[Page XXIII]

Persons and Pseudonyms

  • Abboud, Ibrahim, President of Sudan from November 18, 1958 until November 16, 1964
  • Adams, Paul D., General, USA; Commander in Chief, Strike Command, until November 1966; concurrently Commander in Chief, Middle East/South Asia and Africa South of the Sahara, November 1963 until November 1966
  • Adoula, Cyrille, Prime Minister of the Congo from August 2, 1961 until June 30, 1964; Congolese Ambassador to the United States from January 1967
  • Anany, Jerome, Congolese Minister of Defense
  • Appling, Hugh G., Deputy Director, Office of Western European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
  • Ascham, pseudonym for Allen Dulles
  • Attwood, William H., Ambassador to Guinea from April 26, 1961 until May 27, 1963; Ambassador to Kenya from March 2, 1964 until May 1, 1966
  • Balewa, Sir Abubakar T., Prime Minister of Nigeria from October 1, 1960 until January 15, 1966
  • Ball, George W., Under Secretary of State, from December 1961 until September 1966; Representative to the United Nations, from May 1968 until September 1968
  • Bell, David E., Director, Office of Management and Budget, from January 22, 1961 until December 20, 1962; Administrator of the Agency for lnternational Development from late 1962 until 1966
  • Ben Bella, Ahmed, President and Prime Minister of Algeria until June 1965; concurrently Minister of the Interior, From December 1964 until June 1965
  • Berlind, Alan D., member, Congo Working Group, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
  • Bissell, Richard M., Deputy Director for Plans, Central Intelligence Agency from 1958 until 1962
  • Blake, Robert O., Deputy Chief of Mission at Léopoldville/Kinshasa, March 1964 until July 1967
  • Boigney, Félix Houphet, Prime Minister of Côte d’lvoire, August 7, 1960 until November 27, 1960; President since November 3, 1960
  • Bokassa, Jean-Bedel, President of the Central African Republic from 1966
  • Bolen, Charles E., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State until 1962; Ambassador to France, September 1962 until February 1968; Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, December 1967 until January 1969
  • Bolikango, Jean, leader of Parti de I’Unité National (PUNA); Vice Premier in the lleo Ministry; Third Vice-Premier in the Adoula Ministry
  • Bomboko, Justin, President of the Congolese College of Commissioners and Commissioner for Foreign Affairs from October 4, 1960 until February 9, 1961; Foreign Minister from February 1961 until April 1963; Congolese Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1965; concurrently Minister of Industry and Foreign Trade from 1967
  • Bourgiba, Habib, President of Tunisia
  • Bowles, Chester B., Under Secretary of State from January 25, 1961 until December 3, 1961; Ambassador at Large from December 4, 1961 until June 9, 1963
  • Brown, Elizabeth A., Director, Office of United Nations Political Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State
  • Brown, L. Dean, Director, Office of Central African Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State, September 1965 until July 1966; Country Director for Central Africa, July 1966 until November 1967; thereafter Ambassador to Senegal and The Gambia
  • Brubeck, William H., member, National Security Council Staff, until November 1964
  • Bunche, Ralph J., Special Representative of the Secretary General for UN Operations in the Congo from July until August 1960; UN Under Secretary for Special Political Affairs until 1967; thereafter Under Secretary General
  • Bundy, McGeorge, Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs until February 1966; Executive Secretary of the Special Committee of the National Security Council from June until August 1967
  • Burgess, Warren R., Chief of the U.S. Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization until March 23, 1961
  • Campbell, Stephen, Officer in Charge of United Nations Political Affairs, Bureau of lnternational Organization Affairs, Department of State
  • Canup, William C., member, Congo Working Group, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
  • Cashin, Richard M., Director, Office of Central African Affairs, Agency for lnternational Development from July 1962 until July 1976; Deputy Director, Agency for lnternational Development, from July 1967 until January 1968; thereafter Director, Agency for lnternational Development
  • Cleveland, James H., Assistant Secretary of State for lnternational Organization Affairs from February 1961 until September 1965
  • Clingerman, John R., Consul in Stanleyville, from July 1963 until October 1964; member of the Congo Working Group from November 1964 until 1965
  • Creel, Robert C., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs
  • Cyr, Leo G., Ambassador to Rwanda, November 1966 until September 1971
  • Dayal, Rajeshwar, Special Representative of the U.N. Secretary-General in the Congo until May 1961
