The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government engaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. Most of the sources consulted in the preparation of this volume have been declassified and are available for review at the National Archives and Records Administration.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department’s Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. All the Department’s indexed central files for these years have been permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland (Archives II). Virtually all of the Department’s decentralized office (or lot) files covering this period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, have been transferred to Archives II.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Lyndon B. Johnson, President John F. Kennedy, and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The editors of the series also have full access to the files of the Department of Defense, including the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and to the records of the Central Intelligence Agency.

[Page XIV]

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1964–1968, Volume XXXIII

In preparing this volume, the editors made extensive use of Presidential papers and other White House records at the Lyndon B. Johnson Library. Numerous White House records, including memoranda to the President, testify to President Johnson’s concern with management of foreign policy and the United Nations. The bulk of the foreign policy records at the Johnson Library are in the country files and other component parts of the National Security File. The Country File for the United Nations includes telegrams, memoranda, reports, and other material dated 1964 and 1965. Similar material on the United Nations dated 1966 through 1968 is found in the National Security File, Agency File, United Nations. Documentation on the United Nations peacekeeping force in Cyprus is also found in the Cyprus Country File and the files of Robert W. Komer. Key documentation on the organization and management of foreign policy is located in several components of the National Security File, especially the Agency File, Memos the President, and in a number of other collections, especially the Office of the President File and the Papers of NSC Executive Secretary Bromley Smith.

The Department of State arranged for access to the many audiotapes of President Johnson’s telephone conversations that are held at the Johnson Library. These audiotapes include substantial numbers of telephone conversations between President Johnson and Secretary of State Rusk, Secretary of Defense McNamara, the President’s Special Assistant for National Security Affairs McGeorge Bundy, and key members of Congress. The editors of this volume selected for publication 22 audiotapes of President Johnson’s telephone conversations dealing with organization and management and three concerning the United Nations. Transcripts were then prepared. Although the transcripts give the substance of the conversations, readers are urged to consult the recordings for a full appreciation of those dimensions that cannot be captured fully in a transcription, such as the speakers’ inflections and emphases that may convey nuances of meaning.

Second in importance only to the White House records at the Johnson Library were the records of the Department of State. The Department’s central files contain the cable traffic recording U.S. diplomatic relations with the United Nations, memoranda of diplomatic conversations, and memoranda proposing action or providing information. Some important documents are found only in the Department’s lot files. The files of Under Secretaries Ball and Katzenbach and the Executive Secretariat’s files on the National Security Council and the Senior Interdepartmental Group contain valuable material on the organization and management of foreign policy. Equally important are the files of Deputy Under Secretary for Administration William J. Crockett at the [Page XV] John F. Kennedy Library. Also illuminating on management issues and high-level appointments are the memoranda of telephone conversations in the papers of Under Secretary George Ball and Under Secretary for Economic Affairs Thomas Mann at the Lyndon B. Johnson Library.

The Central Intelligence Agency provides Department of State historians access to high-level intelligence documents from those records in the custody of that Agency and at the Presidential libraries. This access is arranged and facilitated by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, pursuant to a May 2002 memorandum of understanding.

Among the intelligence records included or consulted for the compilation on the organization and management of foreign policy were the files of the Directors of Central Intelligence, especially those of John A. McCone. Also of value were the Executive Registry files of the Director of Central Intelligence, the files of CIA’s Directorates of Intelligence and Plans, the records of the National Reconnaissance Office, the Historical Files of the Department of State’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research, the Intelligence Files of the Johnson administration, including Special Group/303 Committee files, and finally the Intelligence File in the White House National Security File. The compilation on the United Nations utilized intelligence reports and analyses in White House and Department of State files.

Almost all of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of the agencies mentioned, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

The following list identifies the particular files and collections consulted in the preparation of this volume. The declassification of the Department of State records for 1964–1968 has been completed and most of those records are already available for public review at the National Archives. Most of the documents printed or cited from the Johnson Library are declassified and are available for research at the Library in Austin, Texas.

