Chapter V: Japan


165. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, January 4, 1973, 5:40 p.m.

Kissinger criticized the Japanese government’s Vietnam message and discussed the state of U.S.-Japanese relations with Ambassador Ushiba.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 538, Country Files, Far East, Japan, January–June 1973, vol. 9. Secret; Sensitive. The meeting was held in Kissinger’s office. On January 3, John Holdridge provided talking points for Kissinger’s meeting with Ushiba and attached telegram 232944 to Tokyo, December 28, 1972, which contained the text of a message that Ushiba gave to U. Alexis Johnson on December 27, 1972, appealing to the United States to resume Vietnam peace negotiations as quickly as possible. (Ibid.)


166. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, January 24, 1973.

Togo and Sneider discussed U.S.-Japan Security Relations and Sino-Japanese relations.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–1973, DEF 4 Japan-US. Secret; Noforn. Drafted by Sneider.


167. Conversation Between President Nixon and John B. Connally, Washington, January 31, 1973.

Nixon and Connally discussed Japanese politicians and relations between the United States and Japan.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Tapes, Oval Office, Conversation No. 845–11. No classification marking. The editor transcribed the portions of the tape recording printed here specifically for this volume. The President’s Daily Diary indicates that this discussion occurred as part of a larger conversation between 4:52 and 6:13 p.m. (Ibid., White House Central Files, President’s Daily Diary)


169. National Security Study Memorandum 172, Washington, March 7, 1973.

Kissinger instructed the Departments of State, Defense, Treasury, Commerce, and the CIA to review U.S. policy toward Japan.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–197, NSSM Files, NSSM 172 (2 of 3). Secret. Copies were sent to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs. NSSM 122, on policy toward Japan, is scheduled to be published in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, Volume XIX, Part II, Japan, 1969–1972.


170. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, March 9, 1973, 1430–1500.

Richardson and Ushiba discussed relations between the United States and Japan, especially within the context of improving relations with the People’s Republic of China.

Source: Washington National Records Center, OASD/ISA Files: FRC 330–76–117, Japan, 333, 1973 January, March 13, 1973. Secret. Prepared by Doolin and approved by Eagleburger. The conversation took place in Richardson’s office.


171. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, March 27, 1973, 10:30 a.m.

Kissinger, Aichi, and Ushiba discussed trade and monetary issues. Nixon joined the conversation near the end.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Country Files, Far East, Box 538, Japan, volume 9, January–June 1973. Secret; Nodis. The conversation took place in Kissinger’s office. In a briefing memorandum to Kissinger, March 26, Hormats described the“object of the meeting” as strengthening Aichi “at home” and expressing appreciation for recent Japanese measures to liberalize trade and revalue the yen. (Ibid.)


172. Memorandum From Robert Hormats of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, April 12, 1973.

Hormats summarized economic data on trade between the United States, the European Community, and Japan.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 538, Country Files, Far East, Japan, volume 9, January–June 1973. No classification marking. Sent for information. Kissinger initialed this document. Peter Flanigan sent these trade statistics to Kissinger under a covering memorandum, March 8.


173. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 21, 1973, noon.

Nixon and Ohira surveyed international developments, including the naming of a new U.S. Ambassador to Japan.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversation, Box 4. Secret. The conversation took place in the Oval Office. The President’s Daily Diary indicates that the meeting lasted from 12:07 until 12:57 p.m. and included, in addition to the persons listed on the memorandum of conversation, Yasukawa, Okawara, Numata, and the Japanese and American interpreters, Sadaaki Numata and Manabu Fukada. (National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Central Files, President’s Daily Diary)


174. Memorandum From John Froebe of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, June 6, 1973.

Froebe recommended that Kissinger approve a cable instructing Embassy Tokyo to broach a U.S.-Japan Environmental Agreement.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 538, Country Files, Far East, Japan, volume 9, January–June 1973. Confidential. Sent for action. Concurred in by Elliot and Fairbanks. Kissinger initialed his approval of the recommendation on June 11, and an NSC staff member notified the Department of State by telephone on June 12.


175. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) and the President’s Assistant for International Economic Affairs (Flanigan) to President Nixon, Washington, July 2, 1973.

Kissinger and Flanigan forwarded Secretary Rogers’s memorandum about the upcoming ministerial meeting with Japan. Nixon approved the proposed agenda.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 539, Country Files, Far East, Japan, July 1973–December 31, 1974 (sic), vol. 10. Confidential. Sent for action. Nixon initialed his approval of the recommendation. Rogers’s memorandum, June 22, is attached Tab A, but is not published.


176. Memorandum From John Froebe of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 5, 1973.

Froebe recommended that Kissinger ask for an interim response to NSSM 172 focusing on Japan’s regional and global role.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–197, NSSM Files, NSSM 172 (2 of 3). Secret. Sent for action. Concurred in by Kennedy, Eagleburger, and Hormats. Both recommendations were marked approved with handwritten notes that read, “HAK per phone call from Jon Howe to RTK. 7/7/73.” In a memorandum to Kissinger, June 30, Froebe noted that the Department had delayed NSSM 172 by requesting Presidential affirmation of the primacy of the U.S.-Japanese alliance before considering other aspects of the study. Kissinger commented in the margin, “Stupid theological point.” (Ibid.) On July 12, Scowcroft sent a memorandum to Eliot asking the NSC Interdepartmental Group for East Asia to prepare an interim study. (Ibid.) On July 27, Richard Sneider, Chairman of the Ad Hoc Group for NSSM 172, submitted a paper titled“US-Japan Cooperation on Multilateral Problems of Mutual Concern” in response to Scowcroft’s memorandum. (Ibid., NSC Files, Box 1056, NSC Institutional Materials, NSC Institutional Papers, July 1973 [1 of 3])


177. Memorandum From Robert Hormats of the National Security Council staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 19, 1973.

Hormats described the recent ministerial talks held in Tokyo between the United States and Japan.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 539, Country Files, Far East, Japan, July 1973–December 31, 1974 (sic), vol. 10. Confidential. Sent for information. Concurred in by Froebe. Kissinger initialed the memorandum on August 8.


178. Memorandum From John Froebe of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 30, 1973.

Froebe asked Kissinger for guidance on conceptual aspects of the draft joint statement to be issued at the end of Tanaka’s visit.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 927, VIP Visits, Japan PM Tanaka’s Visit, July 31, 1973 [1 of 3]. Confidential. Sent for action. Concurred in by Hormats. A draft of the joint draft statement is attached as Tab A. Kissinger initialed his approval of all four recommendations on August 1.


179. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, July 31, 1973, 11 a.m..

Nixon and Tanaka talked about an exchange of state visits, U.S.-Japan trade, nuclear capabilities, educational exchanges, Sino-Soviet relations, the Soviet-American summit, superpower security relations, the New Atlantic Charter, and press guidance.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 927, VIP Visits, Japan PM Tanaka’s Visit, July 31, 1973 [1 of 3]. Secret; Sensitive. During dinner conversation on July 31, Nixon and Tanaka briefly discussed the likelihood of an Imperial visit to Washington, U.S.-Japanese joint development of Siberia, Tanaka’s planned visit to Western Europe and the Soviet Union, and the prospects for getting the Japanese government’s legislative program through the current session of the Diet. (Memorandum of Conversation, July 31, 1973, 8 p.m.; ibid.) Nixon’s talking points for his meetings with Tanaka are ibid., [2 of 3].


180. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 1, 1973, 9:30 a.m.

Nixon and Tanaka discussed the trade balance, Korean issues, Asia, Sino-Soviet relations, energy, U.S.-Japanese consultative organs, the Mutual Security Treaty, and development activities in Siberia.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 927, VIP Visits, Japan PM Tanaka’s Visit, July 31, 1973 [1 of 3]. Secret; Sensitive.


181. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, September 24, 1973, 5–5:30 p.m.

