Sources

Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The Foreign Relations statute of October 1991 requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major foreign policy decisions and actions of the U.S. Government. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. The editors believe that in terms of access this volume was prepared in accordance with the standards and mandates of this statute.

The editors had complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department's Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. When this volume was compiled, all Department of State records consulted were still in the custody of the Department, and the footnotes citing Department of State files suggest that the Department is the repository. By the time of publication, however, all the Department's indexed central (or decimal) files for these years were permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (Archives II) at College Park, Maryland. Many of the Department's decentralized office (or lot) files covering this period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, will also be transferred from the Department's custody to Archives II over the next several years.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Eisenhower and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Department of State arranged for access to the many audiotapes of President Johnson's telephone conversations that are held at the Johnson Library. The first audiotapes became available to the editors in late [Page XIV]1994, with most audiotapes following during 1995 and 1996. The editors added selected transcripts of the President's relevant telephone conversations to this volume when the audiotapes became available.

Department of State historians also have access to records of the Department of Defense, particularly the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretaries of Defense and their major assistants.

Since 1992, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided expanding access to Department of State historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records in the custody of that Agency. This access is arranged and facilitated by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, pursuant to a May 1992 memorandum of understanding. This access arrangement was concluded in order to enlarge the scope of coverage as required by the 1991 law. As Department of State and CIA historians continue to work out the procedural and scholarly aspects of identifying the key portions of the intelligence record, the variety of documentation made available to Department of State historians and ultimately selected for publication in the volumes has expanded.

All of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of these agencies, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1964-1968, Volume XI

In the planning of this volume documenting U.S. foreign policy on arms control and disarmament issues during the Johnson administration, the editors focused their research in the extensive records of the Department of State. The Department of State and Presidential files were supplemented by documents in the records of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) at the Washington National Records Center at Suitland, Maryland. Among the ACDA records, the editors looked at the office files of the Director, Deputy Director, and Executive Secretariat. They also perused office files of the Secretary of Defense, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, and the Assistant for Atomic Energy in the Department of Defense records, and they located in the DOD records several relevant policy papers on arms control subjects prepared by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

An invaluable source of documentation was the multi-volume Journal of Glenn T. Seaborg, who served as Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1961 to 1971. Interspersed among his detailed daily journal entries are reproductions of declassified memoranda, minutes of meetings, letters, and other government documents.

[Page XV]

