life. 126
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Minister in Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria (telegram). Policy of neutrality continues in Bulgaria. 126
Oct. 30 From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Russian representatives demand passports; English and French Ambassadors preparing to leave also Grand Vizier refuses audience with Russian Minister on account of illness. Minister of Finance stated that engagement took place without knowledge of Ottoman Government. 127
Oct. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 31] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Sublime Porte advised to issue passports promptly in order to avoid violence. Russian representatives detained until Turkish consuls in Russia are accorded safe-conduct. British and French granted safe-conduct. Port of Smyrna closed. 127
[Page XLIX] Oct. 31 [Rec’d Nov. 2] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Minister of Interior wished to know what action on part of Sublime Porte would pacify Russia. Reply: Dismissal of all German officers, sailors and soldiers from Turkish employ. 127
Nov. 2 From the Consul General at Cairo (telegram). General commanding British Army of Occupation in Egypt ordered to assume military control and protection of Egypt. 128
Nov. 1 [Rec’d Nov. 2] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Train carrying British and French Sopped by Minister of War, who insisted upon promise that Turkish subjects in England and Egypt be permitted to depart. English have sunk two Turkish vessels and Russians have crossed frontier near Erzerum. 128
992 Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). War exists between Turkey and Great Britain. United States has taken charge of Ottoman interests in England. 129
Nov. 7 From the Consul General at Cairo (telegram). British General in Egypt assumed sole burden of defending Egypt against Turkey; asked no assistance of Mohammedans. 129
Nov. 6 [Rec’d Nov. 7] From the Persian Chargé d’Affaires. Persian Government has pro claimed neutrality. Good offices of United States solicited to help maintain neutrality. 129
2 Nov. 11 To the Persian Chargé d’Affaires. Reply to Persian Government: United States will lend its good offices in every possible way. 130
Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 12] The Swiss Political Department to the Swiss Legation at Washington (telegram). President Wilson said to have expressed willingness to negotiate for peace. Swiss Government wishes to start preliminaries with other neutral governments for such a purpose. 130
Nov. 14 To the Swiss Legation. President does not believe the time has come for a renewal of the offer of mediation. 131
550 Nov. 4 [Rec’d Nov. 16] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Clippings from British newspapers concerning attitude of the United States in present crisis. 131
1083 Nov. 18 [Rec’d Nov. 19] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). General French believes that Germans have done their utmost; a slow victory for Allies now probable; German commanders know they will be beaten; Allies will insist upon enormous indemnity to Belgium, which Germans will not grant until hopelessly defeated. Germany putting out “feelers” for peace. 132
[Page L]38 Nov. 15 [Rec’d Nov. 20] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Proclamation of holy war of Islam might arouse religious fanaticism of Moslem masses, ending in an attack upon all non-Moslems. German Ambassador reminded of Germany’s responsibility in matter. 132
50 Nov. 2 [Rec’d Nov. 23] From the Minister in Portugal. Attitude of Portugal unchanged. If House of Deputies fails to declare war, Government will be placed in embarrassing position, owing to promises already made to Great Britain. 133
1117 Nov. 23 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Proposal re neutralization of African free-trade zone not practical since hostilities have been begun by German forces. This to be communicated to German Government. 134
324 Undated [Rec’d Nov. 24] From the Minister in Portugal (telegram). Senate and House of Deputies authorize the executive power to intervene militarily in conflict as an ally of England. 134
64 Nov. 24 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Requests more information concerning holy war of Islam. Warns Ambassador to maintain strict neutrality. 134
53 Nov. 6 [Rec’d Nov. 30] From the Minister in Portugal. Portuguese commission continues to confer with English govern-mental and military authorities concerning conflict. When they return House of Deputies will convene in extra session. 135
177 Nov. 10 [Rec’d Nov. 30] From the Ambassador in Spain. Encloses statement of Prime Miniter: Spain has suffered no offense, the causes of the conflict being foreign to her; Spain desires to keep aloof from war; measures adopted for national defense; in emergency nation can depend upon patriotism of Congress to lead her in defending her honor. 135
127 Nov. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 3] From the Ambassador in Turkey. Transmits an account of the severing of diplomatic relations between Entente powers and Turkey, and of the present situation. 136
Dec. 2 [Rec’d Dec. 3] From the Minister in Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria (telegram). Turkish Government proclaimed holy war against Servia and her allies. 141
[Page LI]89 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Dec. 5] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Turks accuse Russians, English, and French of beginning the war. Declaration of holy war, appealing to soldiers to defend sacred ground, tomb of the Prophet, and lives of Mohammedans. Incongruity of Turkish position evidenced by alliance with Christians and by having Armenian and Greek Christians in their army, yet making holy war against enemies of Islam. 142
Nov. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Ambassador in Italy. Transmits despatches presenting opportunities in Italy for American enterprise. Italian Government has provided additional funds for military purposes. Need for grain and guns. Italy and England have agreed to protect North African colonies. Conviction prevails that the power that wins will next attack America and that America will have to step in to save civilization. 143
82 Nov. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Consul General at Cairo. Martial law proclaimed in Egypt in order to hold natives under more rigid control. Many transports have passed through Suez Canal. Camels from India detained. West boundary unprotected. Khedive and notables in Constantinople. 144
170 Nov. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Chargé d’Affaires in the Netherlands. Forwards article from the Gazette de Hollande of November 17, containing plea for peace, proposing that Holland and United States unite in effort for mediation. 145

Spanish Suggestion of Joint Good Offices (December 7)—Establishment of the British Protectorate in Egypt

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
13 Dec. 7 From the Ambassador in Spain (telegram). Spanish Ambassador at Washington had been instructed to inquire if time were ripe for mediation; had met with cold response. Spain desires only to cooperate in any movement for peace. 146
15 Dec. 8 To the Ambassador in Spain (telegram). President appreciates offer of Spain but considers the time not ripe for mediation. 147
15 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in Spain (telegram). Spain anxious to cooperate with United States in any plans for mediation. 147
[Page LII]132 Nov. 16 [Rec’d. Dec. 11] From the Ambassador in Turkey. British and French Embassies searched by police for wireless instruments; horses and carriages taken. Protest has been made to Minister of Interior, who apologized and laid blame on Minister of War. Orders given to have Embassies sealed. Persians paraded to Embassy and presented protest against aggressions of England and Russia. Three Turkish transports sunk in Black Sea; crew and passengers taken prisoners. 147
133 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Demonstration in Constantinople for war, crowds visiting Sublime Porte, Sultan’s Palace, and German and Austrian Embassies. Little violence against Russian and British shops. Holy war desired in Germany in order to cause Moslem uprisings in Egypt and India. 149
Dec. 11 [Rec’d. Dec. 12] From the Consul General at Cairo (telegram). Prince Hussein, uncle of Khedive, about to be proclaimed by British as Sultan of Egypt. 150
Dec. 12 To the Consul General at Cairo (telegram). Instructions to deal with Khedive as a de facto official. 150
7 Dec. 15 From the Minister in Sweden (telegram). Kings of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, with their Ministers of Foreign Affairs, will meet to discuss means of lessening economic difficulties caused by war. 151
55 Nov. 24 [Rec’d. Dec. 15] From the Minister in Portugal. Parliament authorizes King to aid Great Britain in war. Appreciation of latter assured. Portugal may thus have privileges of a neutral country by secretly giving aid without declaring war. 151
353 Dec. 17 [Rec’d Dec. 18] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Since catastrophe to Austro-Hungarian forces in Servia, war has become unpopular. 152
434 Dec. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 19] From the British Ambassador. Because of the war initiated by Turkey against Egypt, Great Britain considers the suzerainty of Turkey over Egypt to be ended. Protection of Egypt undertaken by Great Britain, and a High Commissioner appointed who will also be Minister for Foreign Affairs. 152
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 20] From the Diplomatic Agent at Cairo (telegram). Prince Hussein proclaimed Sultan of Egypt by King George. Capitulations no longer in harmony with development of country. Changes to be made after the war. 153
[Page LIII]35 Nov. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 22] From the Minister in Roumania, Servia, and Bulgaria. Situation in Servia gloomy. Four months Servian Army was successful against Austria-Hungary, then ran short of ammunition. Russia has forwarded ammunition over Danube. Servians kept on Bulgarian frontier to protect Macedonia (now new Servia). Russia desires this land to be given to Bulgaria to secure her alliance. Servia objects. 154
163 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ King of Roumania and leaders sympathize with Germany; think Roumania should have Transylvania; seeking an agreement with Bulgaria. A commission has been sent to the United States to secure ammunition. 154
141 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Bulgaria trying to remain neutral until she finds which way the war turns; anxious for territory belonging to Servia, Greece, and Roumania. Belligerents willing to promise this territory, but Balkan powers object. Sympathies of people with Russia. Government believes more can be obtained from Germany. Quotes extract from Prime Minister’s speech, proclaiming neutrality. 155
Dec. 23 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Strong resentment against England and France because of interruptions to commerce. 156
57 Dec. 3 [Rec’d Dec. 26] From the Minister in Portugal. Parliament assembled to arrange for a division to leave for the seat of war. 156
137 Nov. 28 [Rec’d Dec. 30] From the Ambassador in Turkey. Public and private schools, hospitals, and religious institutions of belligerents seized by police. Teachers, priests, and children allowed to leave. Action condoned by Germany. Dercos waterworks, operated with French capital, seized. Aidin Railway operated with British capital, and Damascus and Extensions Railway, operated by French capital, seized. The Islamic world ready for vengeance. 157
[Page LIV]60 Dec. 28 [Rec’d, Jan. 12, 1915] From the Minister in Norway. In conference at Malmö the three Scandinavian Kings agreed upon strict neutrality and a uniform course of action with regard to entry of belligerent vessels into Scandinavian ports, to visitation and detention of merchant vessels, and to trade difficulties in general. Enclosure, communiqué from Norwegian Foreign Office. 159

The War in the Far East: Neutralization Proposals—Japan’s Entrance Against Germany—The Extension of Operations In China and the Pacific Ocean

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 3 From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Withdrawal of British and German naval forces from Yangtze leaves responsibility of protecting foreign interests to Americans and Japanese. Requests that one of the larger United States vessels be left at Shanghai. Proposal to neutralize all foreign settlement concessions in China. 161
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Request for instructions as to whether to encourage Chinese in proposing to belligerent powers not to engage in hostilities on Chinese territory or adjacent leased territory. 162
Aug. 6 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Chinese request United States and Japan to suggest that belligerents maintain neutrality throughout their jurisdiction in China. Wish that attitude of German Government be made known. 162
Aug. 7 To the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Legation is authorized to participate in arrangements to neutralize foreign settlements in China not including leased areas. 163
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Department asks for report on nationality and number of troops withdrawn from Chinese railways and those remaining. 163
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Memorandum received from Chinese Minister here re neutralization of Chinese territory. Matter under consideration. 163
Aug. 8 From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Troops in Chinese territory, other than American forces, negligible. Japanese preparing to assist in protecting foreign interests. 164
[Page LV] Aug. 7 From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). German Chargé d’Affaires states that Japan is bound by treaty to assist Russia and Great Britain in case of war with Germany. 164
Aug. 29 From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Russian Ambassador denies any agreement between Japan and Russia concerning China. 165
Aug. 10 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ German Ambassador says England has called on Japan for assistance under treaty of alliance. Rumors that Atlantic Fleet of United States on way to Far East to protect China. 165
323 Aug. 11 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Neutralization of Pacific Ocean hardly possible, but status quo in China should be maintained. Grey anxious to prevent disturbance in China. 165
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). German Ambassador anticipates proposition from Japan for neutralization of Orient. This desirable for Germany, as German resistance hopeless. 166
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Japanese Chargé states Japan is ready to take Kiaochow. 166
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey’s desire to preserve the status quo of China gratifying to United States. Inquiry of other nations as to attitude on subject. 166
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Department is making inquiry of Germany respecting the possibility of circumscribing area of hostilities in Far East. 167
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to ascertain views of German Government as to possibility of circumscribing area of hostilities and maintaining status quo in Far East. 167
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Japan unable to refrain from war with Germany. The Anglo-Japanese treaty binds both parties to respect neutrality and integrity of China. 167
Aug. 12 From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Chinese are basing hopes upon the rumor that the United States is sending fleet to aid China. Requests authoritative information. 168
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). United States is not sending reenforcements to its Asiatic Fleet. 168
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Secretary of the Navy. Forwards cablegram from Naval attaché at Tokyo: Japanese Fleet mobilizing; strong feeling against Germany. 168
[Page LVI] Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 12] From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). From Chinese sources: Japan seeking to cooperate with Great Britain against Tsingtao and upon some pretext planning to occupy South Manchuria and Fukien as well as Kiaochow. 169
Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 14] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany does not seek war with Japan; proposes that England, Japan, and Germany reciprocally agree that hostilities in the Pacific be circumscribed. 169
Aug. 15 [Rec’d Aug. 16] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Many Japanese leaving Germany. 170
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Transmits Japan’s ultimatum to Germany. Minister for Foreign Affairs states that Japan is not animated by self-interest and seeks no territory in China; intimates that less danger of disturbance if China could borrow money from United States. German Ambassador declares that Germany can not concede Japan’s demands, and prepares to leave. 170
Aug. 18 From the British Chargé d’Affaires. Great Britain and Japan deem it necessary to preserve the independence and integrity of China and to protect shipping in adjacent waters. 171
Aug. 19 To the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Forwards note to Japanese Government: United States regrets impending war between Germany and Japan, but is gratified that Japan is acting in alliance with Great Britain, intending to restore Kiaochow to China, preserving equal opportunity of commerce for all nations with China, according to previous agreement with United States. Requests to repeat to Peking. 172
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). German Chargé discusses informally with China the immediate retrocession of Kiaochow. Chinese Government warned against such action. Desires information from Department. 172
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). United States refrains from expressing any opinion upon retrocession of Kiaochow to China. 173
Aug. 20 [Rec’d Aug. 19] From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Japan advises China to remain passive as regards Kiaochow. Chinese propose that United States secure the retrocession of leased territory to China. 173
[Page LVII] Aug. 20 To the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Department unable to comply with Chinese proposal that United States secure retrocescession of leased territory to China. 174
Aug. 22 To the British Chargé d’Affaires. Acknowledges receipt of memorandum of August 18 regarding the protection of foreign interests in Far East by Great Britain and Japan. 174
Aug. 23 From the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Japanese Ambassador (telegram). Notification of Japanese declaration of war against Germany. United States requested to take charge of Japanese interests in Germany. 174
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Imperial rescript of the Japanese Emperor. Declaration of war against Germany. 175
Aug. 22 [Rec’d Aug. 23] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Austria requests United States to transmit following message to the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador in Tokyo: H. M. S. Empress Elizabeth should disarm, crew to proceed to Tientsin. 176
Aug. 24 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Department prefers not to transmit message concerning disarmament of Empress Elizabeth. 176
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Japan agreeable to the proposal that the Empress Elizabeth, Austrian war vessel, be disarmed and interned. 176
Aug. 26 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Satisfactory arrangements have been made concerning Austrian war vessel. 176
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador (telegram). Commander of Empress Elizabeth (Austrian vessel) ordered to join with German Navy in war between Japan and Austria. 177
Sept. 3 From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). German, Japanese, and British forces are disregarding neutrality of China. China unable to prevent it. 177
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 10] From the Minister in Denmark (telegram). Forwards note from German Foreign Office to the German Ambassador: Japanese reported ready to expel all Germans from Chinese neutral territory; requests United States to protest to Japanese Government. 177
Sept. 12 To the Ambassador in Japan and the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Directed to ascertain truth as to statement that Japanese will expel Germans from neutral districts in China. 178
Sept. 15 From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Press reports untrue; Germans not expelled from Chinese neutral territory. 178
[Page LVIII] Sept. 15 From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Expelling of Germans from China denied. 178
Sept. 16 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Inform Foreign Office that reports of expulsion of Germans from certain districts in China unfounded. 178
119 Sept. 1 [Rec’d Sept. 23] From the Ambassador in Japan. Forwards Japan’s declaration of war with Germany. General conviction existed that war is inevitable and Government supported by press. Opinions differ as to return of Kiaochow to China. Special session of Diet called to vote war budget. 179
114 Aug. 29 [Rec’d Sept. 23] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Austria proposes internment of Kaiserin Elizabeth at neutral Chinese port. Diplomatic relations between Austria and Japan severed. Has taken over Austrian interests. 180
Sept. 29 From the Chargé d’Affaires in China (telegram). Japan has formally notified China that she is compelled to take possession of Shantung Railway as far west as Tsinan. 181
Sept. 28 [Rec’d Sept. 29] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Japanese forces have taken mines and occupied Wiehsien. 181
Sept. 29 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Japanese Minister declares that Shantung Railway, being German property, is subject to seizure. 181
Sept. 30 From the Minister in China (telegram). British Legation has urged its Government to restrain Japanese from seizing Shantung Railway. 182
Oct. 1 From the Japanese Embassy. Japanese, have decided to take over and operate Shantung Railway. Now under complete control of Germans and used to facilitate German military operations. 182
Oct. 2 [Rec’d Oct 1] From the Minister in China (telegram). China will not oppose Japan, but regrets occupation of Shantung Railway and extension of hostilities; requests United States to ask Great Britain to restrain Japan in her military operations. 183
Oct. 6 From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram.) Japanese Fleet has landed a force on Jaluit Island, destroyed the military works, and received surrender of authorities. 183
[Page LIX]127 Sept. 22 [Rec’d Oct. 13] From the Ambassador in Japan. Special session of Diet voted appropriation for construction of ten destroyers. Quotes speech of Minister for Foreign Affairs: England had requested Japan to furnish assistance under terms of alliance; Japan did her duty; appreciates prompt compliance of United States with her request that she take over her interests in Germany and Austria-Hungary. 184
Oct. 20 From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Japan has taken possession of [South Sea] islands of strategic importance and captured one enemy war vessel in hiding there. 185
362 Sept. 10 [Rec’d Oct. 20] From the Chargé d’Affaires in China. China declares herself unable to preserve neutrality in regions necessary for the passage of belligerent troops. Germany protests against Chinese Government’s acquiescence in violations of proclaimed neutrality, thus incurring liability for damage to German interests. China has looked to United States for assistance in vain. United States forces used for police duty should only be brought up to full strength, nothing more. Encloses note of September 3 on this subject from Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs. 186
192 Nov. 4 To the Minister in China. China could hardly hope to keep leased territory from being involved in war, but open ports with cosmopolitan population should be excluded by general consent from military operations. United States Navy Department will increase number of vessels in Chinese waters. United States anxious to promote welfare of China by peaceful methods but could not be expected to entangle herself in international difficulties. 189
Nov. 7 From the Consul at Nagasaki (telegram). Tsingtao fallen 190
[Page LX]135 Oct. 8 [Rec’d Nov. 11] From the Ambassador in Japan. Japanese newspapers in general approve actions of Japanese Fleet, since Japan has disavowed any intention to seek territorial aggrandizement. Assistance of Japan in preserving order in the South Seas insures safety of international commerce. Yellow journals unfriendly toward both Japan and United States. 190
406 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Nov. 14] From the Minister in China. Forwards extracts from the Peking Gazette: Japanese official reply to China re seizure of Kiaochow-Tsinan Railway; speeches in the National Assembly of Liang Ch’i-ch’iao, General Hsü, Chao Wei-hsi, Wang Yi-tang, and General Tsai Ao stressing need for patriotism and military strength to oppose Japan; editorial comments thereon. 191
Nov. 14 From the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Forwards text of telegram received from supposed officers of the Shantung Railway, containing a petition to the Foreign Office that mines and railway seized by Japanese be restored to the company. 201
Nov. 16 To the Ambassador in Japan (telegram). Instructions to present the petition of officers of Shantung Railway to Foreign Office. 202
161 Nov. 23 [Rec’d Dec. 17] From the Ambassador in Japan. Reviews newspaper discussion of the final disposition of Kiaochow. 202
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Forwards extracts from Japan Advertiser: Foreign Minister opposed to sending troops to Europe; Japan interested only in peace of Orient. 203
Dec. 18 From the Minister in China (telegram). Controversy between Japanese and Chinese, each claiming right to appoint officers in Tsingtao. Six regiments of Japanese troops stationed at Mukden. 204
Dec. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Japanese demand appointment to Tsingtao customs of 49 officials taken from Japanese customs administration. This will break up Maritime Customs Service. 204
Dec. 30 To the Minister in China (telegram). Desires to know if China has informed British Government of Japan’s demand regarding Tsingtao customs officials. 204
[Page LXI]164 Dec. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 30] From the Ambassador in Japan. British Ambassador unwilling to reply to question as to whether German islands captured by Japan have been turned over to Australia for administration. British inquire of Japan’s purpose in entering war. Baron Kato assures American Ambassador that Japan is not in war for selfish purpose but because of her alliance with Great Britain. 205
Jan. 2, 1915 From the Minister in China (telegram). British Legation was informed unofficially of Japan’s demands in China, and has made informal representations to Japanese. 205
Dec. 12 [Rec’d Jan. 14, 1915] From the Ambassador in Japan. Forwards extract from the Parliamentary Supplement to the Official Gazette of December 9 containing a speech of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who denies the existence of an agreement between Japan and any nation binding Japan to retrocede Kiaochow to China. Whether Japan will succeed to Germany’s rights in Shantung, is left for future negotiations. 206
170 Dec. 18 [Rec’d Jan. 14, 1915] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Encloses extract from Parliamentary Supplement to the Official Gazette of December 10, in which Matsuda charged the Cabinet with having given guarantees to Great Britain and United States that Japan would retrocede Kiaochow to China and that Japanese occupation of Jaluit Island was only temporary, and in which the Minister for Foreign Affairs denies the charge. 207
Dec. 31 [Rec’d Jan. 27, 1915] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Encloses summary of further replies by the Minister for Foreign Affairs to parliamentary inquiries regarding Japan’s participation in the war, December 10. 210
[Page LXII]

PART II: NEUTRAL RIGHTS

Efforts toward Recognition of the Declaration of London—Proclamations, Orders, and Decrees of Belligerent Governments on Contraband of War and Trade with Enemy Countries