  • Davignon, Viscount Etienne, Chef de Cabinet, Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Deming, Olcott H., Ambassador to Uganda, January 1963 until June 1966
  • Devlin, Lawrence, Chief of Station, Congo (Léopoldville) from July 1960 until May 1963 and July 1965 until June 1967
  • Dillon, C. Douglas, Under Secretary of State from June 12, 1959 until January 4, 1961; Treasury Secretary, January 1961 until April 1965
  • Dirksen, Everett M., Senator (R-Illinois) from January 3, 1951 until September 7, 1969
  • Dodds, William A., Colonel, Adviser on counterinsurgency operations in the Congo from February 1964
  • Dulles, Allen W., Director of Central Intelligence until November 1961
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D., President of the United States until January 20, 1961
  • Engulu, Leon, President of Cuvette Centrale from September 1962 until April 25, 1966; Governor of Équateur Province from April 25, 1966 until January 3, 1967; Governor of Kivu Province from January 3, 1967 until August 9, 1968; thereafter, Governor of Katanga
  • Ferguson, Glenn W., Ambassador to Kenya, November 1966 until April 1969
  • Fields, Glenn D., Deputy Chief of the Africa Division, Directorate of Plans, Central Intelligence Agency; Chief of the Africa Division, Directorate of Plans, Central Intelligence Agency
  • Fine, Sydney H., Public Affairs Adviser, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
  • Fitzgerald, Desmond, Deputy Director of Plans, Central Intelligence Agency
  • Fredericks, J. Wayne, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, from May 1961 until September 1967
  • Gallopin, Roger, Director General, lnternational Commission of the Red Cross
  • Gardiner, Robert K.A., United Nations Representative in the Congo from April 1961 until February 1962; Officer in Charge of the U.N. Operation in the Congo from February 1962 until April 1963
  • Gaud, William S., Deputy Administrator, Agency for International Development, February 1964 until August 1966; thereafter Administrator
  • Gbenye, Christophe, Minister of the lnterior in the opposition regime in Stanleyville until July 1961; Congolese Minister of the lnterior from August 1961 until February 1962; Deputy Prime Minister from February until July 1962
  • Gilpatric, Roswell L., Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1961 until 1964
  • Ginzenga, Antoine, Prime Minister of the opposition regime in Stanleyville from December 13, 1960 until August 5, 1961; Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo from August 1961 until January 1962; thereafter imprisoned
  • Godley, G. McMurtrie, Ambassador to the Congo from March 23, 1964 until October 15, 1966
  • Gonard, Samuel A., President of the lnternational Committee of the Red Cross from 1964 until 1969
  • Greene, M.J.L., Colonel, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for lnternational Security Affairs; headed Special Military Advisory Team to the Congo from June until July 1962
  • Greenfield, James L., Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Public Affairs, Department of State
  • Grenfell, Georges, provincial president in Stanleyville
  • Gullion, Edmund A., Ambassador to the Congo from September 11, 1961 until February 20, 1964
  • Hadsel, Fred L., Director, Office of Inter-African Affairs, Department of State
  • Hamilton, Edward, member, National Security Council Staff, October 1965 until December 1968
  • Hammerskjold, Dag, Secretary-General of the United Nations until his death on September 18, 1961
  • Harmel, Pierre, Belgian Prime Minister, July 1965 until 1966; Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1966 until 1968
  • Harriman, W. Averell, Ambassador At Large from February 1961 until December 1961; Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, from December 1961 until April 1963; Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs from April 1963 until March 1965; thereafter Ambassador at Large
  • Hassan II, King of Morocco
  • Helms, Richard, Deputy Director for Plans, Central Intelligence Agency from 1964 until 1966; Deputy Director of Central Intelligence from April 1965 until June 1966; thereafter Director
  • Herter, Christian A., Secretary of State from April 22, 1959 until January 20, 1961
  • Hickenlooper, Bourke B., Senator (R-Iowa) from January 3, 1945 until January 3, 1969
  • Hilsman, Roger Jr., Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research from February 19, 1961 until April 25, 1963
  • Hoyt, Michael P.E., Consul in Stanleyville from 1964
  • Humphrey, Hubert H. Jr., Senator (D-Minnesota) until 1964; Vice President, January 20, 1965 until January 20, 1969
  • Identity 1, 2, etc., Designators supplied by editors for clarity. Identity designation of a specific individual is valid for a single document only, and is not consistent throughout the volume.
