Sources

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department’s Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. All the Department’s indexed central files for these years have been permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (Archives II) at College Park, Maryland. Many of the Department’s decentralized office (or lot) files covering this period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, have been transferred or are in the process of being transferred from the Department’s custody to Archives II.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Johnson and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

In preparing this volume, the editor made extensive use of Presidential papers and other White House records at the Lyndon B. Johnson Library. The bulk of the foreign policy records at the Johnson Library are in the country files and other component parts of the National Security File. The editor also consulted the Papers of George Ball and Robert Komer, two officials who were deeply involved in policymaking for the region in the first half of the Johnson administration.

Thanks to the leadership of the Johnson Library, the Department of State historians had full access to the audiotapes of President Johnson’s telephone conversations. These audiotapes include substantial numbers of telephone conversations between President Johnson and Secretary of State Rusk, Secretary of Defense McNamara, the President’s Special Assistant for National Security Affairs McGeorge Bundy, Ambassador Arthur Goldberg, and key members of Congress. The editor of this volume selected for publication seven audiotapes of President Johnson’s telephone conversations dealing with Arab-Israeli issues. The editor prepared transcripts of parts of these conversations, which were incorporated into footnotes or editorial notes. Although the transcripts give the substance of the conversations, readers are urged to consult the recordings for a full appreciation of those dimensions that [Page XVI]cannot be captured fully in a transcription, such as the speakers’ inflections and emphases that may convey nuances of meaning.

Second in importance only to the White House records at the Johnson Library were the records of the Department of State. Because the Ambassadors in the countries of the region played a major role in the formulation of policy, the volume includes a large selection of telegraphic correspondence between the Embassies and the Department of State. The Department’s central files contain the cable traffic recording U.S. diplomatic relations with Israel, the United Arab Republic, Jordan, and other Arab countries; memoranda of diplomatic conversations; and memoranda proposing action or providing information. Some important documents are found only in the Department’s lot files. The Conference Files maintained by the Executive Secretariat contain briefing materials as well as records of conversations. Documentation on initiatives that were not approved is often found only in desk or bureau files. The Ball Papers include summaries of telephone conversations and other useful documentation. Files of the Office of Near Eastern Affairs include a selection of correspondence that provides insights into policy-making.

Department of State historians also have access to records of the Department of Defense, particularly the records of the Secretaries of Defense and their major assistants and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Central Intelligence Agency provides the Department of State historians access to intelligence documents from records in its custody and at the Presidential libraries. This access is arranged and facilitated by the CIA’s History Staff, part of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, pursuant to a May 1992 memorandum of understanding.

This volume includes a number of intelligence records. Among the intelligence records reviewed for the volume were those in country and intelligence files at the Johnson Library, the files of the Directors of Central Intelligence, especially John McCone, CIA intelligence reports and summaries, retired files of the Department of State’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research containing National Intelligence Estimates, and the INR Historical Files.

Almost all of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of the agencies mentioned, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