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
278 Aug. 5 [Rec’d Aug. 6] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Forwards British list of absolute and conditional contraband. 215
Aug. 6 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). United States recommends that the laws of naval warfare laid down by the Declaration of of London, 1909, shall be applied in the present conflict. 216
The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in Russia, France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary, and the Minister in Belgium.
Aug. 10 [Rec’d Aug. 11] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Forwards German list of articles of contraband. Inquires attitude of other countries. 216
Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 14] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Austro-Hungarian military forces instructed to observe Declaration of London if other nations do so. 217
Aug. 19 To the Ambassadors in Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and the Minister in Belgium (circular telegram). Press Government for reply as to willingness to observe Declaration of London. Austria-Hungary willing to adopt it if enemy will do so. 217
413 Aug. 19 [Rec’d Aug. 20] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). United States asked to ascertain the attitude of Germany and Austria-Hungary as to Declaration of London. 217
Transmitted to the Ambassadors in Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Aug. 20 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Russia will observe Declaration of London if British Government does. 217
Aug. 23 From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Austria-Hungary adheres to Declaration of London on condition of reciprocity. 218
Aug. 22 [Rec’d Aug. 24] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany will apply Declaration of London if other belligerents will do so. 218
483 Undated [Rec’d Aug. 26] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits Foreign Office note of August 22 regarding Declaration of London, in which England agrees to adopt Declaration subject to certain modifications and additions; also text of order in council specifying those modifications and additions. 218
[Page LXIII] Undated [Rec’d Aug. 27] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Russia accepts Declaration of London with modifications adopted by England and France. 220
Aug. 28 [Rec’d Aug. 29] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany desires to know attitude of England and France toward Declaration of London; also attitude of United States toward detention of neutral vessels by England. 220
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Germany cites cases where England and France have not observed Declaration of London, and asks if American Government acquiesces in such violations. 221
Sept. 1 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Government asks if Germany and Austria-Hungary have specified the articles which they intend to treat as contraband of war. 221
Sept. 3 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French Government will observe Declaration of London with certain reservations, additions, and modifications, text of which is transmitted. 222
17 Sept. 7 [Rec’d Sept. 81] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Austria-Hungary wishes British Government notified that they will treat as absolute or conditional contraband those objects and materials enumerated in Articles 22 and 24 of the Declaration of London. 222
88 Sept. 8 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). United States is considering violation of Declaration of London by England and France but declines to express an opinion as to legality of their removal of Germans of military age from neutral vessels as prisoners of war. 223
87 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ British have decided to adhere to the Declaration of London with modifications and additions, in quoted memoranda and order in council. 223
428 Sept. 2 [Rec’d Sept. 15] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Encloses note of August 31, from Foreign Office, in which United States is requested to inquire if Germany and Austria-Hungary have specified the articles which they intend to treat as contraband. 223
206 Sept. 2 [Rec’d Sept. 16] From the Ambassador in Germany. Transmits memorandum of August 27 relative to the application of the Declaration of London in the present war. 224
[Page LXIV] Sept. 26 To the Ambassador Great Britain. United States wishes belligerents to accept Declaration of London as definite naval code, in order to prevent misunderstandings. The changes proposed by Great Britain deny the rights of and impose greater hardships upon neutrals. Action of Great Britain inconsistent with policy of her statesmen in former wars. As changed by order in council, Declaration of London can not be accepted by United States, as it would fail to safeguard interests of her citizens and those of other nations. 225
218 Sept. 28 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructs Ambassador to protest against changes in Declaration of London as they are certain to arouse resentment in America. The Declaration represents the limit of restrictions to which our people will submit. 232
758 Sept. 29 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British wish to avoid any action which will give offense to United States. Purpose is to prevent enemy from receiving food and material for military use. Discussion of whole matter proposed. 233
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Memorandum by the Acting Secretary of State. Took up with the British Ambassador modifications of the Declaration of London. Ambassador admitted that the inclusion of foodstuffs in absolute contraband was contrary to British tradition, and that it was better to get the Netherlands to place an embargo thereon. 233
763 Sept. 30 From the Ambassador in Great Britian (telegram). England agrees to make a new list of absolute contraband and to prepare a new order in council, in which she will endeavor to meet the wishes of United States so far as possible; has accepted Netherland assurance that embargo will prevent exportation of foodstuffs. 235
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits proclamation of September 21 specifying additional articles which are to be treated as contraband of war. This to take the place of any other order in council. 236
[Page LXV] Sept. 28 [Rec’d Oct. 1] From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington (telegram). Declaration of London has not been ratified; doctrine of continuous voyage has been part of international law, upheld by United States courts; proclamation departing from the Declaration of London should be judged by rules of international law accepted by courts and applied in previous wars; British wish to prevent foodstuffs and war material going to Germany; cargoes have been bought not confiscated; willingness to come to an agreement. 236
Sept. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 1] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Has proposed to United States Ambassador that a new British proclamation of contraband be issued to supersede previous ones, with no mention of Declaration of London along the lines suggested by the United States. Cargoes containing copper and petroleum will be detained when consigned to Krupps. Relying upon Netherland embargo, foodstuffs will be considered non-contraband. 237
226 Oct. 1 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). A summary of the correspondence between United States and Great Britain on the subject of the Declaration of London. British appreciate consideration shown by President in not making formal protest. 238
227 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instruction of September 26 re Declaration of London and order in council is not to be presented to Foreign Office until he is notified; the information is for his own use in informal discussions. 239
228 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Expresses gratification over proposed new order in council, but desires to see text before approving or suggesting changes. 240
Oct. 2 To the British Ambassador. United States hopes that a naval code will be adopted by all nations. Germany and Austria have agreed to the adoption of the Declaration of London. The order in council prevents this. Under the Declaration a belligerent has the right to add to the list of absolute or conditional contraband. Suggests that Great Britain and France accept Declaration and then modify lists. 240
[Page LXVI] Oct. 2 Memorandum by the Acting Secretary of State of a conference with the British Ambassador. The Ambassador thought that the British Government did not realize that Germany and Austria had promised to abide by the Declaration of London; great advantage to have uniform code of naval warfare. Will submit the United States proposals to Grey by telegram. 241
Oct. 2 [Rec’d Oct. 3] From the British Ambassador to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (telegram). Britain urged to accept Declaration of London in order that all belligerents may agree on conditions. Permissible that list of conditional and absolute contraband be added to, also that embargoes be arranged with neutral countries. 242
776 Oct. 3 From the Ambassador in Great Britian (telegram.) A new order in council will be drawn up, specifying added articles of conditional and absolute contraband. Special arrangements made with Netherlands concerning embargoes on foodstuffs. Mines laid in English Channel by British makes safe route from America to Holland around Scotland. 243
246 Oct. 4 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Repetition of arguments for adopting Declaration of London. 243
806 Oct. 9 [Rec’d Oct. 10] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Draft of new order in council containing lists of conditional and absolute contraband submitted to United States for approval. 244
Oct. 12 From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. British are under false impression that United States has proposed articles to be placed on lists of contraband. 247
302 Oct. 13 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Denial that additions of petroleum and motors to contraband list were suggested by United States. Spring Rice made suggestion. 247
Oct. 15 [Rec’d Oct. 16] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Shipping controversy academic. Life of English-speaking civilization is at stake. Friendly relations with England are in jeopardy; also our usefulness in bringing about peace. 248
[Page LXVII]323 Oct. 16 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Suggests that England, France, and Russia adopt Declaration of London without amendments, thus making effective the German and Austrian acceptance. Later Britain can proclaim additions to list of contraband. If military supplies are discovered en route through a neutral country to Germany, that neutral would be subject to the rules governing trade with the enemy. 249
324 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ The United States is bound to recognize the rights of neutrals; proposed order in council does not accept the Declaration of London without change; this unsatisfactory to other belligerents. Objections enumerated. 250
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the President to the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). President Wilson urges Ambassador to use persuasion in effecting an understanding concerning commerce. United States has pointed out a way of accomplishing it with least friction. 252
864 Oct. 19 [Rec’d Oct. 20] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Declaration of London forbids addition to contraband list of articles such as rubber and iron ore, now necessary for manufacture of war materials. Therefore Britain cannot accept it. To do so and then issue a proclamation contradicting a part of it would be impossible. Britain will issue an order in council which will disturb neutral commerce as little as possible, reserving right to stop cargoes of contraband evidently destined for enemy. United States can make claim for damages. 253
Oct. 17 [Rec’d Oct. 20] From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington (telegram). Repetition of reasons why Britain will not adopt Declarations of London. Requests United States not to protest against order in council, but to act on merits of each particular case of detained vessels. 254
Oct. 19 [Rec’d Oct. 20] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ British will accept Declaration of London on general terms, making exceptions in draft proclamation already submitted, solely to prevent contraband reaching enemy. United States asked not to make formal protest. 255
[Page LXVIII] Oct. 20 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey’s proposal should be accepted as an emergency plan; thus throwing responsibility on British Government. Preferable to a break with Great Britain. United States Government upheld doctrine of continuous voyage during Civil War, which Grey now wishes to establish. Request that House be sent to confer with Grey. 255
Oct. 21 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Grey gives reasons why British reject Declaration of London: (1) Parliament considers it unsatisfactory; (2) Article 28 excludes rubber, metallic ores, and hides from treatment as contraband; (3) Holland a base for military supplies for Germany. Britain considers Declaration advantageous to Germany. 256
373 Oct. 22 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). United States withdraws its request that belligerents adopt Declaration of London. Insists that its rights be defined by existing rules of international law. Reserves right to protest in case of violation. 257
893 Oct. 23 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey expresses satisfaction that United States will not offer protest against new order in council but will reserve right to enter protest where rights are considered violated. Promise to consider all cases in friendly spirit. 258
894 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Overwhelming military business absorbs Government. Difficult to get information or attention of Foreign Office. 258
489 Oct. 24 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same to the Ambassadors in Austria-Hungary, France, Russia, Argentina, and Brazil, and the Minister in Belgium. Inform German Government United States withdraws suggestion for adoption of Declaration of London by belligerents; will insist upon rights and protest if they are violated. 259
[Page LXIX] Oct. 24 [Rec’d Oct. 25] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). New order in council to be issued after conference with France; to be published in United States as soon as possible. Urge upon British Government prompt action and publicity of facts in every case of detention of vessels. 259
418 Oct. 28 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). United States cannot foretell the effect of new order in council, and does not waive the right to protest against the inclusion of any article in list of contraband. 260
549 Nov. 3 [Rec’d Nov. 16] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Transmits revised British list of articles of contraband; also order in council of October 29 defining attitude of Britain toward Declaration of London together with modification of same. 260
234 Oct. 21 [Rec’d Nov. 9] From the Ambassador in Germany. Forwards memorial of German Foreign Office of October 10 protesting the attitude of the British and French Governments respecting the Declaration of London. 263
280 Nov. 23 [Rec’d Dec. 14] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Encloses two notes from Foreign Office containing notification of additional lists of articles of contraband. 266
239 Nov. 20 [Rec’d Dec. 15] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Transmits memorandum of Foreign Office concerning attitude of Great Britain and France in regard to the Declaration of London. 267
1099 Dec. 15 [Rec’d Dec. 16] From the Ambassador in Germany. Aluminum and nickel added to German list of conditional contraband. 268
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 22] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Ottoman Government proclaims list of absolute and conditional contraband. 268
206 Dec. 24 [Rec’d Dec. 26] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Ottoman Government communicates additional list of contraband articles. 268
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 24] From the Consul General at London (telegram). Transmits British amended list of absolute and conditional contraband of December 23. 269
428 Jan. 5, 1915 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). British and French lists correspond. 270
[Page LXX]

Correspondence with American Citizens, Firms, and Organizations Whose Interests Were Affected by the Proclamations and Orders of Belligerent Governments Regarding Contraband and Trade with Enemy Countries—Action on Particular Commodities

shipments of grain and foodstuffs—marine insurance

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
July 31 [Rec’d Aug 1] From the Board of Trade of Kansas City (telegram). Requests Department to take action regarding regulations of trade. 271
Aug. 5 To the Vice President of the Board of Trade of Kansas City. Not probable that countries now at war will consent to any modification of the rules of international law regarding the rights of neutrals. 271
Aug. 3 From the Insurance Company of North America. Any information which Department can give regarding conditional contraband, rights of belligerents to capture neutral property, etc., will be of great advantage to the public and the Company. 272
Aug. 7 To the Insurance Company of North America. Contraband of war and maritime commerce during a state of war are subject to so many qualifications and exceptions that Department thinks it best for Company to consult private counsel and standard works on international law. 273
Aug. 6. From Representative Stephens. Transmits telegram from Wichita Mill and Elevator Company, asking if wheat can be moved under American flag from Galveston to England, France, and Holland without violation of neutrality; also asks if Government will furnish escort for fleet of grain-carrying steamers. 273
Aug. 8 To Representative Stephens (telegram). Grain classed as conditional contraband of war, subject to seizure if consigned to belligerent government, its army or navy. Government could not furnish escort. Foreign boats under foreign registration can not cancel same and register in United States. Foodstuffs sent to Holland not contraband. 274
Aug. 15 Public circular issued by the Department of State. Neutrality; contraband; seizure of ships and cargo. 274

shipments of copper

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Nov. 6 From the Perth Amboy Board of Trade (telegram). Protests against British detention of neutral vessels bearing copper to neutral countries and the placing of unwrought copper on absolute contraband list, causing thousands of men to be thrown out of work. Asks prompt action by Government to clarify situation. 278
[Page LXXI] Nov. 7 From the Copper Country Commercial Club (telegram). Protests against British restrictions on copper trade, affecting welfare of 60,000 American miners. 279
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Governor of Montana (telegram). Stopping of copper shipments from United States by belligerents inflicts great losses upon Montana industries. Suffering and privation will result. 280
Nov. 13 From the Weber Club, Ogden Publicity Bureau (telegram). Plea for Government to use its best offices to secure shipments of copper in neutral vessels to neutral countries. 280
Nov. 17 From the Silver City Chamber of Commerce (telegram). Transmits resolutions protesting against inclusion of copper in list of absolute contraband and urging United States to take some action. 280
Nov. 13 From the Chamber of Commerce of the United States. Large part of world’s supply of copper comes from United States. Action of Great Britain and France in making copper absolute contraband not according to Declaration of London as modified by British order in council. Only small part of copper output used for war material. 281
Nov. 25 To the British Ambassador. British proclaim unwrought copper as absolute contraband. List of conditional contraband contains materials for telegraphs, etc. Explanation asked. Manufacturers entitled to know what treatment to expect for shipments of manufactured copper. 282
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 10] From the American Mining Congress (telegram). Resolution appealing to the United States to use influence to keep open copper market and protect shipments thereof. 283
Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 21] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Subject of unwrought copper will be studied and decision rendered. 284
[Page LXXII]

Shipments of Cotton

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 20 From Senator Owen_ Requests that Government open negotiations with Germany, France, and England to arrange that cotton be shipped to these countries without being regarded as contraband. Probable loss $250,000,000, with markets closed. 284
Aug. 25 To Senator Owen_ _ _ Great Britain and Germany have not declared cotton as contraband. France will probably follow Great Britain. 285
Oct. 19 From the Consul General at London (telegram). British Government said to be ready to declare cotton as conditional contraband. 285
Oct. 20 From the President of the Galveston Cotton Exchange and Board of Trade to the Solicitor for the Department of State. British suspect that cotton and cottonseed products being shipped to Norway, Denmark, and Sweden are intended for Germany. One vessel held in Scotland. Cotton market declining. South anxious to obtain assurance that cotton shipped in neutral bottoms to neutral countries will not be molested. 285
Oct. 24 From the President of the New York Chamber of Commerce (telegram). British warn Scandinavia, Holland, and Italy that cotton en route to these countries may be brought to English prize court for proof of neutral ownership. Insurance companies can not assume risk. Government urged to request of Great Britain an authoritative statement of conditions under which cotton may be shipped to neutral countries without interference. 287
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From Senator Gore_ _ Transmits telegram of October 23 from Harris Irby Cotton Company: English and American companies refuse insurance oh cotton cargoes. All shipments to European countries will cease; those already bought can not be delivered. United States War Risk Insurance restricts to American bottoms, which can not be obtained. Congress urged to find measures for relief. 287
391 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Increasing complaints of Americans against Great Britain for interference with legitimate commerce. Great Britain asked to declare that American-owned cotton in neutral ships be unmolested. 288
[Page LXXIII]393 Oct. 24 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British underwriters will not insure unless owner warrants goods free of capture. American companies follow same course. It is hoped British will take steps to relieve situation. Much adverse criticism in this country. 289
911 Oct. 26 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey makes positive declaration that cotton is not contraband. No ship has been detained. 289
Oct. 26 From the British Ambassador. Grey authorizes assurance that cotton will not be seized; not on contraband list. Copper destined for Krupp detained. No cargo taken without payment; that for neutral countries allowed to proceed. 290
514 Oct. 28 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). British state that cotton is not on contraband list; it may be shipped to Germany in neutral vessels. Cotton shipments to Russian ports desired. Is cotton on German free list? 290
581 Nov. 8 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same to the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary. Apprehension in America will be greatly relieved if Germany will make public declaration that cotton in neutral vessels will not be detained or molested. 291
821 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 16] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Cotton will not be declared contraband unless other beligerents declare it so. 291
Nov. 30 From A. Boden_ _ _ _ _ Succeeded in getting New York firms to finance shipments of cotton, and Netherland shipowners to supply ships. High rate of insurance because of detention of vessels for investigation. American bottoms more expensive than neutrals because smaller. Dutch companies ask lower rate of insurance. United States asked to obtain assurance from French that cotton will be unmolested. 291
Dec. 1 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the French Ambassador. British do not interfere with shipments of cotton. French have caused undue detentions of cargoes, causing great expense. A statement of French Government regarding immunity is desired. 292
Dec. 13 [Rec’d Dec. 14] From the French Ambassador. French give same assurance concerning shipments of cotton as British. 293
[Page LXXIV]351 Dec. 16 [Rec’d Dec. 17] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Cotton non-contraband, conditional upon reciprocity of enemy states. 293

Shipments of Illuminating Oil

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Sept. 18 From the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. “Fuel-lubricants” contained in list of conditional contraband. Government asked to support contention that ordinary illuminating oil should be exempt from contraband. 294
Sept. 22 To William H. Libby. Department will request a more specific declaration by the belligerent powers as to the classification of illuminating oil. 295
Oct. 1 From the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. Department urged to state that united States does not concede illuminating oil as contraband. Instance cited where cargo of Standard Oil was confiscated and destroyed by Russia in 1905, and protested by British Government. Continual additions to contraband list would potentially result in entire destruction of trade of neutrals. 295
Oct. 26 To William H. Libby. Department is endeavoring to obtain equitable treatment for American commerce; has made the following representations to British against seizure of the John D. Rockefeller: oil is not listed as absolute contraband, and the vessel was apparently of neutral destination. 297

Shipments of Naval Stores

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Oct. 27 From Senator Fletcher. Foreign countries constitute major portion of market for naval stores. Desire of yellow pine district that market be opened up so that naval stores may be shipped with cotton. Encloses letter of October 27 from E. J. L’Engle on subject. 297
Oct. 29 To the British Ambassador. Turpentine and rosin not on list of contraband. Desires a statement from British Government regarding immunity of these products from seizure. 298
[Page LXXV] Nov. 1 [Rec’d. Nov. 2] From the British Ambassador. British Government has no present intention of interfering with turpentine and rosin. Lists of contraband published; may be consulted. Final decision for prize courts. 299
441 Dec. 22 [Rec’d. Dec. 23] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Resinous products, camphor and turpentine, have been added to list of absolute contraband. 300
Dec. 29 From the Chamber of Commerce of the United States. Hopes that steps can be taken to rescind the decision of Great Britain in making “naval stores” absolute contraband of war. Gives figures showing extent of industry and decline on account of war. 300

Shipments of Tobacco

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Nov. 5 From the Hopkinsville Tobacco Board of Trade. Citizens of western Tennessee and Kentucky beg the Government to effect some arrangement with belligerent powers whereby tobacco may be exported. It is not on contraband list but shipments are seriously interfered with. Principal source of income; 80 per cent of production exported to Europe. 301
Nov. 6 To the British Ambassador. Request that Great Britain will not interfere with shipments of tobacco. 303
Nov. 7 From the British Ambassador. British Government has no intention of interfering with shipments of tobacco in neutral bottoms sent to any European country. 303