  • Idzumbuir, Theodore, Congolese Ambassador to the United Nations
  • Ileo, Joseph, President of the Republic of the Congo Senate; Prime Minister from September 5, 1960 until September 20, 1960 and February 9, 1961 until August 2, 1961; Minister of Information and Culture from August 1961 until July 1962; Minister Resident in Katanga from January 1963
  • Jessup, Peter, member, National Security Council Staff
  • Johnson, Lyndon B., President of the United States from November 22, 1963 until January 20, 1969
  • Johnson, U. Alexis, Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs from May 2, 1961 until July 12, 1964
  • Kalonji, Albert, President of South Kasai from August 9, 1960 until April 12, 1961
  • Kamitatu, Cleophas, Head of the Léopoldville provincial government; Congolese Minister of the Interior
  • Karamessines, Thomas, Assistant Deputy Director for Plans, Central Intelligence Agency until July 1967; thereafter Deputy Director for Plans
  • Kasavubu, Joseph, President of the Republic of the Congo from July 1, 1960 until November 25, 1965
  • Katzenbach, Nicholas de B., Deputy Attorney General until February 1965; Attorney General, February 1965 until October 1966; Under Secretary of State, September 1966–January 1969
  • Kaunda, Kenneth, President of Zambia from 1964
  • Kayibanda, Gregoire, President of Rwanda
  • Kearney, Richard D., Deputy Legal Adviser, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State
  • Keita, Modibo, President of Mali
  • Kennedy, John F., President of the United States from January 20, 1961 until November 22, 1963
  • Kent, Sherman, Chairman, Board of National Estimates, Central Intelligence Agency
  • Kenyatta, Jomo, President of Kenya; Chairman of the Organization of African Unity Ad Hoc Commission on the Congo
  • Ketema, Yifru, Ethiopian Prime Minister from 1961
  • Kerchove, Charles de, Belgian Ambassador to the Congo (Léopoldville) from April 1962
  • Kimba, Évariste, Congolese Prime Minister from October 18, 1965 until November 14, 1965
  • Knight, Ridgeway B., Ambassador to Belgium, June 1965 until April 1969
  • Kohler, Foy D., Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, November 1966 until December 1967
  • Komer, Robert W., member, National Security Council Staff until September 1965; Deputy Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, September 1965 until March 1966; Special Assistant to the President, March 1966 until May 1967
  • Korry, Edward M., Ambassador to Ethiopia from April 20, 1963 until September 22, 1967
  • Landau, George W., Country Director for Spain and Portugal, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
  • Lang, William E., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
  • Lefevre, Theodore, Belgian Prime Minister from 1961 until 1965
  • Lengema, Marcel, Congolese Ambassador at Large
  • Looram, Matthew J., Deputy Director, Office of Central African Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State from April 1964 until September 1965; Deputy Director, Office of Northern African Affairs from October 1965 until May 1966; thereafter Country Director, Office of Northeast African Affairs
  • Lumumba, Patrice E., Congolese Prime Minister from June 24, 1960 until September 5, 1960, died January 1961
  • MacDonald, John W. Jr., Office of Research and Analysis for Africa, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
  • McBride, Robert H., Ambassador to Zaire from June 1967 until May 1969
  • McCone, John A., Director of Central Intelligence from November 29, 1961 until April 28, 1965
  • McGhee, George C., Counselor of the Department of State and Chairman of the Policy Planning Council, from February until December 1961; Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, from December 1961 until March 1963
  • McKillop, David H., Director, Office of Western European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
  • McNaughton, John T., Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs from July 1964 until June 1966
  • Meeker, Leonard C., Legal Adviser, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State
  • Merchant, Livingston T., Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs from December 1959 until January 31, 1961; Ambassador to Canada from March 15, 1961 until May 26, 1962
  • Miruho, Jean, President of Kivu Province from June 11, 1960 until December 24, 1960 and from September 18, 1961 until May 10, 1962
