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Sources

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, Volume II, Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs

The presidential papers of Jimmy Carter are the best source of high-level decision making documentation on human rights and humanitarian affairs from 1977 to 1980. A number of collections from the National Security Affairs (NSA) files are relevant to research in this area. Within the NSA files, the Brzezinski Material (especially the Subject File), Brzezinski Office File (particularly the Subject Chron File), and Staff Material collections yield important documentation. The Staff Material is of particular note, as it contains the files of the National Security Council’s Global Issues Cluster, which assumed responsibility for human rights policy and related issues within the NSC. The Global Issues files contain memoranda prepared by NSC staff members Jessica Tuchman Mathews, Leslie Denend, Lincoln P. Bloomfield, and Gerald Oplinger, including the Evening Reports prepared each night for President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs Zbigniew Brzezinski. The NSC Institutional Files contain records related to the issuance of Presidential Directives.

The Carter Library also holds a number of other significant collections essential for research on world hunger and international health. The Office of the Staff Secretary, President’s Handwriting File contains copies of various memoranda associated with the establishment of the Presidential Commission on World Hunger, including Carter’s handwritten comments on the size and composition of the Commission. Voluminous documentation on the Commission’s establishment, membership, research, and findings can be found in the records of the Presidential Commission on World Hunger (Record Group 220). The documents contained within the Staff Office Files, notably Director of the Domestic Policy Staff Stuart Eizenstat’s Files and Special Assistant for Health Issues Peter Bourne’s Files, and the White House Central Files also help illuminate the Executive Office of the President’s role in the world hunger and health initiatives.

The Department of State played a significant role in the development and implementation of human rights policy. Of particular importance are the Department’s lot files for this period. The files of Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance do contain high-level documentation on human rights; however, given that Vance designated responsibility for most human rights matters to Deputy Secretary of State Warren M. Christopher, Christopher’s files, available at the National Archives and [Page XII]Records Administration, yield significantly more documentation on a wider range of human rights and humanitarian issues, including the deliberations of the Inter-Agency Group on Human Rights and Foreign Assistance. The files of Director of the Policy Planning Staff Anthony Lake contain briefing memoranda, Policy Planning Staff-authored studies, and the Department’s responses to the world hunger and international health programs. The Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs files provide the best documentation on the Bureau’s establishment and history, staffing patterns, responses to Congressional inquiries, and coordination of the annual Human Rights Reports. The files for this period contain subject files, country files, and the chronological and official records of Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs Patricia Murphy Derian. A number of additional Department of State lot files are also of value, including the records of Secretary of State Edmund S. Muskie; Under Secretaries of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology Lucy Wilson Benson and Matthew Nimetz; and the Bureau of International Organization Affairs UNESCO and IDA files. The Department of State’s Central Foreign Policy File, consisting of D, P, and N reels, replaced the pre-1973 paper subject-numeric file. The P (Paper) reels consist of microfilmed versions of memoranda of conversation, letters, briefing papers, airgrams, and memoranda to principals.

In addition to the paper files cited below, a growing number of documents are available on the Internet. The Office of the Historian maintains a list of these Internet resources on its website and encourages readers to consult that site on a regular basis.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State, Washington, D.C.
    • Central Foreign Policy File. These files have been transferred or will be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park, Maryland.
      • P Reels
      • D Reels
      • N Reels
    • Lot Files. These files have been transferred or will be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park, Maryland.
      • HA Files: Lot 80D177
        • Human Rights Subject Files and Country Files, 1976–1977
      • S/S Files: Lots 80D135 and 84D241
        • Records of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance,1977–1980
      • S/S (I) Files: Lot81D117
        • Memoranda to/from S, D, P, E, C, T, and M
      • HA Files: Lot 82D102
        • Human Rights Subject Files, 1979
      • HA Files: Lot 82D180
        • Human Rights Subject Files, 1980
      • HA Files: Lot 85D366
        • Chronological files and official records of Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs Patricia Murphy Derian
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
      • Lot Files
        • T Files: Lot 80D72 (Entry 4)
          • Records of Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology Lucy W. Benson
        • C Files: Lot 81D85 (Entry 75)
          • Records of Counselor and Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology Matthew Nimetz
        • D Files: Lot 81D113 (Entry P–14)
          • Records of Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher, 1977–1980
        • T Files: Lot 81D321 (Entry 108)
          • Chronological Files, Speeches, and Papers of Under Secretaries of State for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology Lucy W. Benson and Matthew Nimetz
        • IO/CU/UNESCO Files: Lot 81D337 (Entry 110)
          • General subject files on United Nations issues, includes UNESCO, Human Rights, Women, Population
        • HA Files: Lot 82D274 (Entry 25)
          • Human Rights Country Reports and General Information, 1980
        • S/P Files: Lot 82D298 (Entry P–9)
          • Records of the Director of the Policy Planning Staff Anthony Lake, 1977–1981
        • IO/HNP Files: Lot 83D343 (Entry 122)
          • General subject files on Health and Narcotics Programs
        • IO/IDA/Agriculture Files: Lot 88D305 (Entry 126)
          • Subject Files of the Food and Agriculture Organization, US Mission, International Food Organizations
        • S/S Files: Lot 83D66 (Entry P–10)
          • Subject Files of Secretary of State Edmund S. Muskie, 1963–1981
  • Jimmy Carter Library, Atlanta, Georgia
    • RG 220, Records of Temporary Committees, Commissions, and Boards: Records of the Presidential Commission on World Hunger
      • Linowitz’s Subject Files
      • Subject File, 1978–1980
    • Donated Historical Materials
      • Vice Presidential Papers
        • Mondale Papers
        • National Security Issues Collection
        • Office of the Vice President
    • Records of the Office of the National Security Adviser
      • Brzezinski Material
        • Agency File
        • Brzezinski Office File
          • Subject Chron File
        • Inderfurth and Gates Chron File
        • General Odum File
        • Subject File
        • Trip File
        • VIP Visit File
      • Staff Material
        • Defense/Security
          • Huntington Files
          • Molander Files
        • Europe/USSR/East/West
          • Putnam Subject Files
        • Global Issues
          • Bloomfield Subject File
          • Mathews Subject File
          • Oplinger/Bloomfield Subject File
        • North/South Pastor Files
          • Subject File
        • Outside the System File
        • Special Projects File
          • Owen Files
          • Denton Files
    • National Security Council Institutional Files
      • Presidential Determinations
    • Office of the Staff Secretary
      • Handwriting File
    • Plains File
      • Cabinet Meeting Minutes
      • Presidential Daily Diary
    • Staff Office Files
      • Domestic Policy Staff
        • Eizenstat Files
      • Special Assistant for Health Issues
        • Bourne Files
          • Subject Files
          • White House Office File on International Health
          • White House Office Files on World Hunger Group
      • White House Office of the Counsel to the President
        • Lipshutz Files
    • White House Central Files
      • Subject Files and Confidential Files
        • HE–3: Includes general information on international health and food policy and Peter Bourne’s international health initiatives
        • HU–3: Includes information on foreign human rights matters usually generated by or directed to the National Security Council staff or Zbigniew Brzezinski
        • FG–311: Includes information on the Presidential Commission on World Hunger
        • PC–1: Includes information related to all peace programs including Peace Corps and Food for Peace
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • Community Management Staff
      • Job 83M00171R
    • National Intelligence Council
      • Job 91M00696R
    • Office of Congressional Affairs
      • Job 81M00980R
    • Office of the Director of Central Intelligence
      • Job 80B01554R
      • Job 80M01048A
    • Office of Support Services (DI)
      • Job 80T00634A
  • Department of the Treasury, Washington, D.C.
    • Office of the Secretary, Executive Secretariat, 1978 and 1980 Files
  • Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota
    • Walter F. Mondale Papers
      • Vice Presidential Papers
        • Central Files
          • AG 8: World Food Problem