Unpublished Sources

  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
      • Lot Files
        • Conference Files: Lot 66 D 110
          • Documentation on trips taken and international conferences attended by the President, Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials and on official visits to the United States by heads of government and foreign ministers, 1961–1964
        • Conference Files: Lot 66 D 347
          • Documentation on trips taken and international conferences attended by the Secretary of State and other U.S. officials and on official visits to the United States by heads of government and foreign ministers, 1965
        • Conference Files: 79 D 246
          • Microfilmed master chronology of international conferences attended by the President, Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials, 1953–1966
        • O/MS-Management Staff Files: Lot 70 D 474
          • Management Staff and BALPA subject files, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Administration, 1965–1968
        • S/P Files-SIG Papers: Lot 74 D 344
          • Senior Interdepartmental Group agendas, memoranda, and other papers, 1966–1969
        • S/S-Ball Files: Lot 74 D 272
          • Files of Under Secretary of State George Ball, 1961–1966
        • S/S-Katzenbach Files: Lot 74 D 271
          • Files of Under Secretary of State Nicholas Katzenbach, 1966–1969
        • S/S-Memos File: Lot 72 D 372
          • Memoranda from the offices of the Secretary and Under Secretary of State and the Executive Secretariat, 1966–1970
        • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 66 D 95
          • Administrative and miscellaneous documentation on the National Security Council, 1961–1964
        • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 70 D 264
          • Follow-up reports on implementation of National Security Action Memoranda, 1961–1964
        • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 70 D 265
          • Memoranda, NSC papers, and other material pertaining to National Security Council meetings and NSC Standing Group meetings, 1961–1966
        • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 72 D 316
          • Files on National Security Action Memoranda #1 through #371, 1961–1968
        • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 72 D 318
          • Briefing and backup material for National Security Council meetings, 1966–1968
        • S/S-Rusk Files: Lot 72 D 192
          • Files of Secretary of State Dean Rusk, 1961–1969, including correspondence with the White House, memoranda of telephone conversations, chronological files, and texts of speeches
        • S/S–SIG Files: Lot 70 D 263
          • Senior Interdepartmental Group administrative material and numbered memoranda, agenda, documents, and records of agreement, 1966–1969
        • S/S-Exdis-Limdis Microfilm (Eyes Only/Exclusive Distribution Telegrams, Airgrams and Dispatches)
          • Microfilm copies of Department of State airgrams, telegrams, and dispatches marked eyes only, exclusive distribution, and limited distribution, 1953–1970
      • Central Files
        • BUD, budget
        • BUD 1, general budget policy
        • ORG 1, organization and administration: general policy, plans, coordination
        • ORG 1–1, country team
        • ORG 8, agency reorganization plans; opening and closing of posts
        • ORG 10, management improvement
        • POL 9 UN, intervention
        • POL 19 UN, United Nations Trusteeship Council
        • POL 23–8 CYP, civil disturbances in Cyprus
        • POL 27–4 UN, United Nations Emergency Forces
        • UN 6, United Nations membership
        • UN 10, United Nations budget and finance
        • UN 10–4, United Nations assessments and contributions
    • Central Intelligence Agency, Langley, Virginia
      • DCI Files: Job 80–BO1285A
        • Files of Directors of Central Intelligence John McCone and Richard Helms
      • DDI Files: Jobs 79–01201A, 80–B01439R, 80–R01447R, 80–S00004A; Intelligence Information Cables
        • Files of the Directorate of Intelligence
      • DDO/IMS Files, Jobs 78–3805, 78–5505, 78–06423A, 79–207A
        • Files of the Directorate of Plans
      • D/ONE Files, Job 80–R01621R
        • Files of the Office of National Intelligence Estimates
      • Executive Registry, Jobs 80–B00269R, 80–B01284A, 80–R01580R, 80–1676R
        • Files of the Director of Central Intelligence
  • Department of State, Washington, D.C.
    • INR/IL Historical Files
      • Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1980s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research
  • Department of State, U.S. Mission to the United Nations, New York
    • Subject Files
  • National Defense University, Washington, D.C.
    • Maxwell Taylor Papers
  • National Reconnaissance Office, Chantilly, Virginia
    • Plans & Analysis, PA Library, 104–01, DOP (Directives, Orders and Procedures)
    • Plans & Analysis, PA Library, 105–0, Flax (DNRO) Chron File
  • National Security Council, Washington, D.C.
    • Special Group/303 Committee Files
  • John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
    • William J. Crockett Papers
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
    • Papers of President Lyndon B. Johnson
    • National Security File
      • Agency File
      • McGeorge Bundy Files
      • Country File
      • C. V. Clifton Files
      • Intelligence Briefings
      • Intelligence File
      • Robert Komer Files
      • Memos to the President
      • Name File
      • National Intelligence Estimates
      • National Security Action Memorandums
      • NSC Histories
      • NSC Meetings File
      • Subject File
      • Walt Rostow Files
      • Harold Saunders Files
    • White House Central Files
      • Confidential File
      • Subject Files
    • Office Files of the White House Aides
      • S. Douglass Cater
      • John W. Macy
      • Bill D. Moyers
    • Special Files
      • Administrative Histories
      • Meeting Notes File
      • Office of the President File
      • President’s Appointment File (Diary Backup)
      • President’s Daily Diary
      • Press Office Files
      • Recordings and Transcripts of Telephone Conversations and Meetings
      • Reference File
    • Personal Papers
      • George Ball Papers
      • Francis Bator Papers
      • Tom Johnson’s Notes of Meetings
      • Thomas Mann Papers
      • John McCone Memoranda of Meetings with the President
      • Dean Rusk Appointment Books
  • Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
    • Adlai Stevenson Papers
[Page XIX]