  • Mobutu, Joseph Désiré, Chief of Staff of the Congolese National Army; after January 23, 1961, Major General and Commander in Chief of Congolese Forces; President of the Republic of the Congo from November 25, 1965
  • Moffat, Jay P., Officer in Charge of Belgian and Luxembourg Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
  • Moyers, Bill, Special Assistant to the President, 1964–1967; Chief of Staff in the White House, October 1964–January 1967; White House Press Secretary, July 1965 until January 1967
  • Mpolo, Maurice, General, Lumumba associate, assassinated January 17, 1961
  • Mulamba, General Leonard, Congolese Prime Minister, from November 25, 1965 until October 26, 1966
  • Mulele, Pierre, leader of the Congolese Committee for National Liberation, President of Kwilu Province from January 1964 until November 1964
  • Munongo, Godefroid, Katangan Minister of the lnterior
  • Murumbi, Joseph, Kenyan Minister of State; head of delegation to the United States of the OAU Ad Hoc Commission on the Congo
  • Nasser, Gamal A., President of the United Arab Republic
  • Ndele, Albert, Chairman of the Board of Commissioners-general from September 20, 1960 until October 3, 1960; Governor of the Central Bank of Congo from 1961; Congo Finance Commissioner
  • Nendaka, Victor, Head of Security Services, Republic of the Congo from 1960 until 1965; Minister of the Interior from October 1965 until November 1965; Minister of Transport and Communications, November 28, 1965; Minister of Finance and Budget from August 16, 1968
  • Neuman, Robert H., African Affairs, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State
  • Nitze, Paul R., Secretary of the Navy until June 1967; Deputy Secretary of Defense, July 1967 until January 1969
  • Nkrumah, Kwame, Prime Minister of Ghana until July 1960; President of Ghana from July 1, 1960 until February 24, 1966
  • Nogueira, Alberto Franco, Portuguese Foreign Minister from 1961 until 1969
  • Nothom, Patrick, Belgian Consul to Stanleyville
  • Obote, A. Milton, Ugandan Prime Minister, April 1963 until April 1966; President from April 1966
  • Okito, Joseph, Lumumba associate, assassinated January 17, 1961
  • Olenga, Nicholas, leader of the rebel forces that seized Stanleyville on August 5–6, 1964
  • Osorio-Tafall, Bibiano F., Officer in Charge of the U.N. Operations in the Congo from April until June 1964
  • O’Sullivan, James L., Director, Office of Central African Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State, from April 1964 until August 1965
  • Palmer, Joseph, II, Ambassador to Nigeria from October 4, 1960 until January 16, 1964; Director General of the Foreign Service from February 16, 1964 until April 10, 1966; Member of the Congo Working Group, August 1964; Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs from April 11, 1966 until July 7, 1969
  • Parrott, Thomas A., Secretary of the Special Group
  • Penfield, James K., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs from September 21, 1958; Ambassador to Iceland from May 24, 1961 until March 16 1967
  • Podgornov, Leonid, Soviet Chargé in Léopoldville
  • Pognon, Gratien, Assistant Secretary General of the Organization of African Unity
  • Raborn, Admiral William F., Director of Central Intelligence, April 1965 until June 1966
  • Read, Benjamin H., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and Executive Secretary of the Department from August 4, 1963 until February 14, 1969
  • Rikhye, Brigadier General lndar Jit, Military Adviser to the U.N. Secretary-General
  • Roosevelt, Archibald B., Jr., Chief, Africa Division, Central Intelligence Agency
  • Ross, Claude G., Ambassador to the Central African Republic from September 16, 1963 until April 22, 1967
  • Rostow, Eugene V., Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, from October 1966 until January 1969
  • Rostow, Walt W., Counselor of the Department of State and Chairman of the Policy Planning Council until March 1966; thereafter Special Assistant to the President
  • Rowan, Carl T., Director, United States Information Agency, February 1964 until July 1965
  • Runyon, Charles, III, Assistant Legal Adviser, African Affairs, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State
  • Rusk, Dean, Secretary of State, from January 21, 1961 until January 20, 1969
  • Russell, Richard B., Jr., Senator (D-Georgia) from January 12, 1933
  • Salans, Carl F., Deputy Legal Adviser, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State
  • Satterthwaite, Joseph C., Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs until January 31, 1961; Ambassador to South Africa from May 22, 1961 until November 17, 1965
