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Sources

Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. It also requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government engaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support cooperate with the Department of State historians by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. Most of the sources consulted in the preparation of this volume have been declassified and are available for review at the National Archives and Records Administration.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department’s Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. All the Department’s indexed central files through July 1973 have been permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland (Archives II). Many of the Department’s decentralized office files covering the 1969–1976 period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, have also been transferred or are in the process of being transferred from the Department’s custody to Archives II.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Nixon and other White House foreign policy records, including tape recordings of conversations with key U.S. and foreign officials. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries and the Nixon Presidential Materials Project include some of the most significant foreign affairs-elated documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Dr. Henry Kissinger has approved access to his papers at the Library of Congress. The papers are a key source for the Nixon-Ford subseries of Foreign Relations.

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Research for this volume was completed through special access to restricted documents at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project, the Library of Congress, and other agencies. While all the material printed in this volume has been declassified, some of it is extracted from still classified documents. Nixon’s papers were transferred to their permanent home at the Nixon Presidential Library and Museum, in Yorba Linda, California, after research for this volume was completed. The Nixon Library staff and Ford Library staff are processing and declassifying many of the documents used in the volume, but they may not be available in their entirety at the time of publication.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, Volume XXVIII

For the Nixon period, the Nixon Presidential Materials Project contains several collections from the National Security Council Files that are relevant to research on Southern Africa. The administration conducted a series of policy reviews on Southern Africa, focusing on individual countries and the region as a whole. This collection of National Security Study Memoranda (NSSM), the interagency studies, and the National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDM) are in the NSC Institutional Files (H-Files). These files also contain records of high-level meetings and policy papers. The Country File for Rhodesia focuses primarily on the issue of sanctions on Rhodesian chrome and the Byrd amendment. The Country File for the United Kingdom focuses on the U.S.–U.K. strategy for resolving the Rhodesian crisis. The Country File for South Africa contains materials covering the denial of a visa to Arthur Ashe, the U.S.-South African understanding on gold and the proposed nuclear fuel agreement, as well as the assignment of a black Foreign Service Officer to the Embassy. The Presidential Tape Recordings at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project contain little regarding administration decision making. However, they do provide greater insight into Nixon’s attitudes toward Africans in general and his personal beliefs about Rhodesia and Portuguese Africa.

The Central Files of the Department of State are a particularly useful collection located at the National Archives. These files contain detailed information from the Department and African posts. The most relevant subject-numeric designations for South Africa’s administration of South West Africa are POL 15–2 SAFR, POL 23–5 SAFR, POL 19 SWAFR and POL 29 SWAFR. The most relevant subject-numeric designations for U.S. relations with South Africa are POL SAFR–US, POL 1 SAFR–US, POL 17 SAFR–US, POL 23 SAFR, DEF 12 SAFR, DEF 12–5 SAFR, SOC 14 SAFR and PPT Ashe, Arthur. The most relevant subject-numeric designations for Rhodesia are POL UK–US, POL 16 RHOD and FT 11–2 RHOD. For Portuguese Africa, the most relevant subject-numeric designations are POL PORT–US, POL 17 PORT–US and POL AFR-PORT.

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For the Ford period, the Nixon Presidential Materials Project, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), contain documentation about U.S. relations with South Africa pertaining to maritime defense. The issue is also covered in the Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Scowcroft Chronological Files. NSSMs and NSDMs dealing with South Africa can be found in both the Ford Library, National Security Adviser, NSSMs and NSDMs file and the Ford NSC Institutional Files (H-Files).