Published Sources

  • Argyris, Chris. Some Causes of Organizational Ineffectiveness Within the Department of State. Washington: Department of State, 1967.
  • Bacchus, William I. Foreign Policy and the Bureaucratic Process: The State Department’s Country Director System. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974.
  • Ball, George. The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs. New York: W. W. Norton, 1982.
  • Campbell, John Franklin. The Foreign Affairs Fudge Factory. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1971.
  • Cline, Ray S. Secrets, Spies, and Scholars: Blueprint of the Essential CIA. Washington: Acropolis Books, Ltd., 1976.
  • Haines, Gerald K. NRO: The National Reconnaissance Office, Its Origins, Creation, & Early Years. Washington: National Reconnaissance Office, 1997.
  • Hammond, Paul Y. LBJ and the Presidential Management of Foreign Relations. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992.
  • Harr, John E. The Professional Diplomat. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.
  • Helgerson, John L. Getting to Know the President: CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates, 1952–1992. Washington: Central Intelligence Agency, 1996.
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963–1969. New York: Holt, Rinehardt and Winston, 1971.
  • Johnson, U. Alexis. The Right Hand of Power. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1984.
  • Johnson, Walter, ed. The Papers of Adlai E. Stevenson. 8 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1972–1979.
  • Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., Jr., The Real CIA. New York: Macmillan, 1968.
  • ——. The U.S. Intelligence Community: Foreign Policy and Domestic Activities. New York: Hill and Wang, 1973.
  • Leary, William, ed. The Central Intelligence Agency: History and Documents. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1984.
  • Meyer, Jr., Cord. Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.
  • Mosher, Frederick C., and Harr, John E. Programming Systems and Foreign Affairs Leadership. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
  • Rostow, Walt W. The Diffusion of Power: An Essay in Recent History. New York: Macmillan, 1972.
  • Rusk, Dean, as told to Richard Rusk. As I Saw It. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
  • Smith, Bromley K. Organizational History of the National Security Council During the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations. Washington: National Security Council, 1988.
  • Smith, Russell Jack. The Unknown CIA: My Three Decades With the Agency. Washington: Pergamon-Brassey’s International Defense Publishers, 1989.
  • U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1964–1967. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967–1969.
  • ——. Department of State Bulletin, 1964–1968.
  • ——. Improvements in Administration, 1961–1964. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965.
  • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1964–1968. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965–1970.
  • Valenti, Jack. A Very Human President. New York: W. W. Norton, 1975.