Published Sources

  • Brzezinski, Zbigniew. Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977–1981. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983.
  • Carter, Jimmy. White House Diary. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 2010.
  • Chicago Tribune
  • The Christian Science Monitor
  • Foreign Policy
  • Los Angeles Times
  • National Academy of Sciences. World Food and Nutrition Study: The Potential Contributions of Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1977.
  • The New York Times.
  • Office of the Federal Registrar. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978.
  • Presidential Commission on World Hunger. Overcoming World Hunger: The Challenge Ahead, Report of the Presidential Commission on World Hunger—March 1980. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1980.
  • Presidential Commission on World Hunger. Technical Papers. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1980.
  • United Nations. Colombo Declaration on Population and Environment. New York: United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1979.
  • United Nations. Report of the United Nations Water Conference, Mar del Plata, 14–25 March 1977. United Nations publication: E.77.II.A.12.
  • United Nations. Treaty Series.
  • United Nations. Yearbook of the United Nations.
  • United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. New Developments Regarding the Follow-up of the United Nations Water and Desertification Conferences and Follow-up of the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development. SC–79/CONF.214/Col.l4. Paris: UNESCO, May 28, 1979.
  • United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Report of the Conference of FAO, Twentieth Session, Rome, 10–28 November 1979, FAO–GIC—C–79/REP. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 1979.
  • United States Agency for International Development. Report on Women in Development: Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate and the Speaker, U.S. House of Representatives in Fulfillment of Section 113 (b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as amended, August 3, 1977. Washington, D.C.: Office of Women in Development, August 1978.
  • United States Department of State. American Foreign Policy, Basic Documents, 1977–1980. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1980.
  • ———. Bulletin, 1974–1980. Washington, D.C.: 1974–1981.
  • ———. Report of the United States Delegation to the World Conference on the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development, and Peace (Copenhagen, Denmark, July 14–30, 1980). Washington, D.C.: Bureau of International Organization Affairs, 1981.
  • United States House Committee on International Relations and U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2003.
  • United States National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Gerald R. Ford, 1975,1976. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976, 1977.
  • ———. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1977–1981. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978–1982
  • United States Senate. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and U.S. Department of Agriculture. New Directions for U.S. Food Assistance: A Report of the Special Task Force on the Operation of Public Law 480. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978.
  • United States Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Foreign Assistance of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety Fifth Congress, First Session, on Human Rights Issues and Their Relationship to Foreign Assistance Programs, March 4 and 7, 1977. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1977.
  • United States Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council Annual Report Fiscal Year 1975–76. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976.
  • Vance, Cyrus R. Hard Choices: Critical Years in America’s Foreign Policy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.
  • The Wall Street Journal.
  • The Washington Post.
  • White House. New Directions in International Health Cooperation: A Report to the President. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978.
  • White House. World Hunger and Malnutrition: Improving the U.S. Response: A Report to the President by the World Hunger Working Group. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978.
  • White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1969.
  • World Bank/International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. World Development Report, 1980. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank, August 1980.
  • World Health Organization. Primary Health Care: Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6–12 September 1978. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1978.