Interference by Belligerent Governments with Neutral Ships and Cargoes

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 12 From the North American Export Grain Association (telegram). Vessels carrying foodstuffs diverted to English ports; perishables sold, nonperishables stored. Shippers without protection. Invokes Government aid. 304
Aug. 13 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Department desires full facts of report re diverted steamers and reasons and basis for British Government’s action. Names of vessels and cargoes specified. Attention called to great loss entailed. 304
[Page LXXVI] Aug. 17 To all Seaport Consuls (telegram). Instructions to report capture of merchant vessels. Consuls to give informal notice of claim of owner and select representative for him. 305
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 18] From the Consul General at London (telegram). Marshal of prize courts states neutrals can obtain possession of their property not contraband by applying to the procurator general. Proof of ownership required. 305
405 Aug. 18 [Rec’d Aug. 19] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British will pay claims for loss by diversion, when established. 305
Aug. 17 [Rec’d Aug. 19] From Seth Low_ _ _ _ _ Submits resolution of conference held under auspices of Secretary of the Treasury requesting Department of State to take up with British Government the question of release of funds and shipments held in London and elsewhere resulting from the sale or diversion of shipments. 306
Aug. 20 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). American shippers desire release of grain cargoes diverted to England and of the funds resulting from sale of cargoes. Money thus tied up blocks trade. 306
Aug. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ This Government considers that all cargoes afloat before the outbreak of hostilities are not subject to adjudication as prize; it is only an act of justice for British to direct release of them. Where should claims be presented for ships taken to British ports not in England proper? 306
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 27] From the Consul General at London (telegram). Persons seeking cargoes other than enemy cargoes on captured ships may obtain release on submitting proof of ownership to procurator general, if submitted prior to issuance of writ in prize-court action. Subsequent thereto an order by court for release is necessary. When a writ Has been issued, an appearance to such writ should be entered by a solicitor at Admiralty marshal’s office within eight days thereof. 307
[Page LXXVII] Aug. 28 To the Consul General at London (telegram). Are ships captured and taken to British ports required to apply to procurator general in London, or will prize courts be held in other British ports outside of London? Owing to interrupted communication and great number of ships seized, impossible to present claims in short time required. 308
504 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). A special committee has been appointed to deal with all cases on their merits. It will sit daily at the Board of Trade. No difficulty in regard to release of cargoes when question of prize is not involved. 308
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Immense number shipments were afloat prior to declaration of war. Under principles of international law and justice, neutral cargoes under such circumstances can not be confiscated, and can not rightfully be subject to adjudication and condemnation as prize. United States hopes that British will facilitate release of American-owned cargoes that were afloat before war, and give sufficient time and opportunity for them to establish their rights. 309
508 Aug. 29 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Conveys text of statement issued by British Government regarding diverted cargoes and dealings with such cargoes. 310
Sept. 3 From the Consul General at London (telegram). President Admiralty division prize courts gives ruling concerning seat of prize courts. Time extended for presentation of claims. List of courts authorized to act as prize courts under Prize Courts Act of 1894. 311
420 Aug. 27 [Rec’d Sept. 9] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Transmits note of August 26 from Foreign Office concerning proceedings in British prize courts and notice of rules governing prize court which appears daily in the Times newspaper. 311
87 Sept. 10 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Quotes telegram from Grey: An executive committee appointed to deal expeditiously with detained cargoes. As many as possible will be freed without reference to prize court. 313
[Page LXXVIII] Undated [Rec’d Sept. 17] From the Consul General at London (telegram). Procurator general states certain goods will be released upon payment of freight to London. As goods are not landed at ports to which originally consigned, freight to London adds to shipper’s losses. 313
Sept. 22 To the Consul General at London (telegram). Department considers British Government not entitled to collect freight on cargo on diverted, detained, or seized vessels sailing before the war. Instructions to press for release of American goods, free of charges. 314
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 25] From the Consul General at London (telegram). Procurator general disposed to release cargoes upon payment of freight with protest; final judgment reserved until later, when reimbursement will be made if decided in our favor. 314
Sept. 28 To the Consul General at London (telegram). Instructions to appear before Bonar Law’s committee for expeditious settlement of matter of freight, making plain the Department’s attitude. American interests advised to pay with protest, to avoid further delay; all freight collected to be reimbursed if decided in our favor. 315
446 Sept. 15 [Rec’d Sept. 28] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Forwards note of September 14 from British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, giving British argument re cargoes in custody of prize court. 315
Sept. 28 From the Consul General at London (telegram). Two Dutch steamers brought to Plymouth because of copper in cargo. Dutch liners required to give proof that goods are for Dutch consumption. 316
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Resolution of the Senate of the United States. Secretary of State requested to inform Senate if British are interfering with shipments of copper carried in neutral bottoms to Rotterdam. If so, what reasons are given by British for so doing. 317
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 30] From the Consul General at London (telegram). Inquiries concerning cargoes captured and taken to French ports should be addressed to Prefect Maritime of district where ship is detained. Cases go to prize court at Bordeaux. 317
39 Undated [Rec’d Oct. 2] From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Branch houses in Rotterdam of American firms and importers of American products protest against measures taken by belligerents regarding shipments. Willing to sign declaration that goods are not for belligerents. 317
[Page LXXIX] Oct. 2 From the Secretary of the Coffee Exchange of the City of New York. Transmits resolution requesting Government to take steps to prevent destruction by belligerent warships of neutral cargoes of coffee. 318
Oct. 9 To the Secretary of the Coffee Exchange of the City of New York. Resolution will receive consideration. Practice of nations to seize neutral ships or cargo only when necessary. Germany based action on this. Not to be presumed that she will refuse indemnity. 319
Oct. 7 From the Consul General at London (telegram). Re seizure of shipment of wood alcohol. Protests procurator’s claim for freight and incidental expenses while in port. Suggests that American position be restated. 319
66 Sept. 25 [Rec’d Oct. 7] From the Consul General at London. Dutch ships arrested in order to prove that they carried no contraband. Managing director of Holland-America Line hopes for support of United States in efforts of Netherlands to prevent further interference from British Government. Large shipments of cotton expected. Some may find its way to Germany. 320
Oct. 12 From Senator Williams. Encloses telegram of October 9 from President of the Chamber of Commerce, Greenville, Mississippi, stating that British are interfering with shipments of cottonseed oil and cake to neutral countries. This the only revenue cotton planters are deriving from cotton crop. Conditions deplorable. 321
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Consul General at London (telegram). Seizure of shipments of cottonseed products has resulted in serious injury to American commerce and produces spirit of antagonism to British Government. Satisfactory understanding respecting our commerce with neutrals should be given. 322
300 Oct. 13 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Holland-America Line will not accept goods for shipment unless consigned to Netherland Government. Situation unsatisfactory. Further protests. 322
Oct. 14 [Rec’d Oct. 15] From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Minister at Stockholm (telegram). Swedish vessels asked to call at British ports and give assurance that cargoes, of which exportation is prohibited, will be landed at port of destination and not exported. This to avoid search at sea. 323
[Page LXXX] Oct. 21 From the Consul General at London (telegram). Every insurance company in London and Liverpool and member of Lloyd’s agrees to insert clause excluding risk liability from any claim arising from capture or detention of ship by British or Allies. 324
362 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The John D. Rockefeller, American ship carrying illuminating oil to Copenhagen, detained by British. Requests release. 324
Oct. 22 From the British Ambassador. The John D. Rockefeller’s cargo consigned “to order.” Destination has been ascertained and vessel ordered released, with assurance that oil will not be reexported. Necessary that ships carry papers showing destination and names of owner and consignee. Fuel and lubricants declared conditional contraband. 324
375 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Steamer Brindilla, owned by Standard Oil Company, carrying oil to Alexandria, Egypt, detained by British at Halifax. Seizure unjustified. Requests release. 325
379 Oct. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Requests release of steamer Platuria, owned by Standard Oil Company and carrying oil to Denmark. 325
903 Oct. 24 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Release of steamer Brindilla ordered. 326
85 Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 26] From the Consul General at London. Transmits procurator general’s letter of October 6 re Great Britain’s contention for freight and other charges on diverted and detained vessels. Advises shippers to accept terms under protest, with view to reimbursment. 326
Oct. 25 [Rec’d Oct. 26] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Remarks upon the general question of contraband and the attitude of the British Government. The demand for mineral oils by neutrals in touch with belligerents has greatly increased; evidence is that these are transmitted to belligerents. Neutrals making arrangements to guarantee that these goods will not be reexported. 328
[Page LXXXI]912 Oct. 26 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Detained ship Platuria has on board 1,500,000 gallons oil. Will be released if Denmark gives assurance that oil will not go to Germany. 329
370 Oct. 9 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German cruisers have sunk British ships carrying American cargo to United States. Requests information as to whether Germany will hold proceedings of prize adjudication; if so, when and where. 330
504 Oct. 27 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Germany’s attitude in matter of indemnity for destruction of cargo affects insurance. Speedy reply desired. 330
Oct. 28 From four copper exporting companies (telegram). Representatives of 90 per cent of copper export trade lay before Department specific cases of interference with trade to Italy, and refusal of steamship companies to carry copper unless consignee is named and guaranty is given that cargo will not be reexported. Requests relief. 330
Oct. 27 To the Secretary of the Treasury. Re undesirability of exhibiting manifests of departing vessels to any person who may desire to examine them. 331
Oct. 28 From the Secretary of the Treasury. Order issued to collectors of customs to withhold publication of manifests until 30 days after clearance of each vessel. 332
948 Oct. 30 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British are fearful that order to refrain from giving out information concerning sailing of vessels may assist United States citizens in carrying on contraband trade with belligerents. 332
447 Nov. 2 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Order not in unfriendly spirit. Trade, whether contraband or non-contraband, is legitimate, and within neutral rights. 333
Oct. 31 From two copper exporting companies (telegram). British seized copper on S. S. Kroonland at Gibraltar. Requests protection of interests. 333
433 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Protest against detention of American steamer Kroonland laden with copper and rubber consigned to neutrals, and of American shipments of copper on Italian steamers bound for neutral countries. 333
[Page LXXXII]964 Nov. 2 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The Kroonland detained, not seized; investigation and report promised. British Government has found evidence that copper on Italian steamers was for belligerents; will buy the cargoes. 335
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the British Ambassador. Shipments of military stores to Denmark increase daily, in many cases forwarded directly to Germany, Enclosed copy of telegram of October 31 from Grey to British Minister in Denmark, inquiring how case stands regarding Platuria and Knudsen. These vessels have been released. 335
Nov. 3 From the Minister in Norway (telegram). S. S. Bergensfjord , Norwegian American Line, seized by British ship, taken to Orkney, released after three days. Ships being taken to England for examination of their papers and cargo. 336
724 Nov. 4 [Rec’d Nov. 5] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Prize adjudication provided for all vessels and cargoes destroyed. Prize court to be held in Hamburg shortly. 336
Nov. 4 From Muir and Company (telegram). Wheat on steamer Miramichi destined for Rotterdam, sold to German buyers but not paid for. Sailed before outbreak of war; seized as prize contrary to British promise. 336
1000 Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Kroonland allowed to proceed, her copper brought into the the prize court. Giovanni released, copper discharged. Regina d’Italia allowed to proceed, copper, not consigned to Italian firm, placed in prize court. 337
495 Nov. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to render all possible assistance to Muir and Company in claim for wheat on Miramichi, held in prize court in London. 337
Nov. 6 [Rec’d Nov. 7] From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington (telegram). Large shipments of copper and rubber passing through Italian ports to Germany. Large purchases also through Rotterdam, Amsterdam, and Copenhagen by houses working on German account. British must stop contraband trade in copper. 338
[Page LXXXIII] Nov. 2 [Rec’d Nov. 7] From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Rome (telegram). Instructions to induce Italian Government to prevent re-export of copper on board Regina d’Italia. Large shipments of copper consigned to Italian bank by German agent. British willing to buy it. 339
Nov. 7 To the British Ambassador. Protests against fate of Rockefeller, Platuria and Knudsen; requests that visit and search be made at sea with greatest expedition possible. 339
Nov. 9 [Rec’d Nov. 11] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Forwards copies of telegrams sent by Grey to British Ministers at Christiania, Stockholm, and Copenhagen and to Ambassador at Rome, containing information as to arrangements with neutral governments for putting fewest possible hindrances in way of neutral trade while at same time carrying out necessary measures of restriction. 341
1029 Nov. 9 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits statement from Grey: Great scarcity of copper in Germany; their agents bringing it in by carefully organized plan to supply German arms factories; swollen trade in Italy an artificial one. 342
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Consul General at Hamburg (telegram). Instruction to keep Department posted as to when prize court proceedings are held. 343
608 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instruction to obtain information as to procedure to be followed by those presenting claims before prize court. 343
511 Nov. 10 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Repeats protests against seizure and detention of copper and requests release. 344
822 Nov. 12 [Rec’d Nov. 13] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Forwards instructions as to how a claimant shall proceed before prize court. 344
Nov. 13 [Rec’d Nov. 14] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Restatement of British attitude as to detained vessels and seized cargoes. 345
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 17] From the Consul General at London (telegram). Foreign Office states that cottonseed cake is conditional contraband and will be treated as such, and under order in council will be liable to seizure if consigned to order or to an enemy. 346
[Page LXXXIV]562 Nov. 18 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Norwegian steamer Uller, chartered by American corporation, with full cargo cotton detained by British at Kirkwall. Detention not justified; people are persuaded that Great Britain not friendly to American trade. 346
564 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Inquiries concerning the agreement Italy has made with Great Britain to prevent reexportation of goods to Germany. 347
1104 Nov. 20 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Uller was not detained for cotton. More information later. 348
1163 Nov. 30 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ No further decisions can be given by Foreign Office re reexportation of shipments to Italy until new Italian decree has been tested. 348
108 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 30] From the Consul General at Hamburg. No American prize cargo has been brought into port yet. Will keep Department informed. 348
Dec. 1 To the British Ambassador. Quotes a communication from the British Consul General at Philadelphia to an American firm urging that ships proceeding to Scandinavian ports call at British ports to avoid search at sea. Advantage of this not clear to Department. 349
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From Armour and Company. Summary of facts concerning cargoes of meat-food products to Copenhagen in vessels sailing under Norwegian flag, detained and held by the British Government. Encloses memorandum of November 19, 1914, on the same subject. 349
Dec. 2 [Rec’d Dec. 3] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Defends British attitude on seizure of cargo. 352
680 Dec. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Denial of justice and the illegality of British policy in continuing to seize cargoes, despite the agreement with Scandinavian countries to forbid reshipment. 353
684 Dec. 4 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Copper from steamer Sif for Stockholm detained at Glasgow and from steamer Sigrun held at Newport. Desires to know grounds for seizure. 355
[Page LXXXV] Dec. 5 From the Consul General at London (telegram). No settlement can be obtained for cargoes of packing companies except through prize court decisions, and they are four months behind time. Re cases of the Alfred Nobel, Björnstjerne Björnson , and Fridland. 355
1202 Dec. 6 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Scandinavian Governments have not yet forbidden reexportation of copper. 356
1199 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits text of proposed working arrangement whereby difficulties of trade and shipping may be removed. Grey asks that United States shippers ship to some definite consignee and not “to order”. British agree to wool, rubber, etc., entering United States provided it is not reshipped to enemy. 356
153 Nov. 25 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Consul General at London. Attention of procurator general has been called to promise that seized cargo will be disposed of by special committee without reference to prize court. Forwards procurator general’s reply of November 21. 358
1209 Dec. 7 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Has been informed that copper shipped to neutrals goes to German concerns in neutral disguise for reshipment to Germany. Copper very high in Germany. Sweden has put copper on prohibited export list. 359
37 Nov. 17 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Minister in Sweden. Transmits communication of November 14 from director general of the Foreign Office enclosing note of November 12 from Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs to the German, French, British and Russian Ministers, protesting vigorously against interference with trade by belligerents. 360
714 Dec. 9 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Hopes soon to make definite response to proposed working arrangement for facilitating trade. 361
Dec. 10 [Rec’d Dec. 11] From the German Embassy. Makes inquiry concerning United States protest against British practice of seizing American ships. 362
[Page LXXXVI]1240 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Suggests that if United States accepts proposed working arrangement, it incorporate a stipulation that British Government shall promptly inform us of the detention of every American ship and the reason therefor. 362
1255 Dec. 13 [Rec’d Dec. 14] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Forwards statements of Grey re disposition of ships and cargoes consigned to neutral countries, which had been seized by Great Britain. 362
386 Dec. 15 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Protests capture of Standard Oil steamers by French. Their offer to pay the value of cargo not satisfactory to United States. 363
176 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 15] From the Consul General at London. Is making representations to procurator general and Foreign Office as to reasons for seizure of certain ships and detention of cargoes. Encloses copies of replies of November 24 and 28 from Foreign Office to American Ambassador; also his own letter of December 4 to the Ambassador at London describing the situation and stating that vessels have been placed in prize court. 364
84 Dec. 16 To the Consul General at London. Re seizure of shipments made prior to a knowledge of the latest order in council. In this case the order in council should not apply. 366
187 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 21] From the Consul General at London. Forwards note of Grey of December 5 on subject of seized shipments; quotes Article 43 of Declaration of London and asks how goods can be detained for adjudication when it is not liable to condemnation. 366
1307 Dec. 21 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Forwards reply of Foreign Office to note claiming undue delay in releasing vessels carrying cotton. 369
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ From the President of the Galveston Cotton Exchange (telegram). For a vessel to proceed without detention, British require that two British subjects be employed during entire time vessel is in port—one for day inspection and one for night. Requests that these instructions be modified, and that two inspectors for each pier only be employed. 369
[Page LXXXVII] Dec. 22 To the President of the Galveston Cotton Exchange (telegram). Cannot enter into arrangements with British Government for vise of cargoes of vessels loading from this country to neutrals. Matter one for private arrangement. 370
825 Dec. 24 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Objects to seizure of steamers Ellen and Sandefjord and requests release. 370
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the British Ambassador. Regrets that resinous products have been added to absolute contraband list. Many ships have sailed with this cargo. Case similar to that of copper and other products. 371
836 Dec. 26 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Makes a full statement of views of the United States Government on present condition of American foreign trade resulting from seizures and detentions. Maintains an inconsistency and lack of consideration on part of British. 372
841 Dec. 27 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Embassy reports irritation in Italy against Great Britain for interference with trade. 376
Dec. 28 To the German Embassy. In reply to German note of December 10, regarding seizure by British, cites protests to British Government. Regrets the necessity to interpose objections to acts of belligerents in disregard of the rights of neutrals. 376
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Swedish Minister. Acknowledges note of December 18 enclosing note from Swedish Government to German, British, French, and Russian Governments protesting against interference with commerce contrary to principles of international law. 377
1342 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Acknowledges communication of December 26. Grey will not return to London until December 30. 377
1368 Dec. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 31] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ The United States is criticized for protests, which are attributed to German propaganda, and for failure to protest against Belgium’s treatment; is also accused of a desire to make money out of England’s misfortune. 377
[Page LXXXVIII] Dec. 14 [Rec’d Dec. 31] From the Consul General at London. A committee has been appointed by the British Government to receive and consider claims made by British, Allied, or neutral parties against ships or cargoes which have been condemned by prize courts and to provide for them out of prize funds. 378
1374 Dec. 31 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey will reply to note [of December 26] “in the same tone.” 379
5 Jan. 1, 1915 From the British Ambassador. Upholds British decision that rosin and turpentine are contraband, as being “articles from which ammunition is manufactured.” 379
209 Dec. 31 [Rec’d Jan. 12, 1915] From the Consul General at London. Explanations of British action as to goods shipped before declaration of war. Specific case of lumber of George W. Howe & Co. consigned to J. H. Müller & Son of Hamburg. Apparent intention of authorities to weigh minutely every evidence of ownership. 381
730 Jan. 8, 1915 [Rec’d Jan. 23] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Transmits Grey’s reply of January 5 giving ultimate disposition of S. S. Ellen, Tellus , and Sandefjord . 382
79 Oct. 8 [Rec’d Oct. 19] From the Consul General at London. S. S. Sturmfels , from Calcutta to New York, with miscellaneous goods on board, has sought refuge in the Italian Red Sea port of Massaua. Permission asked of Great Britain for ship to continue journey. Necessary to obtain assent of Germany also. 383
37 Oct. 31 To the Consul General at London. Approves action of Consul General in asking permission for safe-conduct of S. S. Sturmfels . This case to set precedent. 383
144 Nov. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 14] From the Consul General at London. Permission for Sturmfels to continue journey denied. Letter received by Lloyd’s indicating line of conduct which cargo interests should follow in order to recover property contained in German ships seeking refuge in Italian ports. 384
Nov. 8 [Rec’d Dec. 15] From the Consul General at Cape Town. Birkenfels with cargo from New York to Australia held up at port in British South Africa. Suggests taking matter up with British Government. 385
[Page LXXXIX]1297 Dec. 18 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Forwards memorandum from Foreign Office concerning the Schneefels captured by British while on way to United States. Ship will continue voyage and deliver cargo to owners. Government asked to protect Schneefels, now considered British prize. 386
944 Jan. 12, 1915 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The Schneefels will be treated as any other merchant vessel. 387

Embargoes and Related Restrictions on Trade by European Neutral States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
33 Oct. 9 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Information received that Holland-America Line will not accept cargo unless consigned to Netherland Government. Instruction to furnish information concerning Netherland embargo on exportation. 387
44 Undated [Rec’d Oct. 11] From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Netherlands will receive oil cake consigned to Government. Holland-America Line will receive cargo so consigned. 388
45 Oct. 12 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits list of articles of which Netherland Government prohibits exportation. 388
39 Oct. 15 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Requests explanation of telegram concerning shipments to Netherland Government; also information as to whether Netherland Government would prevent exportation of cotton shipped to Holland and destined for Germany. 389
47 Oct. 16 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Every separate shipment must be consigned to Netherland Government with consent given by Netherland Consul General in New York. Exportation of cotton, fodder, and oil cake forbidden. Shipments of cotton in transit to Germany not forbidden but are at shippers’ risk. 389
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Minister in Norway (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ministers in Sweden and Denmark and the Ambassador in Italy. Make inquiries as to whether cotton destined for Germany can be shipped to Norway. 390
[Page XC] Undated [Rec’d Oct. 17] From the Minister in Sweden (telegram). Sweden Will not prevent passage through country of cotton shipped to Germany, but will not allow export to Germany of direct shipments from United States to Swedish ports. 390
Oct. 19 From the Minister in Denmark (telegram). Danish have no objection to exportation through Denmark to Germany of cotton from United States if on through bill of lading. 390
Oct. 20 From the Minister in Norway (telegram). Norwegian authorities do not object to cotton being shipped to Norway destined for Germany. 391
44 Oct. 21 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Netherland Consul General states that consent of Netherland Government for shipments of goods must be obtained at The Hague, Obtain consent of the Government for such shipments. 391
51 Oct. 22 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Permits for consignments of goods granted directly by Netherland Government to Holland-America Line. 391
47 Oct. 24 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Meat packers have regular trade in Holland. Requests reason why prepared meat products are not on list of goods that may be assigned to Netherland Government. 392
634 Oct. 26 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Netherland Government has placed embargo on exportation of cotton; however shipments in transit to Germany are permitted. Denmark has no prohibition against such, exportation, so far as Germany knows. 392
48 Oct. 26 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Instructions to obtain information as to procedure to be followed by shippers to get permission of Netherland Government to consign goods to it. 393
54 Oct. 27 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Meat products not among prohibited exports because plentiful in Netherlands. Other articles added to prohibited list. 393
55 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Permission to consign goods to Netherland Government obtained from Mr. Bock of Department of Commerce at The Hague. 393
Nov. 1 From the Minister in Switzerland (telegram). Switzerland receives large quantities of goods from United States through Italy. This made difficult by Great Britain at present. Requests that instruction be given American Ambassador to Italy to try to facilitate this trade. 393
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 17] From the Minister in Sweden (telegram). Sweden Will not prevent passage through country of cotton shipped to Germany, but will not allow export to Germany of direct shipments from United States to Swedish ports. 390
Oct. 19 From the Minister in Denmark (telegram). Danish have no objection to exportation through Denmark to Germany of cotton from United States if on through bill of lading. 390
Oct. 20 From the Minister in Norway (telegram). Norwegian authorities do not object to cotton being shipped to Norway destined for Germany. 391
44 Oct. 21 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Netherland Consul General states that consent of Netherland Government for shipments of goods must be obtained at The Hague, Obtain consent of the Government for such shipments. 391
51 Oct. 22 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Permits for consignments of goods granted directly by Netherland Government to Holland-America Line. 391
47 Oct. 24 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Meat packers have regular trade in Holland. Requests reason why prepared meat products are not on list of goods that may be assigned to Netherland Government. 392
634 Oct. 26 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Netherland Government has placed embargo on exportation of cotton; however shipments in transit to Germany are permitted. Denmark has no prohibition against such, exportation, so far as Germanv knows. 392
48 Oct. 26 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Instructions to obtain information as to procedure to be followed by shippers to get permission of Netherland Government to consign goods to it. 393
54 Oct. 27 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Meat products not among prohibited exports because plentiful in Netherlands. Other articles added to prohibited list. 393
55 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Permission to consign goods to Netherland Government obtained from Mr. Bock of Department of Commerce at The Hague. 393
Nov. 1 From the Minister in Switzerland (telegram). Switzerland receives large quantities of goods from United States through Italy. This made difficult by Great Britain at present. Requests that instruction be given American Ambassador to Italy to try to facilitate this trade. 393
[Page XCI]54 Oct. 31 [Rec’d Nov. 2] From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Foreign Office does not prohibit goods from being shipped through the Kingdom from one foreign country to another, provided it is not placed in warehouses. In latter case agreement must be reached with customs authorities. 394
455 Nov. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to ascertain attitude of British Government concerning shipments of goods through Italy to Switzerland. 394
1005 Nov. 6 [Rec’d Nov. 7] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey negotiating agreement with neutral countries bordering on Germany and Austria for the regulation of neutral commerce with object of preventing contraband from reaching enemy and of giving least possible trouble to neutral trade. 395
516 Nov. 12 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Has not intended to authorize Ambassador to negotiate with other neutral ministers for agreements, as to shipping. Conversations relating to free movement of American commerce to neutral countries being conducted in Washington. 395
1057 Nov. 13 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Has not negotiated with other neutral ministers for agreements as to shipping. Encourages neutral ministers to tell of their negotiations with British Government only to keep informed. 396
558 Nov. 17 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Explanation regarding conferences with other neutral ministers satisfactory. 396
52 Nov. 9 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Confusion regarding attitude of Netherlands towards shipments of goods on reexportation of which that Government has placed embargo. Instruction to send definite information after presenting matter to Netherland Government. 396
71 Nov. 10 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Transmits information regarding clear and consistent attitude of Netherland Government towards shipping. 397
58 Nov. 17 To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Minister in Sweden and the Ambassador in Italy. Instructions to obtain a favorable statement on two points: consignment of cotton for German ports via Netherlands, and shipments of cotton consigned to Netherland concerns for reexportation to Germany. 398
[Page XCII]78 Nov. 19 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Netherland Foreign Office states that there is no objection to consignments of cotton in transit to Germany or to transshipments if consigned to Netherland firms. 398
2 Nov. 23 From the Minister in Sweden (telegram). Upon assurances that Great Brittain will not interfere with cotton, Swedish Foreign Office will permit cotton consignments to pass through Sweden for Germany, or reexportation to Germany of cotton consigned to Sweden. 398
81 Nov. 24 From the Secretary of the Legation in the Netherlands (telegram). Netherland Government, reserving right to import and distribute flour, will buy from United States. 399
Nov. 30 From the Consul General at Genoa (telegram). Goods entering Italy marked “to order” are considered for Italy and not for reshipment. Many bales of raw cotton are tied up in Genoa. Government urged not to hold goods shipped before decree was published. Otherwise American shippers suffer great losses. 399
98 Dec. 4 To the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Cotton non-contraband. Shipments made before publication of decree and tied up in Genoa should be allowed reshipment. Italian Government asked to give favorable consideration. 399
687 Dec. 5 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Difficulties have arisen regarding shipments of cotton to Switzerland through Italy. Swiss Government requests British to adjust matter. 400
98 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 6] From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Grey informed Swiss Minister in London that instructions will be given immediately to allow cotton to be exported to Switzerland and other neutrals without interdicting its reexportation. 400
594 Nov. 24 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Forwards copies of lists of articles, the exportation of which is prohibited by Norway, Sweden, and Denmark under agreement with Great Britain. 400
1220 Dec. 8 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Re cotton held in Italian ports consigned to shipper or to order and destined for Switzerland. 401
813 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Dec. 28] From the Minister in Denmark. Re procuring release of cotton on steamers Hellig Olav, Van Leer , and Frederick held up by Danish Government. Owing to scarcity of cotton in Denmark, certain shipments detained. Cargoes on Frederick and Triton released, to be reexported to Germany. 401
[Page XCIII]1035 Dec. 8 [Rec’d Dec. 9] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German and Austrian buyers anxious for cotton, but want assurance of American Government that it will not be subject to capture en route. 402
737 Dec. 11 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Arrangements for Denmark to adopt same system of trade as used in Holland. 402
110 Dec. 12 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). No difficulty now in shipping cotton through Italy to named final destination. Shipments destined for Switzerland released. Complaint still regarding censorship commercial cable. 403
825 Dec. 15 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Every encouragement given cotton shippers. Cargoes going through to Germany and transshipments through neutral ports. Mines in North Sea only difficulty. 403
1308 Dec. 21 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Would U. S. merchants agree to export only what is needed for consumption in each country? Would United States object to appointment of a trustee to whom goods could be shipped? 404
1319 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 23] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Grey denies that American cotton is stopped while Egyptian cotton is allowed to proceed. 404
830 Dec. 24 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Restriction of trade to home consumption not practicable nor fair to American commerce. 405
141 Dec. 30 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Cotton can be shipped freely; no embargo on reexportation. 406

Embargoes by Germany

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 20 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Re possible stock of dyestuffs, etc., available for United States; also possibility of traffic on Rhine. Requests information. 406
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Memorandum for the President by Representative Herman A. Metz. Seventy-five per cent of dyestuffs used in the whole world are manufactured in Germany. United States is dependent upon German dyestuffs. Not practical to attempt manufacture in this country. Suggests arranging for shipments of dye-stuffs to United States through American consuls in Germany. 406
Aug. 17 [Rec’d Aug. 21] From the Silk Dyers’ Mutual Protective Association of America. Number of persons dependent upon dyeing of material greater than in any other one industry. Appeal for assistance in arranging for shipments of dyestuffs from Germany. 408
[Page XCIV]23 Sept. 4 [Rec’d Sept. 5] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Large quantities of dyestuffs, etc., ready for shipment from Rotterdam under Dutch flag. 409
Sept. 15 From the Consul General at Berlin (telegram). Report on minerals and dyestuffs, and their exportation; and on the most available and cheapest routes from Berlin and surrounding country. 409
186 Sept. 17 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Unless cyanide can be obtained, mining companies will be forced to shut down. Requests lifting of embargo on shipment to United States, if one exists. 410
227 Sept. 19 [Rec’d Sept. 20] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Cyanide may be exported to United States and Mexico, provided none is reexported. 410
271 Sept. 22 [Rec’d Sept. 23] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Later decision that cyanide and dyestuffs can be shipped only in United States vessels, to prevent seizure by England. 410
33 Sept. 25 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Rumored that England has threatened to declare war on Holland if Dutch ships carry goods beneficial to Germany. Suggests that American ships come direct to Rotterdam. 411
265 Sept. 26 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Asks if potash is in same category with cyanide. Conference called to arrange sending of American ship to Rotterdam. 411
316 Sept. 25 [Rec’d Sept. 26] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Foreign Office declared ready to allow shipments to United States on Dutch, American, or Italian vessels for distribution in United States and Mexico only. If any shipments are seized, vigorous protests must be made. 412
288 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Divergence of views concerning exports. Fear that goods may be taken by England, or re-shipped. Meantime American ships could be used. 412
319 Sept. 26 [Rec’d Sept. 27] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Suggests that, to satisfy Germany, Department obtain assurances from England and France that non-contraband goods consigned to America will not be interfered with. Department of Commerce and Labor to see that goods are used only in United States. 413
413 Oct. 5 [Rec’d Oct. 6] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Real reason for prohibition on dyestuffs, etc., to force United States to send shipments of cotton and other goods needed in Germany. Congress could authorize manufacture dyestuffs, etc., under patents. There is a German mining-cyanide factory at Perth Amboy. 413
[Page XCV]345 Oct. 7 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). American vessel, Matanzas, under ballast to arrive at Rotterdam for cargo destined for New York; guaranteed for home consumption. 414
377 Oct. 10 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Steamer Matanzas chartered by private interests. Plans now on foot to send outgoing cargoes. 414
378 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Matanzas sailed before recommendations as to raw cotton were received. All other boats sent for dyestuffs, etc., will carry cotton. 415
399 Oct. 12 _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Steamer Nieuw Amsterdam carrying coal-tar dyes from Switzerland to America is held up by German Government. Ryndam also detained. Suggests that these cargoes be transferred to the Matanzas. 415
505 Oct. 14 [Rec’d Oct. 15] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government must have guarantee that goods shipped on Matanzas will not be reexported. 416
448 Oct. 19 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). This Government can not make guarantee demanded. Foreign Trade Adviser arranging for shipment of cotton to Germany, in conjunction with German Embassy. 416
683 Oct. 31 [Rec’d Nov. 1] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government satisfied about arrangements to ship dyestuffs, etc. 416
950 Nov. 29 [Rec’d Nov. 30] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Rumors that German Government, displeased by sale of American war materials to England and France, may place difficulties in way of exportation of dyestuffs. 417
1036 Dec. 8 [Rec’d Dec. 9] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Shipment on Matanzas of full cargo of dyestuffs. Release will be made of amount of dyes damaged on Sun as soon as this amount is established. 417
Dec. 24 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Half-month dyestuff supply released for shipment on Berwind. 417