Kissinger and Ohira discussed the Declaration of Principles, future visits to Japan, technology transfers, and Japanese relations with China, the Soviet Union, and the Vietnams.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 539, Country Files, Far East, Japan, July 73–Dec. 31, 1974 (sic), Vol. 10. Secret. The meeting was held at the Waldorf Towers in New York City. During a meeting three weeks earlier, Yasukawa gave Kissinger a draft declaration of principles. Kissinger scanned it, noted that he wanted to study it more closely, but remarked, “My initial reaction, however, is that it is not concrete and not a very important document.” (Memorandum of conversation, September 4, 1973, 11:15 a.m.; ibid.)


183. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, January 5, 1974.

Kissinger tasked the Departments of State, Defense, Treasury, Commerce, and the Central Intelligence Agency to complete the response to NSSM 172.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1061, NSC Institutional Materials, NSC Institutional Papers, January 1974 (2 of 2). Secret. Copies were sent to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs. Sent to Kissinger under a covering memorandum, December 21, 1973, from Froebe and Donald Stukel of the NSC staff, which stated, “In June a long and rather rambling draft was completed and a copy sent to the NSC Staff. At that point further work bogged down due to uncertainty among the drafters as to how current events were likely to impact on US/Japan long-term relations and due partly to our call in July for an IG special report on regional and global issues in support of Prime Minister Tanaka’s visit.” (Ibid.)


184. Minutes of the Secretary of State’s Staff Meeting, Washington, January 7, 1974.

Lord presented on U.S.-Japan planning talks. The discussion focused on energy policy and the trilateral declaration.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Kissinger’s Staff Meetings, 1973–1977, E5177, Box 2. Secret. In this meeting, Lord orally presented the contents of a paper that he had sent to Kissinger on December 22. Lord’s paper is ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Country Files, Far East, Box 539, Japan, July 1973–December 31, 1974 (sic), vol. 10.


185. Memorandum From the Director of Defense Program Analysis and Evaluation (Sullivan) to Secretary of Defense Schlesinger, Washington, January 22, 1974.

Sullivan summarized an analysis of defense related balance of payments with Japan.

Source: Washington National Records Center, OSD Files: FRC 330–78–0011, Japan, 123, 1974 January 22. Confidential. The memorandum is stamped, “Sec Def has seen. 13 Aug 1974.” The analysis is attached but not published.


186. Memorandum From W.R. Smyser of the National Security Council staff to the Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, February 8, 1974.

Smyser informed Kissinger that Japan basically supported the U.S. position on energy matters.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 539, Country Files, Far East, Japan, Vol. 11, 1 January 1974–. Secret; Sensitive; Eyes Only. Sent for urgent information. Kissinger initialed the memorandum. On January 14, Smyser produced a similar memorandum, which Kissinger initialed, that stated, “the Japanese, though subject to some constraints, are prepared to react positively to our proposals for an Energy Action Group and for greater cooperation among the oil consuming nations. Their position arises from the general desire to work with us as well as from their awareness that they can be destroyed more quickly than anybody else if the oil producers get the upper hand.” (Smyser and Froebe to Kissinger, January 4; ibid.)


187. Memorandum of Conversation, Paris, April 7, 1974, 10:15 a.m.

Nixon and Tanaka discussed trade issues, Siberian development, relations with China, and the role of the United States in Asia.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1028, Presidential/HAK Memcons, 1 March 1974–8 May 1974 [2 of 4]. Secret; Sensitive. The conversation took place in the residence of the American Ambassador. A briefing memorandum for the meeting is in the Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Brent Scowcroft Daily Work Files, 1973–1977, Box 7, Chronological File A, April 5–7, 1974 (Paris Trip).