The following list identifies the particular files and collections used in the preparation of this volume. The declassification and transfer to the National Archives of the Department of State records is in process, and many of those records are already available for public review at the National Archives. The declassification review of other records is going forward in accordance with the provisions of Executive Order [Page XVII]12958, under which all records over 25 years old, except file series exemptions requested by agencies and approved by the President, should be reviewed for declassification by 2000.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Central Files. See National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • Lot Files. These files may be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park Maryland, Record Group 59.
      • INR/IL Historical Files:
        • Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1970s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
      • NEA/IAI Files: Lot 69 D 492
        • Files on Arab-Israel affairs for 1963–1964 and 1966–1967, maintained by the Office of Near Eastern Affairs (later the Office of Israel and Arab-Israel Affairs).
      • NEA/IAI Files: Lot 70 D 304
        • Files on Arab-Israel affairs for 1953–1954, 1963–1966, 1967, maintained by the Office of Near Eastern Affairs (later the Office of Israel and Arab-Israel Affairs).
      • NEA/IAI Files: Lot 73 D 438
        • Files on Arab-Israel affairs for 1964, maintained by the Office of Near Eastern Affairs (later the Office of Israel and Arab-Israel Affairs).
      • NEA/IAI Files: Lot 80 D 102
        • Files on Arab-Israel affairs for 1960–1975, maintained by the Office of Near Eastern Affairs (later the Office of Israel and Arab-Israel Affairs).
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • Job 79–R01012A, ODDI Registry of NIE and SNIE Files
    • Job 80–B01285A, DCI Files, DCI (Helms) Memos for the Record
    • Job 80–B01285A, DCI (McCone) Files, DCI Memos for the Record
    • Job 80–B01676R, DCI Executive Registry Files
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • Record Group 59, Records of the Department of State
      • Central Files
      • Following are the principal files used for this volume:
        • AE 6 ISR–US: peaceful uses of atomic energy, Israel-U.S.
        • AE 11–2 ISR: atomic energy reactor development, Israel
        • AE 13 IAEA: atomic energy safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency
        • AE 13 ISR: atomic energy safeguards, Israel
        • AID (US) LEB: general policy, U.S. aid to Lebanon
        • AID (US) UAR: general policy, U.S. aid to the United Arab Republic
        • AID (US) 9 UAR: U.S. loans for economic development, United Arab Republic
        • AID (US) 15 UAR: P.L. 480, Food for Peace Programs, United Arab Republic
        • AID (US) 15–4 UAR: P.L. 480 agreements, United Arab Republic
        • AID (US) 15–8 UAR: Title I commodity sales for foreign currency, United Arab Republic
        • AID (US) 15–11 LEB: U.S. dollar credit sales (Title IV) to Lebanon
        • DEF ISR: defense affairs, Israel
        • DEF 1 ISR: defense affairs policy, plans, readiness, Israel
        • DEF 4 ARAB: collective defense pacts and alliances, Arab countries
        • DEF 6–1 JORDAN: Jordanian Army
        • DEF 6–8 JORDAN: mobilization, Jordan
        • DEF 7 LEB–US: visits of U.S. military aircraft, vessels, personnel to Lebanon
        • DEF 8 ISR: exhibitions, military parades, Israel
        • DEF 12 ISR: armaments, Israel
        • DEF 12 JORDAN: armaments, Jordan
        • DEF 12 NEAR E: armaments, Near East
        • DEF 12 UAR: armaments, United Arab Republic
        • DEF 12–4 ISR: production, repair of armaments, Israel
        • DEF 12–5 ISR: procurement, sale of armaments, Israel
        • DEF 12–5 JORDAN: procurement, sale of armaments, Jordan
        • DEF 12–5 LEB: procurement, sale of armaments, Lebanon
        • DEF 12–5 NEAR E: procurement, sale of armaments, Near East
        • DEF 12–5 UAR: procurement, sale of armaments, United Arab Republic
        • DEF 12–5 US–LEB: procurement, sale of armaments, U.S.-Lebanon
        • DEF 15–7 ISR–US: inspections, tours of military installations, Israel-U.S.
        • DEF 17–1 US: military flight clearances, U.S.
        • DEF 18 NEAR E: arms control and disarmament, Near East
        • DEF 19 NEAR E: military assistance, Near East
        • DEF 19–3 ISR: military assistance organizations and conferences, Israel
        • DEF 19–3 US–ISR: military assistance organizations and conferences, U.S.-Israel
        • DEF 19–3 US–JORDAN: military assistance organizations and conferences, U.S.-Jordan
        • DEF 19–3 US–LEB: military assistance organizations and conferences, U.S.-Lebanon
        • DEF 19–8 US–ISR: U.S. military equipment and supplies to Israel
        • DEF 19–8 US–JORDAN: U.S. military equipment and supplies to Jordan
        • DEF 19–8 US–LEB: U.S. military equipment and supplies to Lebanon
        • E 11–3 ISR: question of desalination in Israel
        • FN 6 LEB: banks and banking, Lebanon
        • FT 11–2 ISR–ARAB: foreign trade boycotts, Israel-Arab
        • ORG 7 NEA: organization and administration, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State
        • ORG 7 OSD: organization and administration, Office of the Secretary of Defense
        • ORG 7 S: organization and administration, Office of the Secretary of State
        • POL ARAB–ISR: political affairs and relations, Arab-Israel
        • POL ARAB–US: political affairs and relations, Arab-U.S.
        • POL ISR–US: political affairs and relations, Israel-U.S.
        • POL JORDAN–US: political affairs and relations, Jordan-US
        • POL LEB: political affairs and relations, Lebanon
        • POL SYR–US: political affairs and relations, Syria-U.S.
        • POL UAR-US: political affairs and relations, United Arab Republic-U.S.
        • POL 1 ISR–US: general policy, Israel-US
        • POL 1 NEAR E–US: general policy, Near East-US
        • POL 1 UAR-US: general policy, United Arab Republic-U.S.
        • POL 2 NEAR E: general reports and statistics, Near East
        • POL 3 PAL ENTITY: regional alignments and groupings, Palestinian Entity
        • POL 7 ISR: visits, meetings with Israeli leaders
        • POL 7 JORDAN: visits, meetings with Jordanian leaders
        • POL 7 LEB: visits, meetings with Lebanese leaders
        • POL 7 UAR: visits, meetings with United Arab Republic leaders
        • POL 7 US/HARRIMAN: visits, meetings of W. Averell Harriman
        • POL 7 US/KOMER: visits, meetings of Robert W. Komer
        • POL 7 US/MACOMBER: visits, meetings of William B. Macomber
        • POL 7 US/MCCLOY: visits, meetings of John J. McCloy
        • POL 7 US/SHRIVER: visits, meetings of W. Sargent Shriver
        • POL 7 US: visits, meetings of U.S. leaders