The documentation for Angola is located in multiple collections. One of the richest sources is the Kissinger Papers located in the Manuscript Division at the Library of Congress. Within this collection, there are several sub-collections which contain detailed memoranda of conversation on this topic. They include: Presidential File, Memoranda of Conversation, and Memoranda of Conversation, Chronological File. National Security Council meetings on Angola are located in NSC Committees and Panels, as well as in the Ford Library, National Security Adviser, NSC Meetings File. Other important collections are at the Ford Library as well. The Presidential Country Files for Zaire provide documentation of U.S. efforts to enlist Mobutu Sese Seko’s support to serve as a conduit for American aid to Holden Roberto and Jonas Savimbi. This is also documented in the Kissinger and Scowcroft West Wing Office File, Angola. Communications between Kissinger and Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin regarding Angola are located in the same file. The Scowcroft Daily Work Files contain backchannel messages seeking support for U.S. efforts to thwart an MPLA victory. The Country Files for Portugal provide details on the situation in Angola and Department efforts to ensure an orderly transition to independence. Memoranda for the record of 40 Committee meetings are located in the National Security Council Files, Ford Administration Intelligence Files, 40 Committee Meetings. Details on the covert operation in Angola are contained in the Africa, Latin America, Inter-Agency Intelligence Committee Files section of the INR/IL Historical Files at the Department of State. These collections also contain a number of interagency studies and papers on Angola. The Department of State’s State Archiving System (SAS) is a word-searchable database and an excellent source for cable traffic after 1973. Historical documents from this system have been transferred to the National Archives and are part of the online Access to Archival Database (AAD). This is a valuable source for all cables, but is particularly useful for chronicling the effort to establish diplomatic relations with Mozambique and for documenting the Portuguese exit from Angola.

Kissinger’s negotiations on Namibia and Rhodesia are found primarily in the Kissinger Papers, Department of State Memoranda, Memoranda of Conversations and the Geopolitical File, Africa Chronological File. Kissinger’s reports on the progress of his talks with various [Page XIV]African leaders are located in the Kissinger Papers, Cables File and the Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Henry A. Kissinger Trips File. The Presidential Country Files for the United Kingdom at the Ford Library is an excellent source for the U.S.–U.K. efforts to resolve the Rhodesia crisis. The Country Files for Switzerland provide comprehensive documentation on the Geneva conference negotiations. The Presidential Country Files for Zambia and South Africa contain correspondence to and from African leaders on the progress of the negotiations.