188. Key Judgments from Research Study OPR-4 Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, May 1974.

A CIA study predicted continuity in Japanese policy during the next few years, but anticipated that more dramatic changes would be possible during the 1980s.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 539, Country Files, Far East, Japan, Vol. 11, 1 January 1974–. Secret; No Foreign Dissem. A notation on the correspondence profile, August 14, reads, “No further action necessary—will be incorporated into Japan trip briefing papers for Pres.” (Ibid.) In a letter to the President, dated May 17, Colby wrote that the study was a response to Nixon’s desire for a “look ahead” into the future of Japanese policy. ( Central Intelligence Agency, OPI 10, Job 80M01048A, Box 4, Fold. 1 )


189. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 21, 1974, noon.

Nixon and Ohira discussed the U.S.-Japan alliance, the Middle East, Sino-Soviet relations, Siberian development, and India’s nuclear test.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1029, Presidential/HAK Memcons, 1 June 1974– [8 August 1974] [3 of 3]. Secret; Sensitive. The conversation took place in the Oval Office. On May 14, Yasukawa sent Nixon a memorandum stating the Government of Japan’s position regarding Siberian development. (Ibid., Box 1337, NSC Unfiled Material, 1974, 1 of 9) Springsteen suggested that no response to the Japanese memorandum was necessary, but recommended that Nixon refer to it during his May 21 meeting with Ohira. (Memorandum from Springsteen to Scowcroft, May 17; ibid.)


190. Study Prepared by the NSC Interdepartmental Group for East Asia and Pacific Affairs, Washington, undated.

The NSC Interdepartmental Group for East Asia and Pacific Affairs prepared a paper, on U.S. policy toward Japan, in response to NSSM 172.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–197, NSSM Files, NSSM 172 (2 of 3). Secret; Noforn. Scowcroft received the study under a covering letter, June 26, from Springsteen. The annexes to the report, on Japanese domestic political constraints, the policy background, traditional problem areas in U.S.-Japanese relations, and Japanese economic trends, are attached, but not published. Davis forwarded the report to interested departments and agencies on June 29. (Ibid.)


191. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, June 27, 1974, 1520–1530.

Hodgson and Ellsworth discussed military issues involving the United States and Japan. Schlesinger joined the meeting for the last ten minutes.

Source: Washington National Records Center, OASD/ISA Files: FRC 330–77–0054, Japan, 333, July 5, 1974. Confidential. Prepared by Barrett and approved by Ellsworth. The conversation took place in Schlesinger’s office. Schlesinger’s talking points, dated June 26, are ibid.


192. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, July 9, 1974, noon–12:25 p.m.

Hodgson met with Nixon before assuming the position of Ambassador to Japan.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversation, Box 4, July–September 1974. Secret; Nodis. The conversation took place in the Oval Office.


193. National Security Decision Memorandum 262, Washington, July 29, 1974.

Kissinger modified NSDM 251, relating to the use of U.S. bases in Japan in the event of aggression against South Korea.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 364, Subject Files, NSDMs, #145–264, 1972-1974. Top Secret; Sensitive. Copies were sent to the Director of Central Intelligence and to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Rush’s memorandum, April 27, offered three options: “1. Negotiate a new agreement as provided in NSDM 251. 2. Let the Korean Minute formally lapse and depend on the Nixon-Sato Communique. 3. Not raise the Korean Minute issue directly with the Japanese Government and seek to leave the issue in essence unresolved.” Rush recommended option three. (Ford Library, National Security Adviser, NSC Staff for East Asia & Pacific Affairs, Convenience Files, Box 3, Japan 1974 [3])


194. National Security Study Memorandum 210, Washington, September 11, 1974.

Kissinger instructed the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the CIA, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the Departments of the Treasury, Defense, and State to review U.S. policy toward Japan in preparation for the President’s visit.

Source: Ford Library, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–13, Institutional Files, Meetings (IFM), SRG Meeting, Japan, November 11, 1974 (3). Secret; Exdis. Copies were also sent to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Counsellor to the President for Economic Policy, and the Executive Director of the Council on International Economic Policy. Smyser sent Kissinger the draft NSSM under a covering September 4 memorandum. (Ibid., Box H-32, NSSM 210, Review of Japan Policy for the President’s Visit to Japan [2])