        • POL 15 SYR: Syrian Government
        • POL 15–1 ISR: head of state, executive branch, Israel
        • POL 15–1 JORDAN: head of state, executive branch, Jordan
        • POL 15–1 UAR: head of state, executive branch, United Arab Republic
        • POL 15–1 US/JOHNSON: head of state, executive branch, U.S.-Johnson
        • POL 15–2 ISR: Israeli legislature
        • POL 16 SYR: recognition, Syria
        • POL 17 UAR-US: diplomatic and consular representation, United Arab Republic-US
        • POL 23 JORDAN: internal security, counter-insurgency, Jordan
        • POL 23–8 ISR: demonstrations, riots, protests, Israel
        • POL 23–8 JORDAN: demonstrations, riots, protests, Jordan
        • POL 23–8 UAR: demonstrations, riots, protests, United Arab Republic
        • POL 23–9 SYR: rebellion, coups, Syria
        • POL 23–9 UAR: rebellion, coups, United Arab Republic
        • POL 27 ARAB–ISR: military operations, Israel
        • POL 27–14 ISR–JORDAN: truce, cease-fire, Israel-Jordan
        • POL 27–14 PAL/UN: truce, cease-fire, Palestinians/UN
        • POL 29 UAR: political prisoners, United Arab Republic
        • POL 31–1 ISR–UAR: air disputes and violations, Israel-United Arab Republic
        • POL 31–1 UAR-US: air disputes and violations, United Arab Republic-US
        • POL 32–1 ARAB–ISR: territory and boundary disputes, Arab-Israel
        • POL 32–1 ISR–JORDAN/UN: territory and boundary disputes, Israel-Jordan and the UN
        • POL 32–1 ISR–JORDAN: territory and boundary disputes, Israel-Jordan
        • POL 32–1 ISR–LEB: territory and boundary disputes, Israel-Lebanon
        • POL 32–1 ISR–SYR/UN: territory and boundary disputes, Israel-Syria and the UN
        • POL 32–1 ISR–SYR: territory and boundary disputes, Israel-Syria
        • POL 32–1 ISR–UAR: territory and boundary disputes, Israel-United Arab Republic
        • POL 32–1 PAL: territory and boundary disputes, Palestine
        • POL 33–1 JORDAN RIVER: international rivers & seaways, Jordan River
        • REF PAL: refugees and migration, Palestinians
        • REF 3 UNRWA: organizations and conferences, UNRWA
        • SCI 11 UAR: science and technology research, United Arab Republicy
        • TRV ANDERSON, ROBERT B.: travel and transportation, Robert B. Anderson
      • Lot Files
        • Conference Files: Lot 66 D 110
          • Records of official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and international conferences attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials, 1961–1964, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
        • Conference Files: Lot 66 D 347
          • Records of official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States, and international conferences attended by the President, Vice President, or Secretary of State for 1965, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
        • NEA/IAI Files: Lot 72 D 438
          • Top Secret records on the Middle East arms limitation probe (CANE) for 1963–1965, and miscellaneous documents on Arab-Israeli matters, for 1953–1961, as maintained by the Office of Israel and Arab-Israeli Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs.
        • Rusk Files: Lot 72 D 192
          • Files of Secretary of State Dean Rusk, 1961–1969, including texts of speeches and statements, miscellaneous correspondence files, White House correspondence, chronological files, and memoranda of telephone conversations.
        • S/P Files: Lot 70 D 199
          • Subject and chronological files of the Policy Planning Council, 1963–1964, and Policy Planning Staff meeting minutes, 1957–1961.
        • S/S Files: Lot 70 D 209
          • Country files, including copies of memoranda and briefing memoranda for the period 1963–1966, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
        • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 70 D 265
          • Master set of papers pertaining to National Security Council meetings, including policy papers, position papers, administrative documents, but not minutes of the meetings themselves, for 1961–1966, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
        • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 72 D 316
          • Master file of National Security Action Memoranda (NSAMs), 1961–1968, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
    • Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense
      • OASD/ISA Files:FRC 68 A 306
        • Secret and lower-classified general files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1964.
      • OASD/ISA Files:FRC 70 A 6648
        • Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, 1966.
      • OSD Files: FRC 69 A 7425
        • Top Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1964.
      • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 1266
        • Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1965.
      • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 4443
        • Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1966.
      • OSD Files: FRC 72 A 2468
        • Secret files of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, and Special Assistants, 1967.
      • OSD Files: FRC 77–0075
        • Top Secret files maintained in Secretary McNamara’s office, 1961–1968, including records relating to Vietnam, draft presidential memoranda, and memoranda of conversations.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
    • Papers of Lyndon B. Johnson
      • National Security File
        • Files of McGeorge Bundy
        • Country File
        • Files of Robert W. Komer
        • Memos to the President
        • Name File
        • National Security Action Memorandums
        • National Security Council Meetings File
        • Files of Walt W. Rostow
        • Files of Harold Saunders
        • Special Head of State Correspondence File
      • Special Files
        • President’s Daily Diary
        • Recordings and Transcripts of Telephone Conversations and Meetings
      • White House Central Files
        • Subject File
    • Other Personal Papers
      • George Ball Papers

Published Sources

  • U.S. Department of State. Department of State Bulletin, 1964–1968 (Volumes LI–LIX). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964–1968.
  • ———. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967–1969.
  • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1963. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964.
  • ———. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966–67. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965–1968.
  • U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations. Executive Sessions of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Together with Joint Sessions with the Senate Armed Services Committee (Historical Series), Volume XVII, Eighty-ninth Congress, First Session, 1965. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.