Embargoes by the Allied States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Oct. 2 From Representative Julius Kahn to the Office of Foreign Trade Advisers. States that Australia has placed embargo on shipments of meat to this country. This works hardship on Pacific Coast, and on Army and Navy. 418
268 Oct. 6 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Encloses copy of telegram to American Consul General, Sydney, asking if embargo can be lifted so far as United States is concerned. 418
[Page XCVI]887 Oct. 23 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). United States Steel Products Co. urges Embassy to have British Government raise embargo on shipments of manganese ore from India to United States; also for release of two steamers of ore held in Bombay. 418
407 Oct. 27 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Permission given to assist United States Steel Products Co. in effort to lift embargo on ore. 419
Oct. 29 From the Secretary of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers. Embargo has been placed on wool from Australia. Australia principal source of our supply. Urges Department to take steps to remove embargo. 419
Oct. 30 From the Acting Secretary of Commerce. Encloses letter from the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. stating that the British Government has placed an embargo on crude rubber coming from the Far East to any American port; it can only be shipped through British ports. Urges that everything possible be done to lift embargo. 420
439 Oct. 31 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Carnegie Steel Co. wishes embargo lifted on manganese ore from India. 420
220 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Harbison Walker Refractories Co. requests permission for exportation of chrome ore from New Caledonia. Natural Products Refining Co. and E. J. Labino & Co. make same request. Instruction to ascertain views of Foreign Office. 421
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 2] From the Consul General at Sydney, Australia (telegram). Minister is being urged to modify restrictions on exports to United States. 421
966 Nov. 2 [Rec’d Nov. 3] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Re S. S. Kassala and Waddon . Special licenses will be issued by Government of India for export of ore, if United States will give assurances that it will be used at home. 421
454 Nov. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). American interests desire lifting of embargo on wool and rubber. 422
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Consul General at Sydney, Australia (telegram). Instructions to inquire whether shipments of wool might be allowed to United States with guarantee against reexport. 422
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Consul General at Singapore (telegram). Inquire as to grounds of embargo on rubber and whether shipments would be allowed to United States with guarantee against reexport. 422
[Page XCVII] Nov. 6 From the Consul General at London (telegram). Exports of wool permitted only when shown that such wool is for manufacture of goods for Allied Governments. 423
1006 Nov. 6 [Rec’d Nov. 7] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Reasons for imposing embargo to insure abundant supply for Great Britain and Allies, and to prevent war material from reaching enemy through neutral countries. Neutrals must give guarantee that such goods will not be reexported. 423
513 Nov. 11 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Rosenthal Brothers of Columbus purchased wool skins prior to embargo. English and O’Brien of Boston purchased 600 bales of wool prior to embargo. Both give assurance of home use. Instruction to ask if goods can be shipped. 423
518 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Wool urgently needed by United States. If it can not be obtained, prices of American Woolen goods, which British may desire, will be excessively high. Instructions to press for definite statement regarding supply of wool. 424
526 Nov. 12 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ It seems not to the interests of British to cripple American manufacturers and depress British interests in colonies. Hopes that permits will be allowed for excess over needs of Great Britain. 425
277 Nov. 14 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). As chrome ore in New Caledonia is for use of Army and Navy, it can not be exported to United States. 425
1078 Nov. 17 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Arrangement being drawn up by which rubber, hides, ore, and wool can be sent to United States upon satisfactory guarantee against reexportation. 425
1079 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Grey states all meat, wool, and skins are required by British on account of war; preembargo contracts can not be filled. 426
1092 Nov. 19 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ British Government regrets that it can not raise embargo on meats from Australia. 426
303 Nov. 25 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Natural Products Refining Co. needs 2,000 tons chrome ore; quantity so small, it can not affect supply for Army or Navy. 427
[Page XCVIII]640 Nov. 28 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Plumbago supply in Ceylon greater than English demand. Inquire attitude of British Government concerning shipments to America. 427
660 Dec. 2 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Request for lifting of embargo to be repeated. 427
681 Dec. 4 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Authorities in Ceylon willing to release plumbago under proper guaranty. Ascertain whether bond filed with British Embassy here against exportation from United States will be acceptable. 428
349 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Secretary of the Embassy in France (telegram). French Government may grant request to ship chrome ore if assurance is given for home consumption only. 428
1201 Undated [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Re telegrams regarding “working arrangement,” embargoes, and interference with ships and cargoes. 428
360 Dec. 9 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). American importers will give any bond required to secure chrome ore. 429
1259 Dec. 14 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey states that certain companies have sold their supply of manganese to the German Government. Their shortage will not be supplied by Great Britain. 429
806 Dec. 22 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Permission asked for Aryan to sail with wool; both wool and ship owned by American citizens; reasonable assurances against reexportation will be given. 429
815 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Hides from Melbourne guaranteed against reexportation; instructions to secure export. 430
819 Dec. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Hopes that British Government will modify existing embargo to permit shipments of crude rubber from British colonies. Form of guaranty given. American-owned rubber now held in London and Liverpool. 430
1325 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). No wool allowed to be exported from Great Britain or colonies. 430
1326 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Re hides from Melbourne. British Government awaits our answer to proposed arrangement. 431
403 Dec. 24 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French Government authorizes export of chrome ore from New Caledonia under certain conditions. 431
1351 Dec. 28 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). No hope that Great Britain will grant requests until answer received to the proposed working arrangement. 431
[Page XCIX]

Projects of Cooperation with Other American States For The Protection Of Neutral Trade

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
490 Nov. 8 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Argentina is desirous of knowing course pursued by United States regarding detained cargoes. Instructions to confer unofficially with Argentine Minister at London. 432
Nov. 9 To the Argentine Minister. Statement of policy pursued by Government regarding detentions by British of vessels carrying alleged contraband. 432
Nov. 9 [Rec’d Nov. 10] From the Argentine Minister. The attitude of Argentina identical with that of the United States. Proposal to adopt uniform interpretations and methods of procedure. 433
Nov. 10 From the Minister in Peru (telegram). Memorandum deploring interruption of commerce between peaceful nations and proposing joint action to guarantee inviolability of trade routes. Sent also by Peru to Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. 434
Nov. 13 To the Argentine Minister. Attitude of two Governments is identical but interests in same vessels may not be identical; therefore can not make joint representations to British Government in particular cases. Government of United States will cooperate with Argentina in these matters. 435
Nov. 13 [Rec’d Nov. 17] From the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Chilean Minister at Washington (telegram). Chancellor Müller has requested of British Minister the establishment of a neutral zone from American coast to Cape Verde to safeguard American commerce. Chilean Government has already been seeking means to diminish disturbances; under existing regulations, belligerent vessels can be supplied with coal from American ports. Proposes adoption of new rules by American countries whereby this would be impossible and which would incidentally clear American waters of belligerent ships. 435
Nov. 18 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Argentina (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs considers it important that Argentine Minister’s suggestion concerning mediation of Pan American Union re neutral shipping in South American waters be adopted. 437
[Page C]371 Nov. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 18] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Argentina. To prevent the suspension of navigation in South Atlantic it is proposed that Pan American Union effect the closing of these waters to naval warfare, arranging with belligerents for protection of neutral shipping. 438
Nov. 18 To the Argentine Legation. Memorandum giving a detailed account of detentions and seizures of American vessels by British, of the protests raised, and of the claims presented. 438
100 Nov. 10 [Rec’d Nov. 28] From the Minister in Peru. Encloses note of November 6 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs transmitting a memorandum protesting against intolerable conditions caused by the war and proposing that all American countries unite in effort to limit the war area and to free neutral waters of belligerents. Copy of the memorandum has been sent to Argentine, Brazilian, and Chilean Republics for cooperation. 441
Nov. 30 [Rec’d Dec. 3] From the Peruvian Minister. Encloses memorandum from the Foreign Office, which is to be laid before the Pan American Union, suggesting that action be taken to safeguard the interests of neutrals of America. 443
Dec. 8 Resolution of the Governing Board of the Pan American Union. Magnitude of European war redounds to injury of neutrals. Rights of belligerents and neutrals not clearly defined. Special commission to be appointed to study problem; plans being submitted by each government. 444
Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 14] From the Peruvian Minister. Memorandum of November 17 prepared by the Peruvian Government in reference to the protection of the foreign commerce of the neutral countries of America from damages caused by the war. 444
300 Dec. 14 [Rec’d Dec. 16] From the Venezuelan Minister. European conflict affects interests of all nations. Task of defining neutral rights should be entrusted to a congress of neutrals. United States, on account of her exceptional relations with other nations, should take initiative in calling the meeting. Memorandum regarding rights of neutrals transmitted from the Venezuelan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 447
[Page CI]40 Dec. 18 To the Minister in Peru. Acknowledges receipt of correspondence and memorandum re urgency Of agreement amongst neutrals tending to reduce injury to commerce in the war. 450
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Peruvian Minister. Acknowledges receipt of correspondence and memorandum on subject of injury to neutral commerce in the war. 450
Dec. 22 To the Chilean Ambassador. Acknowledges receipt of communication re establishment of neutral zone in Atlantic from American coast to meridian of Cape Verde. Pan-American Neutrality Commission will consider the suggestion. 451
Dec. 29 To the Peruvian Minister. Acknowledges receipt of note transmitting copy of memorandum of Foreign Office. 451
380 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Jan. 7, 1915] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Argentina. Government officials jubilant over fact that Pan American Union accepts suggestion of Naón. Business men anticipate no more trouble, as German ships in South Atlantic have been destroyed. 452
5 Jan. 13, 1915 To the Venezuelan Minister. Acknowledges receipt of note enclosing memorandum suggesting a congress of neutrals. It will receive the consideration of the Government. 452

Mine Laying and the Establishment of Maritime Danger Zones

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 1 From the Netherland Chargé d’Affaires. North Sea and certain passes have been obstructed with submarine mines. 453
Aug. 6 [Rec’d Aug. 8] From the Danish Minister. Notification that waters around Denmark have been mined. 453
Aug. 7 [Rec’d Aug. 9] From the Swedish Minister. Notification that mines have been planted in Swedish territorial waters. Navigators notified not to visit Sweden without pilot. 454
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Foreign Office announces that German ports are strewn with mines. [The exact terms of this note, not received until 1920, state that ports of departure of fleets hostile to Germany have been mined.] 454
Aug. 10 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Has received information that belligerent powers are scattering contact mines in Channel. Inquire whether there is any foundation for this statement. 454
[Page CII]333 Aug. 11 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Admiralty gives assurance that mines will not be laid in navigable waters except at entrance to ports to be defended. German mine-laying ship, destroyed by Amphion, was laying a line of contact mines to extend across North Sea. 455
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the British Chargé d’Affaires. Communicates telegram from Foreign Office warning shippers that Germans are scattering mines indiscriminately about the North Sea. 455
Aug. 13 To the British Chargé d’Affaires. States that if Germans are scattering mines indiscriminately in the North Sea, as reported, he hopes that England will not retaliate in like manner. Is loath to believe that a signatory of the Hague convention will disregard its treaty obligation in such manner. 455
Aug. 12 [Rec’d Aug. 14] From the Danish Minister. Notification that Danish waters have been more extensively mined. 456
Aug. 14 [Rec’d Aug. 15] From the British Embassy. Encloses telegram from British Government stating that British will endeavor to keep a channel open for trade subject to naval exigencies. 457
Aug. 19 [Rec’d Aug. 20] From the British Chargé d’Affairs. Grey’s reply to protest of United States against indiscriminate mine laying: Not breach of Hague convention. Unless England adopts the methods of Germany, British commerce will be impeded while Germany receives immunity. 457
Aug. 20 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey seemed puzzled and surprised at our wish to exact from him a pledge which would give Germans license to use mines and bind English not to use them. 458
Aug. 23 [Rec’d Aug. 24] From the British Ambassador. Telegram from Foreign Office stages Admiralty has not yet laid any mines but is endeavoring to keep sea routes open for peaceful commerce. S. S. Maryland and Broberg have been destroyed in North Sea by mines scattered by Germans. These contact mines do not become harmless after a certain number of hours. 458
Aug. 30 [Rec’d Aug. 31] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Communicates telegram from Grey: Iceland trawler struck by mine 25 miles off the Tyne. Numbers of German trawlers appear to have been engaged in laying these mines. 459
[Page CIII] Sept. 10 [Rec’d Sept. 12] From the German Ambassador. No blockade of German ports. Assertions that North Sea is infested with German mines incorrect. Directions given for safe route; pilots supplied for certain ports. 459
Oct. 2 [Rec’d Oct. 3] From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington (telegram). German mine laying and submarine activity forces England to adopt countermeasures. Mine laying has been ordered in certain specified areas, and shipping warned. 460
476 Sept. 28 [Rec’d Oct. 12] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Encloses protest of September 26 of the British Government against methods of German Navy in laying mines in North Sea. 460
704 Oct. 9 [Rec’d Oct. 20] From the Ambassador in France. Encloses note of October 6 from Minister of Foreign Affairs with notification published in the Journal officiel that, automatic mines having been laid by Austria—Hungary in the Adriatic, France is obliged to take similar measures. Danger zone is explicitly pointed out for benefit of neutral shipping. 462
Oct. 28 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Announcement that mine field has been discovered off north coast of Ireland. Shipping warned. British ship bound for Montreal sunk; also Dutch ship. 463
961 Nov. 2 [Rec’d Nov. 3] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Germans laid mine fields north of Ireland from ships flying neutral flags, directly in path of transatlantic liners. 463
375 Nov. 3 [Rec’d Nov. 4] From the British Ambassador. Communicates recommendation of Grey that certain routes be followed for ships trading with Norway, Denmark, and Holland. North Sea must be considered a military area Shipping should take English Channel according to explicit directions laid down. 463
Nov. 4 [Rec’d Nov. 5] From the Minister in Norway (telegram). Norwegian-American Line can not take English Channel, owing to low water. Norwegian Government has requested British to change route. 464
Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in Russia (telegram). Russian Government has notified Embassy of closing of ports and waters around Russia by placing of mines. 465
Nov. 6 From the Minister in Sweden (telegram). Swedish Government protests against closing of North Sea. 465
[Page CIV] Nov. 6 From the Minister in Norway (telegram). Norwegian Government protests against closing of North Sea. Norway depends upon trade with United States. Requests United States to protest. 465
Nov. 9 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ British Government has consented to allow steamers of Norwegian-American Line to take northern route. 466
1 Nov. 10 To the Minister in Norway (telegram). United States will not protest to Great Britain against closing of North Sea. 466
30 Nov. 10 [Rec’d Nov. 25] From the Minister in Sweden. Encloses circular issued by Swedish insurance war-risk insurance commissioners, permitting insured vessels to take either route. 466
628 Nov. 27 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to report whether British Government has mined River Tyne and Firth of Forth. 467
261 Nov. 13 [Rec’d Nov. 30] From the Ambassador in Germany. Transmits, copy of German reply of November 7 to protest of the British against laying of mines. Germany denies violation of Hague conventions. German mines laid by German warships. Neutral trade routes not blockaded. Counter-protests against blockading of North Sea to neutral trade by British. 467
667 Dec. 2 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). War Risk Bureau anxious for reply. Steamers delayed, awaiting information as to whether River Tyne and Firth of Forth have been mined. 469
1194 Dec. 4 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits British instructions of November 21 regarding safe trade routes and the supplying of pilots in English waters. 469
271 Nov. 17 [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Ambassador in Germany. Transmits communication of November 14 from the Foreign Office relative to regulations for navigation in the German bay of the North Sea. 469
Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 21] From the Consul General at London. Transmits Admiralty circular of November 30 regarding navigation on the North Sea and English Channel, with instructions concerning mines, general and particular passages, pilots, blockaded ports, etc. 470
Undated [Rec’d Jan. 15, 1915] From the Swedish Minister. Swedish Government has issued a proclamation refusing to recognize the right of belligerents to restrict navigation of neutrals on high seas by mining commercial routes, and by compelling them to call at certain ports. Notes sent to England, France, Russia, and Germany. 472
[Page CV] Jan. 22, 1915 To the Swedish Minister. United States awaits text of Swedish proclamation; will give matter earnest consideration. 473

The Transfer of Merchant Ships from Belligerent Flags to the American Flag for the Repatriation of Americans Abroad

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 1 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Thousands of Americans unable to secure passage home. Suggests that foreign-built ships owned by Americans be allowed to fly American flag to transport these citizens to United States. 474
Aug. _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits statement from Judge Gary: 30,000 Americans desirous of returning home. Lack of food, etc., make it imperative that they leave. American Government urged to secure facilities for immediate transportation. 474
283 Aug. 6 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits resolutions from the American relief committee requesting European Governments to refrain from interference with vessels transporting American citizens to United States. 475
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to ascertain if British Government is willing to agree not to molest vessels bringing American citizens home. 475
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in France (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Minister in Belgium. Instructions to ascertain if French Government will agree not to molest vessels bringing American citizens home. 475
296 Aug. 7 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits telegram from G. H. Adhere asking that Embassy be authorized to pass S. S. Viking under United States flag to carry 400 Americans to New York. Requests explicit instructions. 476
Aug. 10 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Under United States law Viking can not be registered as American ship. Department considering asking belligerent governments to permit unmolested voyage for Americans returning home. 476
[Page CVI] Undated [Rec’d Aug. 10] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Belgian Government sees no occasion for making agreement with other powers to refrain from interference with Americans returning home. This covered in Hague convention. 476
Aug. 9 [Rec’d Aug. 10] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Government agrees to exemption from military law of vessels conveying Americans home, provided other belligerents also exempt than. 477
Aug. 10 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Government will not interfere with neutral vessels chartered by citizens’ committee. 477
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 13] From the Consul General at Genoa (telegram). German liners Moltke and König Albert in Italian port. Suggests Department arrange with England for them to carry stranded Americans home. 477
Aug. 14 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis nudandis Ambassador in France. Instructions to ascertain if Americans stranded in Genoa can be transported home on Moltke and König Albert unmolested. 477
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 13] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government agrees to refrain from interfering with American transports on condition that other belligerents do likewise. 478
Aug. 15 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram).
The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in France.
Department considering chartering German vessels now in American ports for transporting stranded Americans home. Instructions to ascertain if British are Willing to extend every facility to such ships. 478
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassadors in Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the Minister in Belgium (telegram). United States regards vessels chartered for the purpose of returning stranded Americans home as neutralized under the Hague convention. Instructions to ask Government for declaration to this effect. 479
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Hamburg-American Line and German Government have agreed that vessel in New York port may sail around north of Scotland for Germany to take Americans home. Department requested to secure consent of other belligerent powers. 479
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to ascertain if German Government is willing that other German vessels transport Americans from other European ports. 480
[Page CVII] Aug. 15 To the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Instructions to ascertain if German ships, chartered for the sole purpose of transporting Americans to the United States, may enter Italian ports for this purpose. 480
Aug. 16 [Rec’d Aug. 17] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French suspicious of German ships and prefer to wait until England takes the lead regarding repatriation of Americans. 481
Aug. 17 [Rec’d Aug. 18] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Re neutralization of German vessels in New York Harbor, France would oppose it. In Declaration of London Germany refused to accept the principle. 481
404 Aug. 18 [Rec’d Aug. 19] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Declaration of London forbids sale of belligerent ship in neutral port for use under neutral flag. Grey saw no objection to the trip to repatriate Americans, provided ships were manned by American officers and returned to former place and condition. 481
Aug. 20 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in Germany and Austria-Hungary. British see no objections to German vessels in American ports being used to bring back stranded Americans. Instructions to ask if French are willing to agree with British view. 482
Aug. 20 [Rec’d Aug. 21] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French Government objects to using German ships to repatriate American citizens; does not interpret “philanthropic mission” according to Hague convention to include such an act. French, English, or any neutral ships suggested instead. French Government offers to transport Americans. 482
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 22] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ French do not approve of using German ships to transport Americans. Advice to Department to avoid use of German ships if possible. 483
Aug. 24 [Rec’d Aug. 25] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government will recognize as neutralized the ships chartered to repatriate Americans, provided other belligerents do the same, and provided ships return to same status. 484
Aug. 25 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Department considering chartering of German ships for return of stranded Americans. 484
[Page CVIII]503 Aug. 28 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Government will consent to use of German ships for repatriation of Americans, provided these ships carry no cargo from Italy and that they be interned for the remainder of the war. 484

The Transfer of Merchant Ships from Belligerent Flags to the American Flag for General Commercial Purposes

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 4 From the French Chargé d’Affaires (telegram). French Government refuses to recognize the legality of a bill pending before Congress to Facilitate the acquisition by American nationals of foreign-owned vessels. 485
Aug. 7 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Placing of American-owned but foreign-built vessels under American flag regarded in France as likely to assist Germany. 485
Aug. 8 To the Ambassador in France. The bill before Congress does not cover the subject of transfer of ships of belligerents to citizens of United States. This will be governed by principles of international law. 485
Aug. 18. From William H. Libby. The transfer of an enemy merchant vessel to a neutral flag in time of war is valid, provided that the sale is made in good faith. Assent of belligerents desired to exemption from seizure of vessels transferred to American flag which were actually owned in this country before the war. Entire capital stock of the D. A. P. G. owned by Standard Oil Company. 486
Aug. 28 To William H. Libby. Re transfer of American-owned ships to the American flag. 488
Aug. 20 [Rec’d Aug. 22] From the French Chargé d’Affaires. Government informed that Austro-Hungarian shipowners are trying to get certificates of Federal nationality for vessels sold to American citizens. Such flag transfers could not be recognized by French Government. 489
Sept. 2 To the French Ambassador. Acknowledges letter of August 20, 1914, re certificates of ownership of American vessels. 489
442 Aug. 21 [Rec’d Aug. 22] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey has discussed question of purchase of German ships in American ports. Money paid for them would aid Germans in building new ships. If purchased and set afloat they might lend aid to Germany. 489
[Page CIX] Sept. 3 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the French Ambassador. Purchase of German ships by United States during war contrary to Declaration of London. Command of sea has enabled English and French to make these vessels worse than useless to Germany. This disadvantage United States would turn to advantage and profit for Germany. 490
12 Sept. 11 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Re American purchase of German ships. Russians believe Americans have pro-German sympathies. 492
Sept. 14 To the Ambassador in Brazil (telegram). Steamer Robert Dollar given provisional certificate of registration as American vessel, by American Consul General at Rio de Janeiro. Reported that vessel denied clearance by Brazilian authorities. Instructions to investigate and request release. 492
Sept. 16 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Action of Brazilian authorities sets aside that of American authorities and assumes position of a belligerent captor toward steamer Robert Dollar . 493
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 22] From the Consul General at Rio de Janeiro. (telegram). British Legation awaiting instructions from London before closing register of steamer Robert Dollar . 494
Sept. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Provisional register delivered to steamer Robert Dollar , and order to sail given. 494
Sept. 26 [Rec’d Sept. 28] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. British Consuls instructed not to raise difficulties in case of transfer of ships to American flag if already owned by Americans. Understanding is that ships will not trade with Germany. 494
Oct. 2 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the British Ambassador. Re transfer to American flag of vessels already owned by Americans. Objections taken to instructions not to trade with Germany. This an interference with legitimate rights of neutrals. 495
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the French Ambassador. Acknowledges note of protest against purchase by United States of German ships. 495
Oct. 5 To the Ambassador in Great Britian (telegram). Instructions to direct attention of proper authorities to subject of release of Robert Dollar , as suggested by British Ambassador at Washington in message to his Government. 496
[Page CX] Oct. 6 [Rec’d Oct. 7] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Expression “instructions not to trade with Germany” misconstrued; explanations given. 496
461 Sept. 23 Oct. 13] From the Ambassador in Brazil. Delay in sailing of steamer Robert Dollar due to misunderstanding of instructions caused by delayed telegram. Full explanation given. 497
Oct. 17 [Rec’d Oct. 19] From the British Ambassador. Memorandum concerning German oil steamships Chatham and Standard sold to Standard Oil Company. British Government entitled to seize these ships. 499
Oct. 22 To the British Ambassador. Memorandum re Chatham and Standard. These ships owned and controlled by American capital, a question of change of registry, not of ownership. 499
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the French Ambassador. French Government protests against transfer of German ships Chatham and Standard to American flag as being contrary to Declaration of London. 500
362 Oct. 24 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the British Ambassador. Encloses letter of October 10 from British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the American Ambassador, placing blame for detention of Robert Dollar upon Brazilian authorities. 501
Nov. 7 To the French Ambassador. Acknowledges receipt of note relative to transfer to American registry of German vessels Standard and Chatham. 501
1000 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Employment of British vessels transferred to American registry in trade between Germany and America not valid per se, but Government ready to waive invalidity, of such change in case of trade exclusively between Germany and United States. 502