In addition to the paper files cited below, a growing number of documents are available on the Internet. The Office of the Historian maintains a list of these Internet resources on its website and encourages readers to consult that site on a regular basis.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Central Files. See National Archives and Records Administration below.
      • INR/IL Historical Files
        • Africa, Latin America, Inter-Agency Intelligence Committee Files
          • Angola-Washington
          • Angola NSSM 224 Papers
          • Angola 1975–1976
          • Rhodesia 1974–76
        • Intelligence Committee Report File
          • January 22, 1975
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
      • Central Files 1967–1969
        • POL 15–1 PORT, head of state, executive branch, Portugal
        • POL 15–2 SAFR, South African Parliament
        • POL 15–5 RHOD, Rhodesian constitution
        • POL 16 RHOD, independence and recognition, Rhodesia
        • POL 17 PORT–US, diplomatic and consular representation, Portugal-U.S.
        • POL 17 SAFR–US, diplomatic and consular representation, South Africa-U.S.
        • POL 19 SWAFR, administration of dependencies and territories, South West Africa
        • POL 23 SAFR, internal security, South Africa
        • POL 23–5 SAFR
        • POL 29 SWAFR, political prisoners, South West Africa
        • POL UK–US, political affairs and relations, United Kingdom-U.S.
        • PPT Ashe, Arthur
      • Central Files 1970–1973
        • DEF 12 SAFR, armaments, South Africa
        • DEF 12–5 SAFR, procurement and sale of armaments, South Africa
        • FT 11–2 RHOD, foreign trade, boycotts, Rhodesia
        • FT 11–2 RHOD/UN, foreign trade, boycotts, Rhodesia/U.N.
        • INCO–CHROME 17 US–RHOD, industries and commodities, chrome trade, U.S.-Rhodesia
        • LAB 10 SAFR, special groups, special categories of labor, South Africa
        • POL 1 AFR, general policy and background, Africa
        • POL 1 AFR–PORT, general policy and background, Africa-Portugal
        • POL 1 AFR–US, general policy and background, Africa-U.S.
        • POL 1 BOTSWANA-US, U.S. general policy toward Botswana
        • POL 1 S AFR–US, general policy and background, South Africa-U.S.
        • POL 1 SWAZ–US, general policy and background, Swaziland-U.S.
        • POL 1 UK–US, general policy and background, United Kingdom-U.S.
        • POL 1–2 ANG–US, general policy and political analyses, Angola-U.S.
        • POL 1–2 MOZ-US, general policy and political analyses, Mozambique-U.S.
        • POL 15–1 ZAMBIA, head of state, executive branch, Zambia
        • POL 16 RHOD, independence and recognition, Rhodesia
        • POL 17 THE CONGO, diplomatic and consular representation, Congo
        • POL 19 SW AFR, administration of dependencies and territories, South West Africa
        • POL 19 SW AFR/UN, administration of dependencies and territories, South West Africa-U.N.
        • POL PORT–US, political affairs and relations, Portugal-U.S.
        • POL S AFR–US, political affairs and relations, South Africa-U.S.
        • SOC 14 S AFR, social conditions, human rights and race relations, South Africa
      • Lot Files
        • National Security Study Memoranda (NSSMs) and related papers, 1969–1976, Lot 80D212
        • Records of Robert S. Ingersoll, 1972–1976, Lot 76D329
        • Records of Henry Kissinger, 1973–1977, Lot 91D414
  • Nixon Presidential Materials Project, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland (now at the Nixon Presidential Library and Museum, Yorba Linda, California)
    • National Security Council Files, Country Files
      • Africa
        • Mauritania
        • Rhodesia
        • South Africa
        • Zambia
      • Europe
        • Portugal
        • United Kingdom
      • Name Files, Dean Acheson
      • Subject Files, National Security Decision Memoranda
    • National Security Council Institutional Files (H-Files)
      • National Security Study Memoranda
      • National Security Decision Memoranda
      • Senior Review Group Meetings
      • National Security Council Meetings
    • White House Central Files, President’s Daily Diary
    • White House Tapes
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • DO Files
      • Job 80–00464A
    • Executive Registry Files
      • Job 80–B01086A
    • NIC Files
      • Job 79–01229A
  • Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
    • National Security Adviser
      • Kissinger Trip Files
      • Kissinger-Scowcroft West Wing Office Files
      • Memoranda of Conversations
      • NSC Meetings File
      • NSC Staff Secretary Files
      • NSDMs and NSSMs
      • Outside the System Chronological File
      • Presidential Correspondence with Foreign Leaders
      • Presidential Country Files for Africa
      • Presidential Country Files for Europe and Canada
      • Presidential Trip Files
      • Scowcroft Daily Work Files
    • National Security Council
      • Institutional Files
    • Staff Secretary’s Office
      • President’s Daily Diary
      • Presidential Handwriting File
  • Library of Congress, Washington, DC
    • Papers of Henry A. Kissinger
      • Geopolitical File
      • Cables File
      • Memoranda of Conversations
      • Memoranda to the President
      • Department of State, Memoranda
      • Top Secret
        • National Security Council
  • National Security Council
    • Ford Administration Intelligence Files
      • Angola
      • 40 Committee Meetings
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
    • Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense 73A–1975
      • Secret Files of the Office of International Security Affairs

Published Sources

  • Congress and the Nation, 1969–1972. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Service, 1973.
  • Fischer, David. History of the International Atomic Energy Agency: The First Forty Years. Vienna: IAEA, 1997.
  • Keesing’s Contemporary Archives. London, Keesing’s Publications Limited, 1965–1976.
  • United States. Department of State. Bulletin. Washington, DC, 1970–1977.
  • United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard M. Nixon, 1969–1973. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1971–1975.
  • ______. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Gerald R. Ford, 1974–1977. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975–1979.
  • Yearbook of the United Nations. New York: Office of Public Information.