  • Saunders, Harold, member, National Security Council Staff
  • Schaufele, William E., Jr., Officer in Charge of Congo Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State from June 1964 until September 1965; Deputy Director, Office of Central African Affairs, from October 1965 until May 1966; thereafter Country Director for West Central Africa
  • Sidikou, Abdou, Ambassador of Niger to the U.S., U.N. and Canada, 1962 until 1964; Foreign Minister from 1967
  • Sisco, Joseph J., Director, Office of United Nations Political and Security Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State from July 1961 until November 1963; Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs from 1964 until August 1965; thereafter Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs
  • Soumialot, Gaston E., Head of the provisional government of the People’s Republic of the Congo (Stanleyville) from July 21, 1964 until September 7, 1964; President of the Supreme Council of the Congolese Revolution and Chairman of the Revolutionary Government from May 27, 1965 until August 6, 1965
  • Spaak, Paul-Henri, Belgian Prime Minister and Foreign Minister from April 1961 until 1965; Minister of Foreign Affairs and Coordination of External Policy, from 1965 until 1966
  • Stebbins, Henry E., Ambassador to Uganda from July 22, 1966 until September 2, 1969
  • Stoessel, Walter J., Jr., Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
  • Struelens, Michel, Tshombe’s personal adviser on foreign affairs, political adviser to the Cogolese Missions to the United States and the United Nations
  • Strong, Curtis C., United Nations Adviser, Office of Inter-African Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State, until 1964; Deputy Director, Office of Central African Affairs, November 1964 until October 1965; Deputy Director, Office of Eastern and Southern African Affairs, October 1965 until July 1966; Country Director for East African Affairs, July 1966 until June 1967
  • Tasca, Henry J., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs until May 1965; thereafter Ambassador to Morocco
  • Telli, Boubacar Diallo, Guinean Permanent Representative to the United Nations from September 1958 until June 1964; Ambassador to the United States from April 1959 until June 1961; Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity from July 21, 1964
  • Thompson, Herbert B., Deputy Executive Secretary, Office of the Secretary, Department of State
  • Thompson, Llewellyn E., Career Ambassador from June 24, 1960; Ambassador-at-Large from October 3, 1962 until December 26, 1966
  • Timberlake, Clare H., Ambassador to the Congo from July 25, 1960 until June 15, 1961
  • Toure, Sekou, President of Guinea
  • Trimble, William C., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, July 1965 until December 1967
  • Tshombe, Moïse K., President of Katanga Province in the Republic of the Congo; Prime Minister from July 10, 1964 until October 13, 1965
  • Tsiranana, Philibert, President of Madagascar
  • Tubby, Roger W., Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, from March 1961 until April 1962; Representative to the United Nations in Geneva, from October 1967 until September 1969
  • Tweedy, Bronson, Chief of the Africa Division, Directorate of Plans, Central Intelligence Agency
  • Tyler, William R., Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, from September 2, 1962 until May 18, 1965
  • Valenti, Jack J., Special Assistant to President Johnson, November 1963 until June 1966
  • Vance, Cyrus R., Secretary of the Army from July 5, 1962 until January 27, 1964; Deputy Secretary of Defense from January 28, 1964 until June 30, 1967
  • Van der Walle, Col. Frederick, Tshombe’s military adviser and leader of the Belgian mercenary force in the Congo
  • Wadsworth, James J., Ambassador to the United Nations from September 8, 1960 until January 21, 1961
  • Wheeler, Earle G., General, USA; Chief of Staff, until July 1964; thereafter Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • Williams, G. Mennen “Soapy,” Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs from February 1, 1961 until March 23, 1966
  • Yost, Charles W., Ambassador to Morocco until March 1961; thereafter Deputy Representative to the U.N. Security Council and Representative to the U.N. General Assembly
  • Zorin, Valerian A., Deputy Soviet Foreign Minister; Permanent Representative at the United Nations from 1960 until 1962