Censorship of the Cables by Belligerent Governments

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 5 From the Consul at St. Pierre (telegram). Requests authorization to protest Western Union telegraph cables as neutral property. 503
Aug. 11 To the Consul at St Pierre (telegram). Submarine telegraphic cables outside territorial waters of neutrals may be cut by belligerents. 503
Aug. 5 From the Kirby Lumber Company (telegram). Re code telegraph messages between the United States and Porto Rico. 503
[Page CXI] Aug. 7 To the Kirby Lumber Company. Re code telegraph messages between the United States and Porto Rico. 503
Aug. 11 From the Western Union Telegraph Company. Department asked to request of British Government a more reasonable attitude with respect to censorship of cable messages. Unnecessary requirements cause double the work at a time when the demands upon cables exceed their capacity. 504
Sept. 1 To the Kirby Lumber Company. Code and other telegraph messages accepted for Porto Rico. 505
Aug. 15 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to request of British Government a more reasonable attitude with respect to censorship of cable messages. Capacity of company cut 50 per cent by unreasonable demands as to signatures and addresses, and cost to sender increased. 505
Aug. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Instructions to make representations to British Government looking to removal of embargo on repetition requests in international telegraph service. 506
493 Aug. 27 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Department asked to inform all foreign missions that British censorship regulations require all telegraph messages to go open unless sent by diplomatic missions to Government at Washington, which messages may be in code. 506
25 Sept. 2 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to bring to attention of Foreign Office the repeated request of Western Union Telegraph Company to still further modify censorship regulations With reference to code addresses and signatures. 507
558 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Difficulties in telegraphic service now adjusted. 507
419 Aug. 24 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Encloses note of August 23 from the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs stating that the Government is unable to modify censorship regulations of telegraph messages to the extent desired. 508
66 Sept. 5 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to ask if restrictions on cipher messages between business firms would be removed if copy of the code is deposited with British censor. 508
701 Sept. 19 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Foreign Office regrets delay of telegrams. Instructions given to interfere as little as possible with genuine business. 509
[Page CXII]210 Sept. 26 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Protests against hardships endured by many commercial houses on account of suppression of cable messages between the United States and neutral countries. 509
450 Sept. 16 [Rec’d Sept. 28] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. In a note of September 15, Foreign Office acknowledges appeal of Western Union Telegraph Company and promises to give it attention. 509
229 Oct. 1 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Are full address and signature still necessary on Department’s telegrams to London and beyond? 510
Oct. 2 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). No change in censorship regulations. 510
Oct. 5 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Grey and chief censor agree to avoid undue interference with telegrams between the United States and neutral countries. 511
269 Oct. 6 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Telegram from American Minister in Peking states that United States commander of China expedition reports that official telegrams are held up. Requests that orders be given Hongkong authorities to avoid repetition of this. 511
826 Undated [Rec’d Oct. 13] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Commercial telegrams passed unless delivery entails some transaction detrimental to Great Britain. To notify sender of non-delivery would be to defeat object of censorship. 511
313 Oct. 14 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to insist upon notification to sender of non-delivery of message. Failure to do this inflicts great hardship and unnecessary expense. 512
892 Oct. 23 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey states that code messages from Tilson and Rowell to Philippines detained at Hongkong. These took unusual route. British Government expresses regret and promises to facilitate transmissions of such messages. 512
405 Oct. 27 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Confirmation desired of advices that cable addresses and short signatures may be used 513
945 Oct. 30 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Foreign Office states that private individuals telegraphing to England are allowed to use registered cable addresses. Signatures may be abbreviated. 513
944 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Grey states that as a rule senders are not informed of stoppage of messages. Same rule applies to British and American senders. 513
[Page CXIII] Nov. 5 From the Minister in Switzerland (telegram). Director Swiss People’s Bank complains that all telegrams relating to money transfers and grain orders are stopped. 513
50 Nov. 6 To the Minister in Switzerland (telegram). Interference with cable messages should be taken up with belligerents. 514
Nov. 9 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Harry S. Cavanaugh, representing American Trade Agency, Rome, protests stoppage of cable communication with American firms. 514
81 Nov. 10 To the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Grey has promised to facilitate transmission of commercial messages sent in plain language and agrees that code addresses may be used where registered. 514
Nov. 11 From the Minister in Switzerland (telegram). Business telegrams between Switzerland and United States still held up. Banks find it impossible to transact financial and commercial business with United States. Joint representations to London and Paris proposed by Switzerland. 515
523 Nov. 12 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to present to Foreign Office protests of Danish firms conducting business with American houses, as English censorship of commercial cables is ruining business. 515
Nov. 12 [Rec’d Nov. 18] From the President of the Swiss Confederation to the Swiss Legation in Washington (telegram). Protests against suppression of telegrams. Proposal that United States and Switzerland take common steps in England and France to secure redress. 515
Nov. 20 To the Swiss Legation. Re censorship of commercial cable messages between United States and Switzerland. Department has instructed American Ambassadors in London and Paris to cooperate with Swiss Ministers in those capitals in every way possible. 516
582 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Daily increase in number of protests against British suppression of commercial telegrams, both in United States and neutral countries in Europe. Instructions to cooperate with Swiss Minister in protesting rigors of censorship. 516
286 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to cooperate with Swiss Minister in protesting rigors of censorship of commercial telegrams. 517
[Page CXIV]299 Nov. 22 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Reports that French Government authorizes telegrams in code over certain lines. Specific directions given. 517
1138 Nov. 25 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Joint protests to Grey regarding suppression of commercial telegrams between United States and Switzerland; also between United States and Denmark. Protests referred to Prime Minister. 518
Nov. 27 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Continued complaints that commercial telegrams to American companies are undelivered. Business much disturbed. 519
95 Dec. 2 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ British Ambassador in Italy states that his Government and French Government are taking up matter of censoring commercial telegrams. American cooperation requested. 519
664 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmission of telegram from Madrid Embassy, requesting relief from censorship interference with messages regarding importations of cotton to Spain. 519
1183 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey asks for special instances of difficulties in censorship of cable messages; assures us that messages are stopped only for good reasons. 520
678 Dec. 3 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Specific instances useless in settling general question of censorship of cables; however, protest; forwarded from Western Union stating that French had made arrangements for facilitating communications, and claiming that British seem to discriminate against American cables. Instructions to make further representations to Foreign Office. 520
679 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Galveston Cotton, Exchange claims interference of cables is hampering cotton trade. Instructions to bring this to attention of Foreign Office. 521
995 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Messages sent from neutral countries to New Orleans and Memphis concerning shipments of cotton not delivered. Government urged to take steps to secure unhampered transmission of messages. 521
688 Dec. 5 To, the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits a specific instance of cable interference for attention of British authorities: Undelivered messages to Galveston Cotton Exchange. 522
[Page CXV]356 Dec. 7 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to bring to atten of Foreign Office that commercial and official messages to Rome are intercepted by French. Italians make similar complaint. 522
Undated [Rec’d Dec. 7] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Certain telegrams have been stopped because thought to have concealed cipher messages. Discussion of subject promised. 522
Dec. 10 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Continued complaints received of delay in cable messages: One from Royal Servian Commission, regarding supplies from New York amounting to $5,000,000; another from American Vice Consul, Rome, about 10,000 tons wheat. 523
361 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to bring to attention of Foreign Office that telegrams to Italy via French cables have not been delivered. 523
Dec. 11 From the Chamber of Commerce of the United States. Re cable messages. In view of uncertainty of service, Department is requested to propose to British Government that sender be notified when message is stopped. 523
739 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Confusion and expense caused by interruption of cable service. Influence on financial conditions in cotton States disastrous. Asks permission to use cotton codes. 524
1245 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 12] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram) Has had a conference with Grey and the head censor, who deny alleged discrimination against America, and disclaim knowledge of interference with certain telegraph messages. Telegraphic route must be known before specific messages can be investigated. 525
114 Dec. l4 From the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Italy asks our, aid to obtain assurances from England that commercial telegraph messages to America will not be held up. 526
116 Dec. 15 To the Ambassador in Italy (telegram). Complaints received regarding delivery of telegraph messages; investigate. If Italian censors are detaining messages, protest to Foreign Office. 526
763 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Burdens of nations not at war growing greater. Aggrieved firms presenting their claims to members of Congress. Instructions to bring matter to attention of Foreign Office. 526
771 Dec. 16 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Quotes telegram from Threefoot Bros. & Co., of Meridian, Miss., regarding messages in advance of large shipments of cotton. 527
[Page CXVI] Dec. 17 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Government announces that cotton code may be used. 527
Dec. 17 [Rec’d Dec. 18] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Subject of censored telegrams taken up with Danish and Swiss ministers and Italian and Spanish Ambassadors. Censor refuses to notify sender of interrupted messages, saying it would defeat the object of censorship. 527
1291 Dec. 18 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits memorandum from the British Government showing regulations regarding the use of codes in foreign telegrams. 528
1309 Dec. 21 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Chief censor sending daily report of stopped telegrams. 529
804 Dec. 22 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Business firms in Manila suffering serious loss owing to delayed telegrams. Compañia General de Tobacos Filipinos desires to use code signature. 529
808 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Hopes there will be good results from discussion of censorship of telegraph messages. Suggests that British arrange with French for better facilities for cabled communications. 529
1318 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Messages from United States stopped because they said that a British ship had been sunk, which was untrue. 530
1330 Dec. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ British Government prefers that subject of delayed telegrams in France be taken up direct with French, and not through British authorities. 530
Dec. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 24] From the British Ambassador. Fifty thousand commercial telegrams pass through censor’s hands per day, a few of which are delayed or stopped. Reasons for stopping messages will be given. 530
1394 Jan. 4, 1915 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). With regard to request of Compañia General de Tabacos Filipinos for permission to use code signature in telegrams exchange with Barcelona, British Government can not grant request. 531

Censorship of the Mails by Belligerent Governments: Ordinary Mail

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 7 From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. No cabling nor direct mail shipping possible between United States on one side and Austria-Hungary and Germany on other. Request that postmaster address mail “via Rotterdam” and intrust to Dutch ships. 531
[Page CXVII] Aug. 10 To the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. Postmaster General informs Department that mail is dispatched by the steamship line which will most expeditiously deliver it at its destination. 532
Aug. 14 From the Postmaster General. Mail to foreign countries has been going forward by most expeditious steamers and routes available. Mail for Germany and Austria-Hungary going three or four times a week. No mail left on hand in New York. 532
162 Sept. 21 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to investigate report that mail on Noordam was seized or held up by British. 533
Sept. 25 To the British Ambassador. The same to the French Ambassador. American citizens claim letters to friends in Germany have not reached their destination. Request that some course be taken to prevent this delay or loss of mail. 533
Sept. 28 [Rec’d Sept. 30] From the French Ambassador. Regrets that American letters have not reached Germany. Such mail should be sent on Dutch steamers. 534
Oct. 4 [Rec’d Oct. 5] From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington (telegram). Mail for Germany returned as undeliverable; postal communication suspended. 534
821 Oct. 12 From the Ambassador in Great Britain. (telegram). United States mail on board Noordam not interfered with by British officials. Request for specimen of envelope opened. 534
Dec. 5 To the Editor of The Fatherland. Mail sent on neutral vessels unsealed should reach its destination. Mail sent to Germany via England or France liable to delay. 535

Censorship of the Mails by Belligerent Governments: Diplomatic and Consular Mail

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
467 Sept. 19 [Rec’d Oct. 5] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Transmits note from the American Minister in the Netherlands requesting information regarding the regulations and authorization under which British officials are opening the mail of the American Consular Service, some under official seal. 535
[Page CXVIII]470 Sept. 24 [Rec’d Oct. 5] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Sealed letter from Germany to Hull, England, opened and found to contain directions for sending mail to Germany through United States consular mail. Announcement in American Bulletin to this effect. British object to forwarding mail “under cover of United States representatives.” Enclosure 1: Protest of September 18 from United States Minister in the Netherlands against opening official mail. Enclosure 2: Protest of September 19 from Consul at Sheffield against opening consular mail. 536
866 Oct. 20 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Grey has learned that arrangements are in progress by which general correspondence with Germany shall pass through American Consulate General at Rotterdam. Requests that this be stopped. 538
378 Oct. 22 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to report any opening of United States official mail in pouches under seal. This not approved by our Government. 538
Oct. 23 To the Consul General at Rotterdam (telegram). Instructions to report upon nature and number of telegrams passing office and upon arrangements being made to send commercial correspondence to and from Germany. 539
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 24] From the Consul General at Rotterdam (telegram). Requests instructions regarding transmission of commercial correspondence of belligerent countries through consular offices. 539
Oct. 29 To the Consul General at Rotterdam (telegram). Consulate should not be used in transmission of commercial telegrams between belligerent countries. 539
938 Oct. 30 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests Department to instruct Ambassadors at Berlin and Vienna to discontinue sending private mail through official channels. 539
Nov. 1 From the Consul General at Rotterdam (telegram). Permission asked to transmit commercial correspondence from belligerent countries to America. 540
Nov. 2 To the Consul General at Rotterdam (telegram). Instructions not to forward commercial mail. 540
15 Nov. 10 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Quotes telegram from Athens stating Turkish post office refused official mail under seal and demanded that it be opened for inspection. 540
[Page CXIX]22 Nov. 12 [Rec’d Nov. 16] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Arrangements made with Minister of War for forwarding official correspondence in sealed envelopes. 541
837 Nov. 13 [Rec’d Nov. 15] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany requires consular officers of neutral states to leave correspondence to foreign countries unsealed. Official correspondence may be sent in Embassy pouches. 541
281 Nov. 14 [Rec’d Nov. 15] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram) Austro-Hungarian Government desires that no unofficial correspondence leave Austria-Hungary without passing censor and no private correspondence be sent through diplomatic or consular channels. The Consul General at Budapest protests opening of his official correspondence. Suggests issuance of instructions on the subject. 541
656 Nov. 17 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Approves his action in calling attention of consular officers to service regulations. 542
305 Nov. 25 To the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in Great Britain, Germany, France, Japan, Turkey, and the Minister in Servia; on December 4, to the Ambassador in Russia. Suggestions for establishing uniform regulations for transmission of American official correspondence in belligerent countries. 542
334 Dec. 8 [Rec’d Dec. 9] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Austria-Hungary agrees to inviolability of diplomatic and consular correspondence. 543
146 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in Russia (telegram). Exemption from censure of diplomatic and consular correspondence guaranteed by Foreign Office. 543
Dec. 24 From the Minister in Servia (telegram). Servian Government agrees to Regulations respecting sealed official correspondence. 543
[Page CXX]

PART III: NEUTRAL DUTIES

Proclamations of Neutrality—The President’s Appeal to The People of the United States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
1271 Aug. 4 By the President of the United States. Proclamation of neutrality in war between Austria-Hungary and Servia, between Germany and Russia, and between Germany and France. 547
Aug. 19 From the President of the United States. An appeal to citizens of the United States, requesting their assistance in maintaining neutrality during the European war. 551
1287 Nov. 13 By the President of the United States. Proclamation setting forth rules and regulations for the use of the Panama Canal by vessels of belligerents and the maintenance of neutrality in the Canal Zone. Annex: Text of an agreement between the United States and Panama of October 10, 1914. 552

Enlistments in Belligerent Forces—The Problem of Reservists

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 7 [Rec’d Aug. 8] From the Acting Secretary of Commerce. Transmits copy of telegram sent to collector of customs, New York, re vessels carrying supposed reservists. 556
Aug. 8 [Rec’d Aug. 11] From the French Chargé d’Affaires. Protests against reported decision of United States Government that all that could be utilized for the army, either men or supplies, will be considered as contraband. Such policy would be in violation of neutrality and would result in economic dangers. 557
1367 Aug. 13 To the French Chargé d’Affaires. This country will not unnecessarily restrict commerce of its citizens with countries at war. Transmits instructions to collectors of customs; also President’s proclamation, in which it is shown that there is no resistance to reservists in army of any belligerent wishing to leave this country for military service. 557
Aug. 27 [Rec’d Sept. 23] From the Ambassador in Japan. Transmits letter from the General Agent of the Great Northern Steamship Company asking if it would be an unneutral act to carry Austrian reservists from Shanghai to the United States, and reply thereto. 559
Sept. 24 To the Ambassador in Japan. Approves advice given steamship companies against transporting reservists of belligerent armies. 560
[Page CXXI] Sept. 23 [Rec’d Sept. 25] From the German Ambassador. Riley E. Scott, an ex-Lieutenant in United States Army, has offered his services to France or her allies for the purpose of dropping bombs from aeroplanes. 561
17-X Sept. 28 [Rec’d Sept. 30] From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. Servian Sokols of United States belong to Austro–Hungarian Monarchy. These have been invited by Servian Consul Austro–Hungarian Army, a violation of neutrality. United States Government is asked to take steps to prevent it. 562
Oct. 6 To the German Ambassador. The bomb dropper who tendered his services to France would be acting contrary to the wishes of the President but would not be violating the neutrality laws. 562
Undated [Rec’d Oct. 5] From the Vice Consul at Kingston, Jamaica (telegram). British authorities in Jamaica ask that vessels under the American flag carry no Germans or Austrians liable to military duty, thus avoiding need for search. 563
Oct. 7 To the Vice Consul at Kingston, Jamaica (telegram). American vessels are under no duty to refuse to ship belligerent seamen or citizens of belligerent countries. 564

The Transit of Reservists from Canada Across United States Territory

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 12] From the Consul General at Vancouver (telegram). Requests instructions as to whether military reservists are permitted transit through United States. 564
Aug. 13 To the Consul General at Vancouver (telegram). Passage through United States of individual reservists is not prohibited; organized and armed forces not entitled to such transit. 564
Aug. 14 [Rec’d Aug. 17] From the French Chargé d’Affaires. Requests that authorization be given Commissioner of Immigration at Montreal to permit French reservists to proceed individually to New York to take ship abroad. 565
Aug. 18 To the Belgian Minister (telegram). Large number Belgian reservists desire to return to their country through the United States. Asks if Minister wishes the Department to make arrangements for their passage. 565
Aug. 27 From the Russian Ambassador (telegram). Requests permission for Russians to enter New York in transit to Archangel. 565
[Page CXXII] Aug. 28 To the Russian Ambassador (telegram). Instructions given immigration authorities on Canadian border to allow admission of Russians to New York in transit to Archangel. 566
1376 Sept. 4 To the French Ambassador. Announces removal of restrictions preventing French reservists in Canada from entering United States in transit to mother country. 566
Sept. 18 To the Belgian Minister. Arrangements made for Belgian reservists to pass from Montreal through United States to take steamer. 566
334 Sept. 25 [Rec’d Sep t. 26] From the British Ambassador. Requests permission for British Army reservists in Canada to pass through United States in order to embark for Great Britain. 566
Oct. 3 To the Diplomatic Representatives of Belligerent States. Has granted permission for passage through United States of reservists who are returning to their respective countries, provided this does not amount to military enterprise on United States territory. Each Government must give assurance that its citizens will not become public charges in this country. 567
Oct. 10 [Rec’d Oct. 12] From the French Ambassador. French Government accepts conditions imposed for passage of its citizens through United States. 568
Oct. 12 [Rec’d Oct. 15] From the Austro–Hungarian Ambassador. Canadian Government takes precautions to prevent Austrians and Hungarians from leaving Canada; therefore facilities for passage through United States unnecessary. 568
Oct. 27 [Rec’d Oct. 28] From the British Ambassador. Gives assurances that any British reservists who may become public charges in United States will be permitted to return to Canada. 568
Nov. 17 [Rec’d Nov. 18] From the German Ambassador. Germany cannot avail itself of America’s offer to permit reservists to pass through ports, as Britain has withdrawn promise not to seize persons on neutral vessels who are liable to military service. 569
551 Nov. 19 To the British Ambassador. British Government required to furnish guarantee that reservists en route through United States will depart without expense to the country. 569
[Page CXXIII] Dec. 4 To the British Ambassador. Instructions have been sent to the Commissioner of Immigration at Montreal permitting reservists of Great Britain to pass through United States en route to the United Kingdom. 570

The Sale and Transportation of Contraband Goods

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 6 From the Acting Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Requests instructions as to duties of customs and other officers to prevent exportation of contraband. 570
Aug. 7 To the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). It is not unlawful to export contraband of war, but shippers take the risk of its seizure on high seas. 571
Sept. 3 From the Secretary of the Treasury. Transmits telegrams requesting shipment of guns with ammunition through Alaska to Vancouver, unaccompanied by troops. Requests instructions. 571
Sept. 5 To the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Permission to ship war munitions and equipment through Alaska refused. 572
Sept. 15 [Rec’d Sept. 16] From the German Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Attention called to purchase in the United States of horses by England, and munitions of war by Japan and Russia. 572
Sept. 16 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the German Ambassador. Nothing can be done to prevent traffic in contraband of war under neutrality laws or treaties. 573
Oct. 15 From the Secretary of State. Public circular regarding neutrality and trade in contraband. 573
Oct. 31 [Rec’d Nov. 2] From the German Ambassador. French and Russian armies are arranging to purchase rifles in the United States. Requests that Government intervene. 574
J. No. A2116 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 12] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Calls attention to an announcement in the Daily Consular and Trade Reports of the Department of Commerce, of opportunities to deliver war material to the English Government. Inquires as to whether activities of go-betweens also include delivery of war materials. 575
1121 Nov. 12 To the German Ambassador. In view of situation in Mexico and of European war, Secretary of War has absolutely discontinued sale of rifles to any one. 575
Nov. 13 [Rec’d Nov. 14] From the General Agent of the Grand Trunk Railway System. Requests information as to whether railroad can handle contraband goods back and forth through Canada and United States. 576
[Page CXXIV] Nov. 16 To the General Agent of the Grand Trunk Railway System. No objection to shipments passing through United States if in ordinary course of trade and not under military or Government escort. 576
Dec. 1 From the Counselor for the Department of State to James H. Hayden. Certain American companies are alleged to have entered into contracts with a belligerent government to furnish submarines or component parts. Government will take legal means to prevent exportation, as an unneutral act. 577
1005 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram) The sale by Americans of munitions of war to Allies is the cause of bitter feeling in Germany. Boycotting of American goods already beginning. 578
708 Dec. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Fore River Company planned to build, submarines for one of Allies. Mr. Schwab laid plans of company before Department. President declared it a violation of the spirit of neutrality. Company, then announced it would not build submarines for any belligerent. 578
1247 Dec. 11 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Grey denounces bill introduced in Senate to prohibit exportation of munitions of war to belligerents, and calls this unneutral act. 578
Dec. 14 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Mr. Hitchcock did not consult the President nor the Department in regard to the resolution to prohibit sale of munitions of war to belligerents. 579
1184 Jan. 15, 1915 To the German Ambassador. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce is not at the disposal of agents of foreign governments; object of Consular and Trade Reports is to advise Americans of trade opportunities. The Government is not assisting in sale of contraband, but observing strict neutrality. 579

Loans to Belligerent Governments

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 15 To J. P. Morgan & Co. (telegram). No reason why loans should not be made to neutral nations, but loan to a nation at war is inconsistent with true spirit of neutrality. 580
Sept. 9 From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador (telegram). Servian Sokol in Chicago invites collections for Servian war fund. Request that authorities prevent this breach of neutrality. 581
[Page CXXV]X—13/xiv Sept. 25 [Rec’d Sept. 29] From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. Attention is again called to Servian appeals in Chicago for contributions to Servian war fund. Requests that propaganda be stopped and money refunded. 581
118 Oct. 13 To the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador. Re appeals in Chicago for contributions to Servian war fund. Department of Justice, after careful consideration, finds nothing which constitutes violation of neutrality. 582
124 Nov. 5 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Re Servian propaganda in Chicago. Decision rendered by Attorney General in which he finds no violation of penal laws in general nor of neutrality laws. 582

Treatment of Belligerent Warships, Their Crews and Tenders, in American Ports—Internment of the “Geier” and “Locksun”

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Oct. 28 [Rec’d Oct. 29] From the Japanese Ambassador. Transmits telegram of October 27 from Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, stating German man-of-war Geier, lingering in Honolulu port, ostensibly for repairs, is constant menace to Japanese merchant vessels. Requests information regarding intended disposition of Geier. 583
369 Oct. 28 [Rec’d Oct. 30] From the British Ambassador. Protests against continued presence of Geier in a United States harbor. Locksun alleged to be supplying German warships with coal in Honolulu harbor. Grounds for detaining her under charges of false declaration of destination: 584
Oct. 30 To the German Ambassador. United States naval constructor reports Geier in bad condition and further time necessary to make her seaworthy. Government allows three weeks for repairs, at end of which, if still in port, she will be interned. 584
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Japanese Ambassador. Notification that Geier will be interned on a certain fixed date if repairs are not completed by that: time. 585
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the British Ambassador. Notification of Government’s intention to fix definite period for repairs to Geier, after which time, if unable to leave, she will be interned. Locksun detained for investigation. 585
[Page CXXVI] Oct. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 31] From the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the Japanese Embassy at Washington (telegram). Several members of Geier complement are suspected of having left Honolulu for San Francisco. The United States as neutral is under obligation to prevent their leaving the vessel for distant point. 586
Nov. 7 To the German Ambassador. Investigation shows Locksun to be a tender for the Geier. She will be interned in Honolulu if she does not leave immediately. 587
Nov. 11 To the Japanese Ambassador. Four members of Geier complement paroled in San Francisco. 587
Nov. 12 To the German, British, and Japanese Ambassadors. Reports interning of the Geier and Locksun in Honolulu. 588
J. No. A2171 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 12] From the German Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Protests the internment of Locksun in Honolulu. 588
A2190 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 12] From the German Ambassador. Protests the internment of officers of Geier. Cites instance of different treatment of British Major Robertson. Charges discrimination against Germany. Requests that officers and their orderlies be permitted to travel freely. 588
Nov. 16 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the German Ambassador. Defense of action of United States in internment of Locksun. 589
A2453 Nov. 21 [Rec’d Nov. 23] From the German Ambassador. Protests internment of Locksun as a “part of warship” Geier. Case cited in which English warship was provisioned by the tug F. B. Dalzell. 590
Nov. 27 To the German Ambassador. Gives basis for retention of Geier officers interned in San Francisco. This case not analogous to that of British Major Robertson. 590
Dec. 1 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Further discussion of subject of internment of Locksun. Cites award of the Alabama Claims Commission, which seems to establish the principle for the treatment of tenders. Tug Dalzell American vessel and not subject to internment. 592
[Page CXXVII]

Treatment of Armed Merchant Ships-The Problem of Conversion

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
252 Aug. 4 From the British Chargé d’Affaires. According to the treaty of Washington and Hague Convention No. XIII, a neutral government is bound to prohibit its citizens from fitting out a belligerent vessel for purposes of war, and to prevent departure of such vessel from its jurisdiction. Probable that Germany will attempt to use United States ports in this manner. 593
254 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Kronprinz Wilhelm sailed from New York without passengers, having made preparations for war in United States waters. Similar preparations are being made by other German vessels. This is a breach of the laws of neutrality; asks Department to take steps to prevent it. 594
Aug. 6 From the Acting Secretary of Commerce. Transmits copy of instructions sent to principal collectors of customs regarding permits for the clearance of foreign vessels. Special directions for New York office requiring careful inspection to prevent preparations for war on part of vessels while in that port. 595
287 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Ambassador in Great Britain. German ships leaving American ports constantly, provisioned and armed to prey upon British commerce. British Government will make claims for full value of goods destroyed. 596
Aug. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain(telegram). No German vessels have left American ports since declaration of war, so far as known to United States Government. 596
304 Aug. 8 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British Government has been informed by Embassy at Washington that the United States observes efficient and complete neutrality in every respect. 596
Aug. 10 From the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Commerce to Collectors of Customs. Explicit instructions for most rigid inspection and examination of vessels before clearance is given. 597
259 Aug. 9 From the British Chargé d’Affaires. British merchant vessels are armed for defense only. British merchant vessels can not be converted into men-of-war in foreign ports. Germans claim right of conversion on high seas; their vessels adapted for conversion should be interned in absence of binding assurances. 598
[Page CXXVIII]264 Aug. 12 From the British Chargé d’Affaires. Notice regarding armed merchantmen sent to other neutral countries. 598
267 Aug. 12 [Rec’d Aug. 13] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Calls attention to fact that Austria_Hungary is probably equipping merchantmen in United States waters for conversion into warships at sea. Similar notice sent to other neutral 599
Aug. 19 To the British Chargé d’Affaires. No precedent and no general practice of nations on point of conversion at sea. United States is not bound to assume attitude of insurer, and does not hold herself responsible for damage to British shipping. United States is as solicitous of its neutral duties as of its neutral rights. 599
Aug. 20 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Reply to the British claim of United States breach of neutrality: Affair of Kronprinz Wilhelm occurred before British declaration of war with Germany; other vessels mentioned have been under surveillance of authorities to prevent their leaving American waters. 602
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Acknowledges receipt of communication of August 9 re armed merchantmen.
289 Aug. 25 [Rec’d Aug. 26] From the British Ambassador. British armed merchantmen will frequently visit United States. Assurances given that they are armed solely for self-defense and will under no circumstances attack any vessel. 604
Aug. 29 To the British Ambassador. Acknowledges receipt of note of British Ambassador of August 25, giving assurances that armed merchantmen will not be used for offensive purposes. 604
Aug. 31 From the German Ambassador (telegram). Calls attention to the, fact that White Star liner remained in New York. Harbor 24 hours. 605
Sept. 1 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Calls attention to fact that the British steamer Merion, armed with six cannons, stayed several days at Philadelphia, taking freight for Liverpool. 605
Sept. 2 From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador at Washington (telegram). Denial that Adriatic carries troops. 605
Sept. 3 To the German Ambassador (telegram). Department, satisfied that Adriatic is merchantman, has allowed clearance. 606
[Page CXXIX] Sept. 4 To the German Ambassador (telegram). Department, satisfied that Merion is a merchant vessel, has advised clearance. Ammunition taken off and guns dismounted. 606
302 Sept. 4 [Rec’d Sept. 51] From the British Ambassador. British Government protests United States policy of detaining armed merchantmen. Merion will land her guns; Adriatic sailed carrying passengers. 606
Sept. 7 [Rec’d Sept. 10] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Data concerning passenger list and cargo of Adriatic give assurance of peaceful commercial voyage. 607
Sept. 9 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Memorandum citing precedents for arming of merchantmen for defense only; entitled to status of peaceful trading vessels. 607
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ German merchant vessels with offensive armament continue to obtain supplies of coal from United States and to prey upon British shipping in Atlantic. British trade with United States thus jeopardized. 608
315 Sept. 16 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Attention called to the fact that the Vaterland is ready to sail from New York with 17,000 tons coal on board, probably to be converted into an armed cruiser on the high seas. Requests investigation. 609
Sept. 17 To the British Ambassador. Vaterland has 5,000 tons of coal and no cargo; has no intention of sailing soon. Attention of United States officers has been called to this vessel. 609
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the British Ambassador. Ships of Hamburg-American Line might be able to effect their departure from neutral ports unless there is a United States naval force on hand to prevent. 610
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the British Ambassador. Ships in New York stationed for patrol duty. No German vessels are leaving the United States with enough cargo to excite suspicion. The Pisa has a large cargo coal and provisions, but apparently has no intention of sailing. 610
Sept. 19 To the Diplomatic Representatives of Belligerent States Encloses a statement of the general rules to be followed by this Government in dealing with cases involving the status of armed merchant vessels visiting American ports and with cases of merchant vessels suspected of carrying supplies to belligerent warships from American ports. 611
[Page CXXX]500 Sept. 26 To the British Ambassador. Re the status of armed merchant vessels in neutral ports. 612
Oct. 8 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury to Collectors of Customs. Re change in status of merchant vessel. Mere change of color to render her less visible will not change her status. 612
515 Oct. 15 [Rec’d Oct. 16] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Transmits protest of the Foreign Office against the American policy regarding armed merchantmen. No guarantee that arms carried for defense will not be used for offensive purposes. Armed merchantmen should be treated as warships. 613
Nov. 7 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Reply to German protest against policy regarding armed merchantmen. Belligerents asked to prevent their armed merchant vessels from entering United States ports. 613
Nov. 11 From the British Embassy. German liners in American ports are ready to sail; are to operate with fast German cruisers in Pacific against Allied forces. Charges that the United States is responsible for losses to shipping and trade which may ensue. 614
Nov. 16 To the British Embassy. Regarding sailing of German liners from American ports, United States is maintaining customary vigilance. 615

Treatment of Merchant Ships Supplying Belligerent Warships

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 11 From the Acting Secretary of the Treasury. Barbarossa is taking on board large quantities coal, and utensils apparently for transferring the coal at sea. Large quantity of fuel oil on lighters alongside. Requests instructions for customs officers. 615
Aug. 17 To the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Assuming that Barbarossa is a private ship, Department has no grounds on facts stated for refusing clearance. 616
Aug. 20 From the Secretary of the Treasury. Transmits telegram from the collector of Customs at San Francisco, stating that the plan of John Rothschild & Co. to deliver coal to cruiser Leipzig at sea fell through. The coal was delivered to German ship Mazatlan, which has applied for change to Mexican registry. Information received that Mazatlan will deliver coal to German cruiser. Requests instructions. 616
[Page CXXXI] Aug. 21 From the Collector of Customs at San Francisco to the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Acting German Consul offered written statement that coal on Mazatlan will be delivered in Guaymas. He denied that United States had jurisdiction thereafter. Large cargo of perishables on board. Clearance to be given unless otherwise instructed. 617
Aug. 22 To the Secretary of the Treasury. Case of Mazatlan submitted to the Neutrality Board. It is required that German Consul give written assurances that coal is not to be delivered to any German warship that has received coal within last three months; any ship receiving this coal will be debarred from coaling in United States within next three months. 617
Sept: 15 [Rec’d Sept. 17] From the French Ambassador. Calls attention to fact that three German steamers are loading large quantities coal in Manila. That port a center of indirect, replenishment for German warships. Requests United States to take measures to prevent this. 618
Sept. 19 Memorandum issued by the Secretary of State. Sets forth policy of United States regarding merchant vessels in her ports. Defines “base of operations for belligerent warships.” This Government is not under obligations to prevent shipments to other neutral ports which may be bases of supplies to belligerents. 618
Sept. 21 [Rec’d Sept. 22] From the Vice Consul General at Rio de Janeiro (telegram) American steamer Berwind sailed from New York with coal cargo; master told to follow instructions of supercargo. Coal transferred to Cap Trafalgar and Eleanore Wörmann at sea. Arrived in Rio de Janeiro reporting engagement between the former and a British ship. 620
Sept. 21 [Rec’d Sept. 23] From the French Ambassador. American steamer Riopasig sailed from Manila to Guam with cargo of coal. Thought to have resupplied a German warship. Such acts are contrary to neutrality. 621
1388 Sept. 29 To the French Ambassador. American steamer Riopasig was seized while approaching the Philippines and held at Sandakan as prize of war. 621
[Page CXXXII] Oct. 1 [Rec’d Oct. 2] From the British Embassy. The Alexandria, belonging to Kosmos Line and flying German flag, has been bought by the Northern and Southern Steamship Corporation, whose local manager is manager of the Kosmos Line, which operates steamers between Hamburg and San Francisco via South American ports. Thought Alexandria, changed to American registry, engaged in supplying coal to German cruisers. 622
1389 Oct. 5 To the French Ambassador. Elmshorn and Bechum have taken coal at Manila for first time during war. Officers specially vigilant so that Philippines will not be “center of indirect replenishment for German warships.” 623
Oct. 13 From the Secretary of the Treasury. Cargo of coal on the Mazatlan ultimately reached the Leipzig. Encloses telegram from Collector of Customs in San Francisco quoting written agreement of German acting Consul General that the coal would not be delivered to any German war vessel. Requests instructions. 623
Oct. 17 To the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. Collector of Customs believes that contract of German Consul. General, re coal taken by Mazatlan, has been violated. 624
A1638/14 Oct. 14 [Rec’d Oct. 15] From the German Ambassador. Steamer Alexandria, sold to American company, has applied for American registration and clearance. Neither has been granted. A guard has been placed on board to prevent ship’s leaving. Requests an investigation of action of authorities. 625
Oct. 15 From the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. British Vice Consul at Newport News asks that clearance not be given Italian S. S. Amistà loaded with coal. Requests instructions. 626
Oct. 22 To the Secretary of the Treasury. Approves the instructions of the Treasury Department to clear the Amistà unless satisfactory evidence that proposed clearance is not bona fide. Matter has been taken up with the British Embassy. 626
[Page CXXXIII] Oct. 20 [Rec’d Oct. 22] From the British Ambassador. Transmits communication of the British Consul General at San Francisco concerning the Alexandria, changed to United States registry under name of Sacramento. Has loaded cargo of coal and potatoes consigned to a German company in Valparaiso. A high price was paid for the coal, yet there is no market in Valparaiso. 627
Oct. 24 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Moore, San Francisco, supplying coal to German cruisers at Guaymas by means of steamers chartered by him and consigned to his agent at Guaymas. Railroad plant used for storing coal. Has already coaled the Leipzig in this way. Desires that this be brought to attention of the proper Government Department. 627
Oct. 27 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the British Ambassador. United States Government is not under obligations to prevent shipments of naval supplies to a neutral port, although this port may be used as a base for naval operations. Attention called to the report that a British ship with cargo of coal for Southern Pacific Railroad of Mexico was seized by the British and part of its coal removed. The ship was then sent to British Columbia, causing a loss to the company of $30,000. 628
371 Oct. 31 From the British Ambassador. Representations have been made to customs officials that the Berwind-White Coal Mining Company is under suspicion of chartering neutral ships to supply German cruisers. The Amistà was allowed clearance for Montevideo via Barbados, but never arrived there. Systematic way in which neutral ships have left American ports to supply German cruisers is a source of grave anxiety to the British Government. Requests that preventive measures be taken. 629
Nov. 1 To the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Cites case of Italian S. S. Amistà . Necessary to take precaution to ascertain by investigation of each vessel the name of the owner or charterer and the firm supplying cargo, as well as the name and address of consignee. 630
[Page CXXXIV] Nov. 2 To the British Ambassador. Investigations into case of the Amistà will be made. Department will ascertain whether consignee expected such shipments. United States resents suggestions that vigilance in neutral duties has been relaxed. 631.
Nov. 14 To the Secretary of the Treasury. Requests that collectors of customs be instructed to ascertain of an incoming vessel when she last left an American port and whether she has transferred any cargo to cruisers at sea. 631
Nov. 15 From the British Ambassador. Communicates rules issued by the Brazilian Government relative to the treatment of merchant vessels in Brazilian ports. Grey desires to know if the United States is willing to issue similar rules. 632
391 Nov. 20 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Requests that, in event the Berwind prepares to put to sea again with supplies, she be detained according to United States rules. The fact has been established that she coaled the Cap Trafalgar at sea. 633
Nov. 21 From the Vice Consul at Valparaiso (telegram). The Sacramento reports that the cargo was taken by Germans from the French sailing vessel Valentine, which was sunk. 634
Nov. 22 To all Seaport Consuls (telegram). Instructions to report complete information regarding vessels arriving from the United States, with view to ascertaining whether portions of cargo have been transferred to belligerents at sea. 634
Nov. 23 To the British Ambassador. United States refuses to be governed by rules issued by Brazilian Government regarding treatment of merchant vessels. 634
397 Nov. 23 [Rec’d Nov. 24] From the British Ambassador. Continued supplying of German cruisers by United States ships a matter of gravest anxiety to Great Britain. United States cannot repudiate all responsibility. Requests careful investigation of Olson and Mahony. 636
Nov. 24 From the British Embassy. Memorandum stating that the Chilean is about to sail ostensibly for South American port with large quantities of supplies. There are strong suspicions of her intention to assist in belligerent operations against peaceful commerce. 637
Nov. 25 To the British Ambassador. Re the movements of the Italian S. S. Amistà . 638
[Page CXXXV] Nov. 24 [Rec’d Nov. 25] From the British Ambassador. Regrets inaccuracy of statements regarding the Italian S. S. Amistà . 638
559 Nov. 25 To the British Ambassador. Acknowledges note regarding Olson and Mahony. Cases have been brought to the attention of the Treasury Department. 638
560 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Attention of Attorney General has been called to the case of the Berwind, with view to such action as will prevent owner from again using United States ports in supplying belligerent war vessels at sea. 639
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To all Seaport Consuls (telegram). Re reporting of names of consignors and consignees of cargo in United States ports. 639
Nov. 26 From the Vice Consul at Valparaiso (telegram). Reports irregularities aboard the Sacramento. 640
Nov. 28 To the Vice Consul at Valparaiso (telegram). Instructions to investigate and report amounts and kinds of cargo supplied to German vessels at sea. 640
Nov. 27 From the British Embassy. Coal was transferred from the Mazatlan to the Leipzig, notwithstanding bond to the contrary. Would like to know, if possible, what action has been taken by United States authorities. 641
Nov. 28 To all Seaport Consuls (telegram). Further instructions regarding vessels arriving from American ports in ballast or with cargo; requests reports on vessels supplied at sea. 641
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Unnecessary for collectors to report on cargoes manifestly of no use to war vessels; also unnecessary to report where consignees are numerous. 641
Dec. 1 To the British Embassy. Memorandum stating that request has been made of the Treasury Department that the Chilean be refused clearance until it be clearly shown that the cargo will not be transferred to war vessels at sea. 642
Dec. 2 To the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Unnecessary to send reports on vessels engaged in passenger traffic or in long-established trade between United States and foreign ports. 642
Dec. 3 To all Seaport Consuls (telegram). Further instructions re reports on shipping. 642
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. There is no objection to clearance of the Gladstone if assurance is given under oath that cargo will be discharged at port to which consigned. 643
[Page CXXXVI]1155 Dec. 10 To the German Ambassador. Full explanation regarding placing of guard on the Alexandria lying in harbor of San Francisco. 643
Dec. 16 To the British Embassy. Transmits copy of letter from Department of Justice stating failure to find any facts in case of Mazatlan constituting a violation of Federal penal laws. 645
Dec. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 23] From the British Embassy. Reviews the case of the Mazatlan and inquires whether the United States will take further action in matter. 645
Dec. 23 To the British Embassy. Case of the Mazatlan still under consideration. 646
J. No. A2985 Dec. 15 [Rec’d Dec. 16] From the German Ambassador. The position taken by the United States concerning the occasional coaling of German warships in United States ports is untenable. Encloses memorandum of German Government on the subject claiming a breach of accepted rules of neutrality on the part of United States in detriment to Germany. 646
Dec. 24 To the German Ambassador. Defends policy of the United States against charge of unneutrality in treatment of belligerent shipping. Requests specific cases of complaint, with promise of investigation. 647
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the British Embassy. The Gladstone (now Chilean) left Newport News bound for Chilean ports, owners taking oath that cargo would be discharged at port of consignment. 649
Dec. 29 [Rec’d Dec. 30] From the Ambassador in Chile (telegram). Notification of the Foreign Office that unless the Sacramento leaves within 24 hours, both ship and crew will be interned. 650
Dec. 30 To the Ambassador in Chile (telegram). Re the Sacramento. Instructs Consul to withhold ship’s papers and refuse to discharge crew. 650
Jan. 11, 1915. To the Secretary of the Treasury (telegram). Efforts of collectors to report suspicious cases of war vessels in United States ports, is having good effect. 651
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To all Seaport Consuls (circular telegram). Instructions to report upon suspected cases of violation of neutrality. Collectors to continue vigilance. 651
[Page CXXXVII]

Maintenance of Neutrality in the Panama Canal Zone

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
432 Dec. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 19] From the British Ambassador. Defense of British ships which have been accused of violation of neutrality in the Canal Zone. Statement by Sir C. Mallet concerning the Mallina. Regulations for enforcing neutrality in the Canal Zone delayed in reaching Great Britain. 651
J. No. A3180 Dec. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 22] From the German Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. The Mallina and Tremeadow, which served as tenders to British cruisers, are now demanding to be allowed to coal in Panama. Their ease is identical with that of the Locksun. 653
Dec. 23 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the German Ambassador. British S. S. Mallina and Tremeadow are accorded the same treatment as that given belligerent war vessels. 653
448 Dec. 25 [Rec’d Dec. 28] From the British Ambassador. Re British violation of quarantine regulations in the Canal Zone. Time to become familiar with new regulations had not been allowed. The Protesilaus fitted with wireless but was dismantled in port. The Mallina ordered to leave port before receiving clearance papers. British anxious to conform to neutrality regulations in the Canal Zone. 654
Jan. 2, 1915 To the British Ambassador. Acknowledges note explaining irregularities in observance of regulations in the Canal Zone. 655

Actions of Belligerent Warships outside Territorial Waters—Hovering

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Sept. 1 [Rec’d Sept. 8] From the British Ambassador. German warships Leipzig and Nürnberg are lying off the coast of California and are in communication with the German Consul; have received information concerning movements of belligerent men-of-war. Requests United States to investigate. 655
Sept. 22 To the British Embassy. Radio messages between German warships and German Consul picked up but not transmitted. Unlicensed stations ordered closed and no other unneutral messages received. 656
Sept. 24 [Rec’d Sept. 25] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Re the fact that a British warship requested supplies from the United States by wireless. British ships have been instructed not to do this. 656
[Page CXXXVIII] Oct. 5 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the British Ambassador. British cruisers Lancaster and Suffolk in proximity to New York Harbor give impression of interference with American commerce. 657
Oct. 7 From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Re presence of Lancaster and Suffolk in proximity to New York Harbor. Instructions have been issued to British Admiralty to take steps to prevent repetition of such incidents. 658
J. No. A1775 Oct. 21 [Rec’d Oct. 22] From the German Ambassador. Tugs F. B. Dalzell and G. H. Dalzell said to have supplied British cruiser Essex with fresh meat off the United States coast. Requests an investigation. 658
Oct. 26 From the Secretary of the Treasury. Transmits cablegrams from Collector of Customs at Honolulu concerning capture of German schooner by Japanese battleship Hizen near Honolulu. Requests instructions regarding disposition of crew. 659
Oct. 27 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Further cablegrams from Honolulu stating that steam launches from the Hizen have been in neutral waters without lights. Captain of Hizen desires to have sealed communication with Japanese Consul in Honolulu. Requests instructions. 660
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. Case of the Hizen to be taken up with the Japanese Ambassador. Communication between this vessel and the Japanese Consul in Honolulu not to be permitted. Question of the Chinaman from the Aeolus entering Honolulu must be referred to Department of Labor. 660
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Japanese Ambassador. Calls attention to Japanese battleship Hizen, cruising in neutral waters around Honolulu without lights. 661
J. No A1883 Oct. 29 From the German Ambassador. Requests explanations of conduct of Japanese warship off Honolulu port. 661
1108 Nov. 5 To the German Ambassador. Gives explanations in case of Japanese cruiser Hizen. 661
1133 Nov. 23 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Re tug F. B. Dalzell and G. H. Dalzell. Thorough investigation has failed to prove that these vessels have furnished supplies to British warships. 662
Dec. 22 From the Counselor for the Department of State to the British Ambassador. Further protests against the hovering of British warships in vicinity of American ports. 662
[Page CXXXIX] Jan. 9, 1915 [Rec’d Jan. 12] From the British Ambassador to the Counselor for the Department of State. Assurances given that ships will not approach Ambrose Lightship nearer than six miles. 663

The Question of the Limits of Territorial Waters—The Italian Six-Mile Rule

1267 Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 14] From the Italian Chargé d’Affaires. By Royal decree of August 6 territorial waters have been fixed at six nautical miles, for purposes of neutrality. 664
1426 Sept. 8 [Rec’d Sept. 10] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Quotes text of articles of the Royal decree of August 6 respecting the limits of territorial waters in bays, bights, and gulfs for purposes of neutrality. 664
1837 Nov. 6 [Rec’d Nov. 9] From the Italian Ambassador. Requests acceptance of United States Government of the limit set by Royal decree to territorial waters for purposes of neutrality. 665
Nov. 28 To the Italian Ambassador. The United States does not accept the limit of territorial waters set out in the Royal decree of August 6, 1914. The principal nations generally recognize territorial jurisdiction to extend over three nautical miles. Important that any change should be recognized by principal maritime powers. 665.
Dec. 12 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ The United State, while maintaining its position on the three-mile limit of territorial waters, has notified its vessels of the extent of territorial waters of Italy, as set forth in decree of August 6, 1914. 666

Control over Wireless Telegraphy

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
253 Aug. 4 From the British Chargé d’Affaires. Wireless telegraph stations at Sayville, Long Island, and Tuckerton, New Jersey, have been sold to a German company and are operated as intelligence bureaus for German navy. Suggests that United States take them over and operate them for all belligerents alike or else close them entirely. 667
[Page CXL]265 Aug. 5 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). German merchant vessels, warned by wireless from Sayville, have escaped British war vessels. 668
2011 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Executive order Prohibits the transmitting or receiving for delivery by means of radio, messages of an unneutral nature, or the rendering of any unneutral service to any belligerent. 668
Aug. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Communicates the Executive order of August 5, re radio messages. 669
Aug, 11 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ An attempt is being made to put all belligerents on same footing as regards cable and wireless messages. 669
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 11] From the German Chargé d’Affaires. Submits, for transmission to German Foreign Office in cipher, proposals to United States Government that all belligerents be permitted to send and receive messages via Sayville and Tuckerton, under censor, or that Germany be allowed to use English and French cables. 669
Aug. 11 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in France. Submits for consideration of British Government alternative suggestions for receiving and transmitting wireless and cable messages by belligerents. 670
Aug. 15 From the German Chargé d’Affaires (telegram). Suggests that censorship of wireless stations be suspended while question under consideration. 671
Aug. 17 To the German Chargé d’Affaires (telegram). It is expected that the question of wireless will be settled tomorrow. No license for operation of Tuckerton has been taken out under act of August 13, 1912. 671
Aug. 12 From the French Chargé d’Affaires (telegram). Difference shown between wireless and cable messages, citing advantage of wireless in immediate communication with vessels at sea. Cutting of Germany’s cable an advantage gained by war; not the part of a neutral power to reestablish that condition. 671
280 Aug. 14 From the British Chargé d’Affaires. A recapitulation of various points of advantage of wireless over cable messages. Two German wireless stations in United States great danger to British shipping. 672
Aug. 9 [Rec’d Aug. 14] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany asks permission to send telegrams in cipher via Tuckerton. 673
[Page CXLI] Aug. 19 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to inquire whether German Government has any connection with wireless stations at Sayville or Tuckerton. 673
Aug. 21 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits proposition of Haniel, for consideration of German Government, for transmission of plain messages of neutral character and cipher messages if they are made known to an American official. This to be a temporary arrangement pending final decision. 674
Aug. 20 From the Secretary of the Treasury to Collectors of Customs (telegram). Supplemental instructions regarding the prevention of violation of the neutrality laws. 674
Aug. 22 From the Secretary of the Navy. Forwards copies of telegrams received and sent by Navy Department relative to enforcement of the President’s neutrality proclamation. 675
Aug. 28 [Rec’d Aug. 29] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Transmits message for the German Chargé d’Affaires: German Government willing to accept terms of telegraphic communication, provided censorship applies equally to all belligerents. Certain codes recommended. Use of French and English cables out of question as German messages would be held up. 676
514 Aug. 30 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Re alternative proposals for the transmission of telegraphic communications. British Government prefers wireless station at Sayville to be under strict censorship of United States, censor to paraphrase all messages. 676
Aug. 30 [Rec’d Aug. 31] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government is not connected with wireless stations at Tuckerton or Sayville. 677
2042 Sept. 5 Executive order One or more high-powered radio stations to be taken over by the United States Government in communication with stations in Europe, including code and cipher messages. 678
Sept. 22 To the Diplomatic Representatives of Foreign Governments. Transmits copy of instructions and regulations issued by Navy Department for the operation of the radio station at Tuckerton New Jersey. 678
Nov. 7 From the Secretary of the Navy. Regulations and instructions for operation of radio stations prepared by Navy Department and sent to Department of State for approval; to be substituted for previous regulations. 680
[Page CXLII] Nov. 19 To the Secretary of the Navy. No objections to proposed new regulations governing radio service. 681

Observance of Neutrality by Other American States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Oct. 3 [Rec’d Oct. 17] From the Consul at Barranquilla. Grant [Gaunt?], Captain in British Navy, recently visited Barranquilla and Santa Marta, in search of evidence of breach of neutrality at wireless stations. 681
356 Sept. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Argentina. Relates incidents which have occurred and have increased anti-German spirit: Alleged execution of honorary Vice Consul of Argentine Republic by German troops in Belgium; violent action of survivors of Cap Trafalgar when interned; and dispute with commander of British fleet over the limit of the territorial waters of River Plate. 682
466 Oct. 7 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Ambassador in Brazil. Brazilian Government has difficulty in maintaining neutrality, sentiment favoring France except in the south, which is pro-German. Merchant vessels occasion considerable embarrassment; secret wireless stations transmit much information. 683
Nov. 13 From the Colombian Legation. Quotes decrees to prove that Government has tried to prevent unneutral acts. Possible that belligerents have built concealed stations for wireless on uninhabited coasts. 685
Nov. 14 To the Chargé d’Affaires in Colombia (telegram). British and French complain that neutrality is not enforced in Colombia. Charge use of wireless stations by Germans. Requests facts. 686
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Minister in Ecuador (telegram). British and French Governments complain that neutrality proclamation is not enforced in Ecuador. Charge that Galápagos Islands are German base for naval supplies. Requests facts. 686
Nov. 15 From the Ecuadorian Minister (telegram). Inquires whether British and French Ambassadors have complained against violation of neutrality of Ecuador. 686
Nov. 15 [Rec’d Nov. 16] From the Colombian Government to the Colombian Legation at Washington (telegram). Cartagena radio station has been put in charge of expert Government operator and foreign employees dismissed. Great Britain asks that station be closed. Asks if United States stations are closed. 686
[Page CXLIII] Nov. 16 To the Chargé d’Affaires in Colombia (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Minister in Ecuador. United States is not trying to control action of other governments. French and British only asked United States to use moral influence to bring about neutrality. 687
Nov. 17 To the Ecuadorian Minister (telegram). Newspapers have misrepresented the intention of the United States in matter of neutrality. 688
Nov. 19 [Rec’d Nov. 20] From the Minister in Ecuador (telegram). Ecuador weak from revolution, but doing all in its power to preserve neutrality. If charges are true concerning Galápagos Islands, will protest to Germany. 688
Nov. 19 [Rec’d Nov. 20] From the Ecuadorian Minister. Requests exact copy of complaint made by France and Great Britain against Ecuador. 688
Nov. 21 [Rec’d Nov. 22] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Colombia (telegram). Correspondence of the United States, disclaiming any interference to enforce neutrality in South America, has been published in Colombia and received with satisfaction. 689
Nov. 25 From the Minister in Ecuador (telegram). Minister for Foreign Affairs proposes that all American Republics promulgate a statement declaring that in respect to the neutrality of each one of the American nations, all are interested. 689
Nov. 25 [Rec’d Nov. 27] From the Secretary of the Colombian Legation. Encloses cable messages of November 19 and 24 in which Ministry of Foreign Affairs claims that Colombia follows the same neutrality regulations as the United States. 690
362 Oct. 24 [Rec’d Nov. 27] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Argentina. The manner in which neutrality measures are being carried out in Argentina is causing dissatisfaction amongst belligerents. All merchant vessels are allowed to depart with bunkers full of coal; vessels embark with arms, ammunition and supplies, some having been converted into auxiliary cruisers; wireless stations are in full operation by Germans. 690
757 Oct. 26 [Rec’d Nov. 28] From the Minister in Uruguay. Asserts that there is a chain of secret radiograph stations along South Atlantic coast. Many stations discovered and dismantled on the River Plate. 691
761 Oct. 28 [Rec’d Nov. 28] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits Executive decree forbidding the establishment and operation of wireless stations on land or on vessels in territorial waters. 692
[Page CXLIV] Dec. 1 [Rec’d Dec. 2] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Colombia (telegram). Newspapers publish statements that United States will permit European nations to enforce compliance with neutrality regulations in South America. 692
Dec. 2 [Rec’d Dec. 3] From the British Ambassador. Transmits substance of a memorandum of November 29 addressed by British Foreign Office to the Chilean Minister in London on the subject of new neutrality rules which the Chilean Government proposes for all American Governments. These rules are supplemented by a fourth suggestion by the British. 693
Dec. 3 [Rec’d Dec. 5] From the Ecuadorian Minister. Ecuador proposes that belligerents be induced to declare the seas that wash coasts of America a neutral zone, in order to exclude warlike operations. Quotes cablegram from the Ecuadorian Minister of Foreign Affairs of November 30, declaring that Ecuadorian Government did not know that Germans were using Galápagos Islands for a naval base. 694
Dec. 8 To the Ecuadorian Minister. It is not customary to give copies of communications. Restates that British and French allege infraction of rules of neutrality by Colombia and Ecuador and request that the United States use moral influence to prevent this. 695
Dec. 9 [Rec’d Dec. 11] From the British Ambassador. Re further revision of neutrality rules proposed by Chilean Government for general adoption on the American continent. 695
550 Nov. 7 [Rec’d Dec. 12] From the Ambassador in Chile. German squadron, composed of Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Nürnberg, engaged British squadron near island of Santa Maria. Good Hope and Monmouth destroyed; Glasgow and Otranto escaped. London press has charged Chile with unneutrality. British Government satisfied with explanation of the Chilean Minister for Foreign Affairs. German transport Prince Eitel was ordered to leave Valparaiso. 696
116 Nov. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 12] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Colombia. Reports that Colombian Government is enforcing neutrality. British inspector of wireless stations satisfied. 697
[Page CXLV]117 Nov. 27 [Rec’d Dec. 17] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Columbia. Encloses newspaper clippings on subject of Colombia’s failure to observe neutrality, Washington represented as about to enforce observance; also copy of a note addressed to Colombian Minister on November 19 explaining the attitude of United States, which had quieting effect. 699
Dec. 19 From the Ambassador in Chile (telegram). New neutrality regulations have been issued. Protests have been made to Germany against violation of Chilean neutrality. 701
Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 23] From the Minister in Ecuador (telegram). Investigations of the charges of the use of Galápagos Islands by Germans for naval base have disclosed the fact that German, English, and Japanese vessels have been at the islands and have bought cotton and provisions but no coal. 701
84 Nov. 26 [Rec’d Dec. 26] From the Minister in Ecuador. Thorough investigation has been made of reports of Ecuador’s failure to enforce neutrality. Wireless station at Guayaquil used by German Consul in person. Newspaper misrepresentations aroused excitement but publishing of note from the Department soon quieted this feeling. Encloses his statement published in El Dia on November 19. 702
377 Nov. 24 [Rec’d Dec. 28] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Argentina. Report concerning Argentine neutrality. 703
Dec. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 22] From the Chilean Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the Chilean Embassy at Washington (telegram). Transmits text of the decree of Chilean Government containing regulations for the coaling of vessels in Chilean ports. 704
Dec. 25 [Rec’d Jan. 2, 1915] From the Ecuadorian Minister. Reports that no violation of neutrality has been committed on Ecuadorian islands. 706
120 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Jan. 4, 1915] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Colombia. Captain Gaunt reports that wireless station at Cartagena is in operation under German influence, and wireless outfits on German interned ships are used with mufflers. German Minister has closed the station. Encloses note from Colombian Minister of Foreign Affairs of December 1, and his reply December 5, both bearing upon this subject. 706
[Page CXLVI]610 Jan. 13, 1915 To the British Ambassador. The same to the French Ambassador. In reply to complaint against Ecuador for non-observance of neutrality, the enclosed notes of December 1 and 25 from the Ecuadorian Minister will furnish an explanation. 708
16 Jan. 13, 1915 To the Ecuadorian Minister. Department has communicated substance of note re neutrality of Ecuador to the French and British Embassies. 709
383 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Jan. 18, 1915] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Argentina. Re Argentine neutrality; execution of Argentine official in Belgium; battle of Falkland Islands and sovereignty of those islands; escape of officers and men interned on the Cap Trafalgar. 710

Observance of Neutrality by Liberia

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
394 July 28 [Rec’d Aug. 6] From the Ambassador in Great Britain. Liberian Minister anticipates trouble for Liberia because both French and Germans own cable stations on Liberian soil. Encloses copy of a letter of July 27 from the Minister on the subject. 711
Aug. 7 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in in France and Germany. Instructions to secure assurance of Liberian neutrality. 712
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ To the Minister in Liberia (telegram). Instructions to recommend that Liberia proclaim neutrality at once. 712
Aug. 8 [Rec’d Aug. 9] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government will observe neutrality of Liberia. 712
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 11] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French Government will respect neutrality of Liberia. 712
Aug. 14 From the Minister in Liberia (telegram). French demand that German wireless be closed. French wireless still open. Requests advice. 713
387 Aug. 17 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Liberian Minister transmits letter from President of Liberia setting forth the situation concerncerning cable lines. 713
Aug. 18 To the Minister in Liberia (telegram). For the information of President Howard in taking such measures as he may deem necessary to preserve neutrality, transmits text of President Wilson’s proclamation on radio communication. 713
[Page CXLVII] Aug. 20 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to ask French Government upon what grounds demands upon Liberia are based. 714
Aug. 21 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). United States has not proclaimed Liberian neutrality. French Government asks Liberia to close German wireless station. Wilson’s proclamation sent Howard as guide in taking necessary measures for preserving Liberian neutrality. 714
446 Aug. 21 [Rec’d Aug. 22] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British give assurance respecting neutrality of Liberia. They rely upon Liberia to take steps to protect her neutrality. 715
Aug. 24 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French request Liberia to exercise censorship over operations of German wireless station. Willing that same treatment be accorded French station if Germans request it. 715
471 Aug. 24 [Rec’d Aug. 25] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Great Britain supports French request that Liberia close German wireless station or prohibit cipher and unneutral messages. Liberian citizens caught in Germany by war unable to secure money to return home. Loan of $2,000 asked of United States. 716
Aug. 29 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Liberia should not discriminate in favor of either French or German station. 716
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ From the British Ambassador. British and French consider that nothing less than the presence of a United States warship in Liberian waters would enable Liberia to fulfil its obligations of neutrality. 716
Oct. 8 To the British Ambassador. Acknowledges note suggesting presence of United States warship to preserve neutrality of Liberia. 717
59 Sept. 4 [Rec’d Oct. 9] From the Minister in Liberia. Liberia has closed both French and German wireless stations. 717
Dec. 30 To the Minister in Liberia (telegram). Instructions to warn Liberian. Government to preserve utmost impartiality between belligerents. 718
[Page CXLVIII]

PART IV: OTHER PROBLEMS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

New Regulations Governing the Issuance of Passports—Emergency Passports

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 1 To the Ambassadors and Ministers in Europe (telegram). Instructions re emergency passports; advice and financial assistance to American citizens abroad. 721
Aug. 10 To the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the other Ambassadors and Ministers in Europe. Consular registration certificates. 721
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 11] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Requests instructions concerning the granting to individuals holding first papers a certificate of identity to secure a permis de sejour pending opportunity to return home. 722
Aug. 12 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Certificates of identity may be issued to persons holding first papers, if seven years have not elapsed and permanent residence abroad has not been acquired. 722
Sept. 12 To the Ambassadors and Ministers in European Countries (telegram). Explicit directions for persons applying for American passports and consular registration certificates. Warning against issuance to persons not Americans, who are seeking to evade military service in their own country. Special certificates to be granted to wives of persons declaring intention of becoming American citizens. 722
310 Sept. 25 [Rec’d Sept. 27] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Re issuance of passports to persons who have lived in the United States three years and declared intention of becoming American citizens, and who have sojourned abroad less than six months. 723
338 Oct. 6 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions not to issue passports to declarants. They may register and request permission of German Government to depart. 724
Nov. 13 Executive order_ _ _ _ Rules governing the granting and issuing of passports in the United States. 724
305 Nov. 24 [Rec’d Nov. 26] From the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Requests instructions regarding issuance of passports to minor children of naturalized parents or of declarants. 727
327 Dec. 3 To the Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (telegram). Passports and financial assistance may be extended to minor children of American-born parents not naturalized or of declarants. 728
[Page CXLIX] Dec. 21 To American Diplomatic and Consular Officers. New instructions, in pursuance of the passport regulations of November 13, 1914, concerning the preparation of applications for Departmental and emergency passports and the issuance of the latter. 728

Representation of Belligerent Governments in Enemy Countries—Protection of Their Interests

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 1 To the German Embassy (telegram). United States will extend diplomatic and consular protection to German interests in Russia with understanding that same services will be rendered to other governments if requested. 732
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ To the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). United States has consented to take over German Embassy in Russia in case of war, with understanding that similar assistance may be given any other country that may request it. 732
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ From the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador (telegram). Inquires whether United States is disposed to assume protection of Austrian and Hungarian interests in Russia, France, Great Britain, and Montenegro. 732
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ To the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador (telegram). Accepts charge of Austrian and Hungarian interests in Russia, France, Great Britain, and Montenegro. 733
July 31 [Rec’d Aug. 4] From the German Chargé d’Affaires. United States is urged to protect interests of Germany in Russia and other countries. 733
Aug. 5 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Because the Russian Embassy at Berlin is said to have been destroyed by a mob, Russians have wrecked the German Embassy in St. Petersburg. Has registered a protest at the Foreign Office. 733
Aug. 5 [Rec’d Aug. 6] _ _ _do_ _ _ _ Request has been made in the name of the United States for a formal apology to Germany for the destruction of Embassy and for reparation for loss of life and property. Authorities promise reparation and strict precautions against repetition in the future. 734
Aug. 4 [Rec’d Aug. 5] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Has promised to keep keys and seal of German Minister, who has been handed his passports. Duties at Legation heavy, will Department arrange that some other power protect interests of Germany in Belgium? 735
[Page CL] Aug. 5 To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Cannot refuse to take charge of German interests if requested. Sufficient help will be supplied. 736
Aug. 7 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Asks permission to raise American flag over Austrian Embassy, if necessary to save life. 736
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ To the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Re destruction of German Embassy. Department unable to take up matter with Russian Ambassador. 736
Aug. 8 _ _ _do_ _ _ _ Instructions to inform Foreign Office that United States will take over Austrian interests in Russia. Asks if there would be any objections to raising American flag over Austrian Embassy. 736
Aug. 8 [Rec’d Aug. 9] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Russian officers and soldiers entered Austrian Embassy with intention of taking automobiles. Protest made in name of United States, and they withdrew. Situation is grave. 737
Aug. 9 To the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Course approved. If Government insists on taking automobiles, the matter should be settled by diplomatic correspondence, not by force. 737
Aug. 12 [Rec’d Aug. 13] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Foreign Office thinks that the raising of an American flag over the Austrian Embassy might complicate matters. Building is not in danger. 738
Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 14] _ _ _do_ _ _ _ German and Austrian Consuls being arrested and imprisoned. Strong protests of no avail. Requests instructions. 738
Aug. 15 To the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Instructions to do nothing more after protesting. 738
403 Aug. 18 [Rec’d Aug. 19] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Transmits cipher telegram from Gerard advising British Government not to allow any German subjects to leave British domain until arrangements have been made for British to leave Germany. 739
Aug. 19 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). To comply with Gerard’s suggestion would be an unneutral act. 739
Aug. 20 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Message concerning detention of German subjects by Great Britain should not be made through good offices of United States. 739
Aug. 23 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Telegram sent to Ambassador in Great Britain on grounds of common humanity. Action brought about consent of Germany to release English, if England takes reciprocal measures. 740
[Page CLI] Aug. 17 To diplomatic and consular officers of the United States of America entrusted with the interests of foreign governments at war. Instructions regarding the handling of foreign interests. Attitude should be that of impartial amity; friendly offices should be performed in accordance with wishes of both parties. 740
Aug. 27 To the Ambassadors and Ministers in Belligerent Countries (telegram). Messages relating to military or naval operations received by American diplomatic officials for transmission from one belligerent to another should be transmitted through the Department. 742
Sept. 3 To the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Transmits request that Congress appropriate sum of one million, dollars for expenses of diplomatic and consular officers and for relief of nationals of those countries. When banking facilities are restored amounts are expected to be reimbursed. 742
753 Sept. 28 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Foreign Office wishes to be informed about arrangements for repatriation of British subjects in Germany. Request that Gerard be instructed to make all arrangements through American Embassy, not through any private agency. 743
297 Sept. 30 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). No communication of any information should be made to another country except through American Ambassador or Minister accredited to that country. 744
Oct. 5 To the Ambassadors and Ministers in Belligerent Countries (telegram). Correspondence re lists of prisoners or the affairs of subjects entrusted to your care may be transmitted direct to American Ambassador or Minister. All other communications must be sent through the Department. 744
800 Oct. 8 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Requests to know if unimportant communications of details and routine work must also go through Department, thus causing delay. 744
284 Oct. 9 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Foreign officers may send by any route feasible unimportant communications of detail work, etc. 745
Undated [Rec’d Nov. 3] From the Minister in Persia (telegram). Russian officers have seized Turkish and Austrian consuls and archives. Germans threatened and Consul assaulted. Requests instructions. 745
[Page CLII] Nov. 5 To the Minister in Persia (telegram). United States has not yet been requested to protect German and Austrian interests. Discretion must be used in extending protection to nations other than Americans. Attitude of strict neutrality to be maintained. 745
785 Nov. 9 [Rec’d Nov. 10] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Re treatment and exchange of English and German prisoners. Asks permission to communicate direct to London, message to be repeated later to Department. 746
624 Nov. 12 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to observe circular instructions of October 5 in transmission of lists of prisoners. 746
21 Nov. 12 [Rec’d Nov. 17] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Turkish authorities insist on searching all consulates. They have requested United States representatives to be present; This was refused. Awaits instructions. 746
18 _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ Turkish authorities are seeking wireless apparatus used clandestinely to furnish information to Russia. British, French, and Servian offices entered in search. His protests have elicited apologies and the offices have been sealed. Horses and carriages were seized from British and French Embassies, and arms and ammunition found in the British Embassy. 747
37 Nov. 17 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to protest against the search of consulates under American protection. American consular representatives may be present unofficially to give testimony later. 747
Nov. 21 _ _ _do_ _ _ _ His action re British, French, and Russian Embassies approved. Instruction to keep Department informed. 748
108 Dec. 3 [Rec’d Dec. 4] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). American Consul at Aleppo has telegraphed that American consular seals on British and French archives have been broken and the papers removed. Turkish officials becoming bolder. Requests instructions. 748
110 Dec. 5 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to request an immediate return of British and French archives, with an explanation and assurances that violation of seal of United States will not be repeated. 748
[Page CLIII]155 Dec. 13 [Rec’d Dec. 15] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Ottoman authorities at Hodeida arrested a French Consul and attempted to arrest a British Vice Consul, who took refuge in the Italian Consulate. Police forced Consulate, British Vice Consul surrendered. Italian war vessel arrived, took Italian Consul on board and demanded reparation. Italian Ambassador requests United States help in securing release of British Vice Consul. 749
Dec. 16 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Department approves cooperation with Italian Ambassador for release of British Vice Consul. 749
Dec. 19 To the Minister in Persia (telegram). Permission to act for Germany in Persia. 749
Dec. 15 [Rec’d Dec. 21] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). British Vice Consul reinstated. Sublime Porte will give satisfaction to Italy. French consuls will leave for France. 750

Activities of the United States in Regard to Prisoners of War and Interned Civilians

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
11 Sept. 10 [Rec’d Sept. 11] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Condition of German and Austrian war prisoners is very bad. Government has done nothing to house and feed them. Suggests that matter be taken up with Russian Ambassador at Washington. 750
11 Sept. 16 To the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Protests must discontinue until instructed otherwise. 751
22 Undated [Rec’d Sept. 17] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Explanations re protests to Russian authorities concerning prisoners. 751
498 Oct. 26 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to discuss with German authorities proposal that Anderson go to Germany to study condition of British prisoners there, and make report to Berlin concerning German prisoners in England. 751
689 Nov. 2 [Rec’d Nov. 3] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany is willing that British representative inspect camps in Germany and would like for some one from Embassy to inspect German camps in England. Anderson’s report on three camps received. Requested report on Newcastle not received. Schwarzschild doing volunteer work in England. 752
[Page CLIV]718 Nov. 3 [Rec’d Nov. 4] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Suggestion that there should be international agreement as to supplying food and clothes for prisoners. Great difference exists in treatment in different countries. Suffering reported in French and German camps. 752
572 Nov. 5 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Department will be glad to submit any proposals to other belligerents looking to an arrangement for supplying prisoners. 753
Nov. 16 [Rec’d Nov. 17] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Bitterness exists between British and German Governments concerning treatment of prisoners. German Government expects him to visit camps in person and furnish from German funds necessities for prisoners. Requests instructions. 753
577 Nov. 20 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Further investigations inadvisable. Grants permission to lend personal aid and to expend money furnished for amelioration of distress in every way possible. 754
1148 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 21] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany willing for Anderson to visit German camps on condition that some one from American Embassy visit German prisoners in England. Of utmost importance that same privilege be accorded to Germany, to prevent neutrality of United States being questioned in Germany. 754
851 Dec. 29 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to request British Government to permit examination of condition of German prisoners in England in return for German permission. 755
Dec. 30 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Department will inquire whether England has any objections to Germany’s appointing some one to visit German detention camps in England. 756
1386 Jan. 2, 1915 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Permission will be given to an impartial person from the American Embassy in Berlin to visit British camps where German prisoners are kept. 756

Protection of American Interests and Institutions in Turkey

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 5 [Rec’d Aug. 7] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Request for an American vessel on the Black Sea for protection of Beirut and Smyrna. Scorpion necessary for Constantinople. 756
[Page CLV] Aug. 8 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Cannot send ships to Beirut, Smyrna, and Black Sea. Scorpion to remain in Turkey. 757
Aug. 11 [Rec’d Aug. 16] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). American ships should be sent to Syrian ports for the safety of American lives and interests. 757
Aug. 13 [Rec’d Aug. 15] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Americans at Jaffa request a war vessel. Authorities threaten to requisition cargoes on foreign vessels. 757
Aug. 15 [Rec’d Aug. 16] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Smyrna has also requested presence of war vessels. 758
Aug. 19 [Rec’d Aug. 20] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Quotes telegrams from Smyrna and Jerusalem: Massacre of foreigners threatened if city is bombarded; Christians and Europeans in danger; reign of military terrorism. Ambassador making arrangements for financial aid through private sources. 758
Aug. 19 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). United States wishes to sound European powers as to advisability of sending ships to Turkish waters. 759
_ _ _do_ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in France (telegram).
The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassador in Germany.
Statement of conditions in Turkish waters and inquiry as to advisability of sending American battleships to protect Christians. 759
Aug. 21 [Rec’d Aug. 22] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Communicates plans for protection of foreigners in Turkey if emergency arises. 760
Aug. 22 From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Germany refuses to comment on proposal of United States to send warships to Turkish waters. 760
Aug. 24 [Rec’d Aug. 25] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Russia thinks American warships in Turkish waters an excellent plan, but wishes to confer with England and France before recommending it. 761
Aug. 25 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Requests full explanation of attitude of Foreign Office on subject of American ships in Turkish waters. 761
Aug. 26 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French Government replies that conditions in Orient are due to German agitation which tends to provoke Mussulman fanaticism. French warships would aggravate situation. Suggestion of America favorably received. 761
Aug. 28 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). North Carolina ordered to Turkish waters with gold relief fund. 762
[Page CLVI] Aug. 10 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the Vice Consul at Smyrna. Encloses copy of letter of August 8 to the Ambassador in Turkey concerning the political situation in Smyrna: Banks closed; exportations stopped; unemployed joining army; foreigners in state of hysteria; Americans asking for warship; tendency of Turks to disregard capitulations; spirit of antagonism; private property seized; etc. 762
774 Aug. 15 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the Consul General at Beirut. French Consul General threatened with hanging for protest against seizure of French merchandise. Turks planning to attack Egypt. Requisitioning of jute grain bags, to be filled with sand to form causeway across Suez. Archives of towns being sent to the interior, towns to be abandoned if attacked. The only thing that will save the situation is the presence of American warships. 763
601 Sept. 5 [Rec’d Sept. 6] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British reports from Turkey confirm fear of anti-Christian uprisings. British would welcome presence of American warships in Turkish waters. 765
Aug. 15 [Rec’d Sept. 14] From the Consul at Mersina. Business of all kinds at a standstill; supplies requisitioned for army; crops unharvested. Americans warned not to go to remote places, but missionaries prefer to remain in mountains. Need for American warship. 766
148 Sept. 14 [Rec’d Sept. 15] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Ambassador in Turkey now thinks it would be well for a neutral warship to be sent to protect foreigners on Turkish coast. 767
Sept. 20 [Rec’d Sept. 21] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Presents protests against abrogation of capitulations. Grand Vizier and Minister of War give assurance that American schools and missionaries will not be molested. German cruiser Breslau enters Black Sea. Others to follow. 767
Oct. 1 [Rec’d Oct. 2] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ New law intending to abrogate capitulations has gone into effect. Case of citizen Brewster defended. Minister of War enters brother, two sons, et al., at Robert College. Recommends that North Carolina visit Smyrna. Not advisable to have warship stay there after Sublime Porte’s request to the contrary. 768
[Page CLVII] Oct. 16 From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). No foreigners are to be arrested without the approval of the Minister of Justice. Sublime Porte is preparing regulations for foreign religious, charitable, and educational institutions. 768
Oct. 27 To the Foreign Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. North Carolina and Tennessee are in Turkish waters. American Ambassador reports conditions improving there. 769
Nov. 9 To G. T. W. Patrick (telegram). Telegrams from Turkey state that American Ambassador, with cooperation of Turkish officials, has situation in hand. Missionaries fully safeguarded. 769
857 Oct. 8 [Rec’d Nov. 9] From the Consul General at Beirut. Transmits letter of October 1 from American missionary at Latakia, telling of plot to massacre the Christians; troops have taken steps to preserve order. The North Carolina will call at this port on way to Mersina. 769
39 Nov. 18 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Inquires as to the truth of the statement that a launch of the Tennessee was fired on by Turkish forts at Smyrna. 771
53 Nov. 20 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To avoid misunderstanding, permission of Ottoman Government should be secured for American ship to visit ports, so local authorities may be notified. Instructions to urge upon Ottoman Government necessity of preventing loss of life of missionaries. 771
47 Nov. 17 [Rec’d Nov. 21] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Turkish Ministers of Interior and War state that blank shots were fired at commander of Tennessee when he attempted to visit Smyrna in a steam launch. Commander threatened to bombard fort. Authorities insist that Tennessee remove wireless and leave. Encloses several telegrams on the subject. Battleship has left for Chios. 771
58 Nov. 24 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits letter of November 24 from Minister of War explaining that shots were fired to prevent launch from encountering mines laid at entrance to port. Regrets expressed. 772
[Page CLVIII]63 Nov. 21 [Rec’d Nov. 25] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). It was unfortunate that Decker Should have tried to enter closed Port, and that they should have threatened to bombard port. Suggests that Tennessee patrol Mediterranean. 773
70 Nov. 22 [Rec’d Nov. 26] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Permission has been secured for the Tennessee to visit Vourla and await wireless. Bombarding Smyrna would have brought evil results to Christians. His friendliness with officials has a restraining effect. Solemn assurances of protection of missionaries have been given. 773
82 Nov. 30 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Department considers the Tennessee incident closed. 774
90 Dec. 1 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Navy Department suggests that one of the battleships in Turkish waters be withdrawn. 774
123 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 11] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Re treatment of foreign institutions. 775
112 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 13] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Recommends leaving both ships in Turkish waters. Schools being closed; monks, nuns, and teachers expelled and grave danger threatening; no foreign schools wanted in Turkey. Dardanelles frequently bombarded. 775
148 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 15] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Djemal, Minister of Marine, antagonistic to Hollis; differences related. Turkish Government fast drifting into semianarchy. Difference of opinion as to whether two American ships are a help or a danger. Recommends that one ship be recalled and the other commander instructed that cruiser is there only for refuge and moral influence. It is time for Americans to leave. 776
151 Dec. 15 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Instructions to protest against disregard of capitulations. United States cannot accept modifications without previous agreement. 777
182 Dec. 20 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ President approves suggestion that Americans leave Turkey. Instructions to advise inland missions quietly and privately. 777
[Page CLIX]197 Dec. 22 [Rec’d Dec. 25] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Message recalling missionaries sent by Peet. Interior mission schools functioning normally. Missionaries prefer to share the danger with those for whom they have worked so long. Some schools have been turned into hospitals. English women connected with schools are urged to leave. 778
152 Dec. 16 [Rec’d Jan. 13, 1915] From the Ambassador in Turkey. Transmits note verbale of December 6 from Sublime Porte concerning the Tennessee incident. 779

Special Efforts in Behalf of British and French Nationals in Turkey

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Nov. 5 [Rec’d Nov. 9] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). German Ambassador who controls German-Turkish Army officers, promises to grant free departure to English and French unless Turkish towns are bombarded. Americans safe. 780
4 Nov. 8 [Rec’d Nov. 9] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Commander of Army Corps at Damascus states that in case of bombardment of towns in Syria, French and British will be detained. For every Mussulman killed, three French or English subjects will be shot and property seized. No responsibility assumed in case of massacre of Christians. 781
16 Nov. 11 [Rec’d Nov. 15] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Unless British and French Governments give assurance that unfortified towns in Turkey will not be bombarded, British and French consuls and subjects will be held as hostages. 781
Nov. 14 [Rec’d Nov. 16] From the British Ambassador. Requests transmission of enclosed message through United States Consul General at Beirut stating that it is not the habit of the British to fire on open towns unless attacking an armed force of the enemy. Great Britain will hold responsible any officer who orders killing of British subjects in cold blood. 782
76 Nov. 23 [Rec’d Nov. 26] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). If British will give assurances not to bombard unfortified ports unless attacked by armed Ottoman forces, then Turkish Government will allow all British subjects to leave Turkey. 782
[Page CLX] Dec. 5 From the American community at Beirut to the President (telegram). Danger that French and British subjects will be sent to the interior to be held as hostages. Appeal to the President. Proclamation of holy war would arouse fanaticism which Ottoman Government may not be able to control. 783
Nov. 30 From the Special Agent in France (telegram). Transmits note from French Minister for Foreign Affairs for information of the Ottoman Government: Ottoman warships bombarded two unprotected towns before war was declared. If any French subject is molested in Ottoman Empire, France will hold officials personally responsible. Case of Eyoub Sabri and Fuaddibra explained. 783
1209 Dec. 7 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Forwards copy of note received from Grey for transmission to Constantinople: British Government surprised at Turkish threat since Turkish warship bombarded two unprotected towns before declaring war; will hold Ottoman Ministers responsible for any molestation of British subjects. 784
1222 Dec. 8 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Transmits telegram from Bliss at Beirut stating that British non-combatants including women have been ordered to interior as hostages, pending release of detained Ottomans. 785
134 Dec. 10 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Grave dangers are involved in policy of holding non-combatant French and British subjects as hostages. Situation is aggravated by declaration of holy war. Urge Sublime Porte to release all non-combatants. 785
143 Dec. 10 [Rec’d Dec. 11] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). The Minister of Interior is indifferent to being held personally responsible for molestation of British subjects. 785
141 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Wholesale deportation of French and English from Beirut to Damascus. Minister of Interior promises to stop it Assurance given United States that those in American, institutions will be unmolested. 786
806 Dec. 12 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request German Government to use its influence with Turkish Government to modify its attitude toward British and French non-combatants within Turkish borders. 786
[Page CLXI]149 Dec. 12 [Rec’d Dec. 13] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Positive promises of British and French not to bombard unfortified towns and to release Ayour Sabri and Zenun, Prince Omar, and Turkish Consuls at Bombay, Johannesburg, and Manchester and at Malta may secure the consent of the Turkish Government for repatriation of belligerents in Turkey. Armenians reported massacred near Erzerum. 787
183 Dec. 18 [Rec’d Dec. 19] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Hollis telegraphs that deportation of French, British, and Russian male subjects from Lebanon to Damascus, and from Beirut, has begun. 787
178 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ German Ambassador in Turkey considers deportation of French and English justified by military needs. Military commander at Damascus has issued order allowing belligerent males up to eighteen years of age and all females to leave Beirut. 788
187 Dec. 19 [Rec’d Dec. 20] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Germany has absolute control of Turkish Navy and practically controls the Army. German officers suggested the deportation of English and French. Suggests warning German Empire of its responsibility of massacres in Turkey occur. 788
867 Dec. 22 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Statement of situation in Turkey. Instructions to say to German Foreign Office that in view of control which Germany exercises in Turkey, it will be difficult for her to disclaim responsibility if massacres occur. Hopes that Germany will send instructions to prevent them. 789
191 Dec. 21 [Rec’d Dec. 24] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Payas bombarded. Commandant of Syrian army threatens to shoot Englishmen if Alexandretta is bombarded. British Commander demands release of French and British, otherwise he will bombard Government buildings. Minister of Interior will release French and British subjects as soon as promise is given to release Ottoman subjects and not to bombard towns. 789
[Page CLXII]227 Jan. 5, 1915 To the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Grey expresses gratitude to Ambassador. Omar Tousson and others will be released under certain conditions. 790
273 Jan. 9, 1915 [Rec’d Jan. 10] From the Ambassador in Turkey (telegram). Statement of British Foreign Office construed as promise not to bombard unprotected towns. British subjects to receive full protection. Release of Omar Tousson and others expected. 791

Methods of Warfare: Charges of Illegal and Inhumane Conduct on the Part of Belligerent Forces—Attitude of the United States

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 18 [Rec’d Aug. 19] From the Chargé d’Affaires in Sweden (telegram). Forwards notes from German Minister in Sweden for transmission to French and Belgian. Governments: Germany protests the hostile acts of French and Belgian populace; those not belonging to recognized armed forces will be shot if found taking part in war. 791
Aug. 26 To the Chargé d’Affaires in Sweden (telegram). Communications from the German Minister have been read to the Counselor of the French Embassy and to the Belgian Minister. 792
Undated [Rec’d Aug. 26] From the Consul General at Antwerp (telegram). Antwerp calm. Communication cut off. German women and children expelled but no bodily harm done to them. 793
Sept. 4 To the Consul General at Antwerp (telegram). Diplomatic and consular officers should confine communications to statements of facts and not express opinions. 793
Sept. 3 [Rec’d Sept. 4] From the German Ambassador. Has been informed that a Belgian delegation will lay before the President the documentary evidence of alleged German atrocities. Germany protests against them as groundless. 793
53 Sept. 7 [Rec’d Sept. 8] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Transmits telegram from the Emperor to President Wilson, protesting against use of dumdum bullets by French and English and against the guerrilla warfare of the Belgian populace. 794
Sept. 10 From the President of France to the President of the United States (telegram). Denounces German charges that French and British have used dumdum bullets; Germany her-self has used them since beginning of war and has committed other atrocities already complained of. 794
[Page CLXIII]644 Sept. 11 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Enumeration of German atrocities in France and Belgium. 795
675 Sept. 15 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Suggests that a committee of inquiry be appointed by the Carnegie Peace Foundation to investigate alleged atrocities. 795
141 Sept. 14 [Rec’d Sept. 16] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Specimens of dumdum bullets have been sent to the United States at the request of the German Government. 796
Sept. 16 Remarks of President Wilson to the Belgian Commission. Welcomes representatives of the King of Belgium with pleasure; expresses warm sympathy and friendship for Belgian people; predicts a day of reckoning when the opinion of mankind will pass final judgment upon wrongs committed. 796
173 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Transmits reply of the President to the note of the Emperor re dumdum bullets. 797
191 Sept. 18 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ Government will take no action in the matter of dumdum bullets. Ambassador’s refusal to be drawn into discussion is approved. 797
Sept. 19 From the President to the President of France (telegram). Expresses appreciation of confidence placed in the United States and declares that the time will come when those responsible for the war will bear the burden of the judgment of the world. 798
Sept. 24 From the President of the American Institute of Architects to the President of the United States. Urges that precautions be taken against the destruction of architectural monuments situated in field of war. 798
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 29] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Reports of excesses are in spirit true. Will make a comprehensive report later. 799
Sept. 30 [Rec’d Oct. 1] _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ German authorities in Brussels are willing to spare monuments at Antwerp if Belgians agree not to use them for military purposes. 799
820 Sept. 17 [Rec’d Oct. 3] From the Consul at Aix-la-Chapelle. Enclosed joint statement of American newspaper men who have investigated reported atrocities of the German army. 799
Oct. 4 From the Consul General at Antwerp (telegram). Whitlock reports that Belgium accepts German proposition relative to protection of historical, monuments. 802
Oct. 6 To the President of the American Institute of Architects. Acknowledges receipt of letter protesting against alleged destruction of architectural monuments in Europe. 802
[Page CLXIV] Undated [Rec’d Oct. 7] From the Consul General at Antwerp (telegram). Bombardment has been announced. Suggests intercession of United States to prevent carnage and destruction. 803
Oct. 8 To the Consul General at Antwerp (telegram). Regrets that there is no opportunity for the United States to intercede in matter of bombardment of Antwerp. Information about monuments communicated to the Minister at Brussels. 803
41 Oct. 10 From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Germans request Spanish and American Ministers to notify Antwerp of intended bombardment of city. Germans have been furnished with list of buildings containing art treasures. 803
34 Oct. 12 To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Approves his action regarding bombardment of the city. 804
14 Oct. 20 To the Consul at Aix-la-Chapelle. Acknowledges communication re atrocities committed by Germans on Belgian-French frontier. Instructions to discontinue all investigations and observe rules of Department. 804
167 Oct. 27 To the Ambassador in Germany. Instructions to transmit to German Government enclosed communications from several societies asking that buildings of interest historically and architecturally be respected. 805
Nov. 14 To the French Ambassador. Transmits at request of German Government a copy of the White Book regarding alleged breach of the Geneva convention by French troops and irregulars. 805
6 Oct. 17 [Rec’d Nov. 23] From the Consul at Roubaix. Had suggested that officials of Roubaix, Tourcoing, and Lille send a delegation to the German army requesting them not to fire on the cities. Idea not considered feasible. Had him-self, upon suggestion of prefect of Lille, called attention of German general to fact that these cities carry on large trade with United States and asked that they be spared. German suggested agreement not acceptable to the French General Staff. 805
J. No. 10107 Dec. 5 [Rec’d Dec. 6] From the German Ambassador. Calls attention to violations of the Geneva and Hague conventions by France and Great Britain. 806
[Page CLXV]8 Dec. 24 To the Consul at Roubaix. Instructions to avoid intervention and observe proclamation of neutrality. 808
Jan. 6, 1915 To the German Ambassador. Winchester Repeating Arms Co. denies having made any sale of arms or ammunition to belligerents. Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Company furnishes proof that charges of sales to belligerents are untrue. 808

Negotiations Relating to the Work of Belgian Relief

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
783 Oct. 6 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Belgian committee formed at Brussels under patronage of Spanish and American Ministers to import foodstuffs for poor of Brussels. Requests Authorization of the United States Government. 809
435 Oct. 17 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Awaiting reply of Foreign Office to request for information regarding admission of food into Brussels. 810
541 Oct. 17 [Rec’d Oct. 18] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government approves plan to supply Belgium with food. 810
21 Oct. 16 [Rec’d Oct. 19] From the Minister in Belgium to the President (telegram). Civil population of Belgium facing starvation. Plea to President to find some way to help. 811
Oct. 16 [Rec’d Oct. 19] From the Minister in Belgium (telegram). It is necessary to extend relief work to the whole of Belgium. Committee has been organized. Assurances of German Government that food will not be taken by military. Also necessary to secure permission of England. 811
341 Oct. 19 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Germany approves plan to supply population of Belgium with food. Authorization to proceed with plan. 812
39 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Importation of foodstuffs for poor of Belgium has been approved by Germany; Embassy in London so advised. 812
358 Oct. 20 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Authorization to aid in obtaining permission from British to ship foodstuffs to Belgium. 812
40 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Minister in Belgium (telegram). Relief plan approved. Ambassador at London to render assistance. 813
[Page CLXVI]910 Oct. 26 [Rec’d Oct. 27] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Food sent to Belgium should go to Commission of Belgian Relief, which has guarantee of German military commander not to confiscate it. Money of no use. American committee should consult with Hoover, chairman of the commission. 813
221 Oct. 31 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). France requested to give assurante of neutrality of foodstuffs for Belgian relief. 814
969 Nov. 3 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). French Minister at The Hague threatens to protest against transit of foodstuffs through Netherlands without approval of French Government. 814
978 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ International Commission for Relief of Belgium, with Hoover as chairman, has completed arrangements to insure that food for starving Belgians will not be diverted. Relief given by various European governments and individuals. Recommends that Hoover be consulted as to amount of food, the kind needed, and how to ship it. 814
231 Nov. 4 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Inquires whether French Government has given assurance of recognition of neutrality of goods shipped to American Commission for Relief in Belgium. 815
248 Nov. 5 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Question of neutrality of foodstuffs for Belgium is under consideration. 815
590 Nov. 7 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Belgian Commission requests of Germany unmolested passage of ships to Holland carrying food and clothing for Belgium. 815
1027 Nov. 9 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Urges that French Government send as soon as possible permit for transshipment of foodstuffs for Belgium through Holland. 816
267 Nov. 11 From the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions have been sent to the French Minister at The Hague to offer no objection to the transit of foodstuffs through Netherlands from United States. 816
1060 Nov. 14 From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The report that Germans have been stopping food for needy Belgians is untrue. 816
540 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The President does not think it wise to appoint a Government committee for the management of Belgian relief. 817
[Page CLXVII]155 Oct. 20 [Rec’d Nov. 14] From the Minister in the Netherlands. Encloses extract from La Gazette de Hollande on subject of provisioning Belgium, quoting notes from the German Legation to the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs of August 15, and replies of the Netherland Minister of August 17 and October 3. 817
275 Nov. 17 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). The British Government is co-operating with the American Embassy in sending supplies to Belgium. Definite assurance from France on subject desired. 818
677 Nov. 20 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Requests safe passage for British as well as American ships bound for Rotterdam with food for Belgium; permission of German military asked for Americans to distribute food. 819
899 Nov. 23 [Rec’d Nov. 24] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). German Government will not interfere with neutral or unneutral ships bound for Holland with food for Belgium, but unneutral ships should carry an American certificate and a pass from the German Ambassador in Washington. 819
345 Dec. 4 From the Chargé d’Affaires in France (telegram). Foreign Office unwilling to give definite answer but thinks no trouble will be encountered in supplying Belgians with food. 820
10078 Dec. 4 [Rec’d Dec. 5] From the German Ambassador. Acknowledges receipt of note of 1st instant, and concurs in proposals for provisioning Belgium. 820
10106 Dec. 5 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ German consuls instructed to issue, upon production of American testimony, safe-conducts to unneutral ships carrying food for Belgium. 820
177 Dec. 11 [Rec’d Dec. 26] From the Chargé d’Affaires in the Netherlands. Encloses report by the Rotterdam manager of work done by Commission for Relief in Belgium. 820
1195 Dec. 26 [Rec’d Dec. 28] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Zimmermann has given assurance that German military authorities will not requisition food supplies in Belgium while Commission is sending in food, and for a reasonable time after last delivery. 823
1340 Dec. 28 [Rec’d Dec. 29] From the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). British naval authorities will facilitate voyage of relief ships which carry whole cargoes of food for Belgium: Ships should not contain other cargo. All ships for Belgium must be reported to the British Ambassador in Washington. 823
[Page CLXVIII]1210 Dec. 28 [Rec’d Dec. 31] From the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Special certificates required for unneutral ships carrying food and clothing to Belgians. 823

Negotiations Relating to the Work of the Red Cross

No. Date From and to whom Subject Page
Aug. 5 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in France, Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary, and the Ministers in Belgium and Servia. American Red Cross offers to British Red Cross a unit consisting of three doctors and twelve nurses, with hospital supplies. Like offer made to all belligerents. 824
Aug. 27 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. American Red Cross has taken over Prinz Joachim for purpose of carrying units and supplies to all countries at war; manned by Americans and flying American and Red Cross flags; to return in thirty days with privilege of similar voyages. Requests assurances that ship will not be molested. 825
Aug. 29 From the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to the British Ambassador in Washington (telegram). British Government agrees to arrangement to place any ship under American control for Red Cross use. 825
Undated [Rec’d Sept. 1] From the Ambassador in France (telegram). French reply to the request for protection of Red Cross ship: four conditions imposed as precaution. 826
17 Sept. 1 To the Ambassador in Great Britain (telegram). Instructions to ask British authorities to remit port duties of American Red Cross ship: suggests that ship can bring home American citizens on return voyage. 826
17 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to ask French authorities at Havre to remit port duties on Red Cross ship. 827
6 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). Instructions to ascertain whether port authorities at Rotterdam will remit port duties on American Red Cross ship. 827
25 Sept. 2 To the Ambassador in France (telegram). Instructions to protest the attitude of France concerning Red Cross ship, and urge that vessel will not be molested during voyage and stay in French ports. 827
[Page CLXIX] Sept. 4 To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Ambassadors in Great Britain, France, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. Instructions to request again assurances that Red Cross ship will not be molested but assisted on voyage. 828
55 _ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ To the Ambassador in Germany (telegram). Instructions to request Foreign Office to order German Consul at New York to give up the Hamburg’s papers so she may clear. 828
13 Sept. 6 From the Minister in the Netherlands (telegram). No port charges will be made for American Red Cross ship at Rotterdam. 828
_ _ _ _ _do_ _ _ _ _ From the Special Agent in France (telegram). French disposed to aid Red Cross 829
47 Sept. 6 [Rec’d Sept. 7] From the Ambassador in Germany. Germany approves plan of American Red Cross; ship will not be molested. Transmits message from Foreign Office to German Consul General at New York authorizing him to issue ship’s papers to Hamburg. 829
Sept. 7 [Rec’d Sept. 8] From the Special Agent in France (telegram). Foreign Office issues safe-conduct papers to Red Cross ship. Ship must come to Brest only and not bring any Germans who were or are officers. 829
9 Sept. 10 From the Chargé d’Affaires in Russia (telegram). Papers report that Red Cross ship Hamburg has been detained at the request of British Ambassador, as most of crew was discovered to be Germans. 830
Sept. 11 From the Secretary of State to whom it may concern. Statement concerning chartering, manning, and sailing of Red Cross ship, its destination and purpose. Assurances given by British and French that ship will not be molested. 830