The following list identifies the particular files and collections used in the preparation of this volume.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Indexed Central Files. See under National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • Lot Files. A list of the lot files of the Department of State used in or consulted for this volume follows.
      • Conference Files: Lot 66 D 110
        • Collection of documentation on international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials for the years 1961-1964.
      • Conference Files: Lot 67 D 586
        • Chronology of international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials for the years 1966-1967.
      • Pen Pal Correspondence: Lot 77 D 163
        • Correspondence between the President and the Chairman of the Soviet Union and other top officials of the two countries for the years 1961-1969, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 66 D 204
        • Presidential exchanges of correspondence with heads of government for the years 1953-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 66 D 294
        • Presidential exchanges of correspondence with heads of government for the years 1953-1965, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • Presidential Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149
        • Complete chronological record of cleared memoranda of conversations with foreign visitors for the years 1956-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
      • S/AL Files: Lot 67 D 2
        • Records of the Ambassador at Large, 1963-1966.
      • S/S Files: Lot 66 D 294
        • Presidential and Secretary of State's official exchanges of correspondence with various foreign officials for the years 1961-1965.
      • S/S Files: Lot 67 D 262
        • Presidential and Secretary of State's official exchanges of correspondence with various foreign statesmen for the year 1966.
      • S/S Files: Lot 70 D 21
        • White House and executive departments' memoranda and letters to the Secretary of State and Under Secretary of State for the years 1963-1966.
      • S/S-I File
        • Microfilmed files of Nodis, Exdis, and Limdis telegrams, airgrams, and despatches for the years 1952-1969.
      • S/S-I Files: Lot 79 D 246
        • Microfilmed master files of international conferences attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials for the years 1956-1966.
      • S/S-I Files: Lot 79 D 247
        • Microfilmed master files of Top Secret, Nodis, and Exdis memoranda and historical projects for the years 1963-1969.
      • S/S-NSC Files: Lot 70 D 265
        • Master set of papers pertaining to National Security Council meetings, including policy papers, position papers, and administrative documents for the years 1961-1966.
      • S/S-NSC Files: Lot 72 D 316
        • Master file of National Security Action Memoranda (NSAMs) for the years 1961-1968.
      • S/S-RD Files: Lot 68 D 452
        • Restricted data files maintained by the Executive Secretariat for the years 1963-1966.
      • S/S-RD Files: Lot 71 D 171
        • Restricted data files maintained by the Executive Secretariat for the years 1957-1967.
      • Secretary's Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 65 D 330
        • Memoranda of the Secretary of State's and Under Secretary of State's conversations for the years 1961-1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
    • Record Group 59, Department of State Records
      • Indexed Central File
        • AE 3-IAEA: Atomic energy, organizations and conferences relating to the IAEA.
        • AE 4 UK-US: Atomic energy agreements involving the United States and the United Kingdo.
        • AE 6: Peaceful uses of atomic energ.
        • AE 6 US: U.S. peaceful uses of atomic energ.
        • DEF (MLF) 3: Defense affairs, multilateral forc.
        • DEF 1 US: Defense affairs, U.S. policy, plans, readines.
        • DEF 1-1 NATO: Defense affairs, contingency planning relating to NATO.
        • DEF 6 MLF: Defense affairs, multilateral armed forc.
        • DEF 6 US: Defense affairs, U.S. armed force.
        • DEF 12: Defense affairs, armament.
        • DEF 12 FR: Defense affairs, French armament.
        • DEF 12 NATO: Defense affairs, NATO armament.
        • DEF 15-4 UK-US: Defense affairs, bases, installations, agreements and leases relating to the U.S. and the U.K.
        • DEF 15-4 UK-USSR: Defense affairs, bases, installations, agreements and leases relating to the U.K. and the U.S.S.R.
        • DEF 18: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmamen.
        • DEF 18 AE: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, atomic energ.
        • DEF 18 UN: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, United Nation.
        • DEF 18 US: U.S. defense affairs, arms control and disarmamen.
        • DEF 18-1: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, general policy and plan.
        • DEF 18-2: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, general reports and dat.
        • DEF 18-3: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, organizations and conference.
        • DEF 18-3 SWITZ (GE): Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, organizations and conferences relating to Geneva, Switzerlan.
        • DEF 18-3 USSR (MO): Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, organizations and conferences relating to Mosco.
        • DEF 18-4: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, agreements and treatie.
        • DEF 18-6: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, control measure.
        • DEF 18-8: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, testing and detectio.
        • DEF 18-9: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, demilitarized and nuclear free zone.
        • ORG 7: Organization and administration, visit.
        • ORG 7 ACDA: Organization and administration, visits by and to Arms Control and Disarmament Agency official.
        • ORG 7 AEC: Organization and administration, visits by and to Atomic Energy Commission official.
        • POL FR-US: Political affairs and relations between France and the U.S.
        • POL UK-US: Political affairs and relations between the U.K. and the U.S.
        • POL UK-USSR: Political affairs and relations between the U.K. and the U.S.S.R.
        • POL US-UK: Political affairs and relations between the U.S. and the U.K.
        • POL US-USSR: Political affairs and relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
        • POL 1 US: General U.S. political affairs and relation.
        • POL 1 US-USSR: General U.S.-U.S.S.R. political affairs and relation.
        • POL 3 UN: Political affairs and relations, United Nation.
        • POL 7 UK: Political affairs and relations, visits and meetings with U.K. official.
        • POL 15-1 USSR: Political affairs and relations between the heads of state of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
        • POL 17-1 UK-USSR: Political affairs and relations, acceptability and accreditation between the U.K. and the U.S.S.R.
        • POL 21 E EUR-W EUR: Political affairs and relations, peace and non-aggression issues between Eastern and Western Europ.
        • SP 1 US: General U.S. policy, plans, and coordination on space and astronautic.
        • SP 4: Space and astronautics, agreement.
        • SP 6 UN: Peaceful uses of space relating to the United Nation.
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
    • Record Group 330, Records of the Department of Defense
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 68 A 306
        • Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1964.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 68 A 4023
        • Top Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1964.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 70 A 5127
        • Top Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1965.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 70 A 6649
        • Top Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1966.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 70 I 6648
        • Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1966.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 70 J 6648
        • Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1966.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 71 A 4546
        • Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1967.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 71 A 4919
        • Top Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1967.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 72 A 1498
        • Disarmament files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the year 1968.
      • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 72 A 1499
        • Top Secret files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for the years 1967-1968.
      • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 1265
        • Top Secret records of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for the year 1965.
      • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 1266
        • Records of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for the year 1965.
      • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 4443
        • Records of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for the year 1966.
      • OSD Files: FRC 70 A 4662
        • Top Secret records of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense and their Special Assistants for the year 1966.
      • OSD/AE Files: FRC 72 A 4120
        • Subject files of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy for the years 1958-1968.
      • OSD/AE Files: FRC 73 A 1400
        • Top Secret subject files of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy for the years 1961-1969.
      • OSD/AE Files: FRC 73 A 2413
        • Top Secret subject files of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy for the years 1961-1969.
  • Record Group 383, Records of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
    • ACDA/CRSC Files: FRC 77 A 59
      • Miscellaneous policy and position papers for the years 1953-1968.
    • ACDA/D Files: FRC 77 A 23
      • Files of Director William C. Foster for the years 1959-1966.
    • ACDA/D Files: FRC 77 A 52
      • Memoranda to the White House, Secretary of State, and Secretary of Defense for the years 1961-1968.
    • ACDA/D Files: FRC 77 A 80
      • Files of Director William C. Foster for the years 1958-1969.
    • ACDA/DD Files: FRC 77 A 17
      • Files of Deputy Director Adrian S. Fisher for the years 1961-1969.
    • ACDA/DD Files: FRC 77 A 32
      • Files of Deputy Director Adrian S. Fisher for the years 1961-1967.
    • Central Policy File: FRC 85 A 83
      • Records of the Committee of Principals for the years 1965-1968.
    • Central Policy File: FRC 86 A 5
      • Top Secret numbered documents for the years 1961-1983.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library, Austin, Texas
    • National Security File
      • Agency File
      • Committee File-Committee on Nuclear Proliferation
      • Country File
      • Head of State Correspondence File
      • Intelligence File
      • Memos to the President
      • Name File
      • National Intelligence Estimates
      • National Security Action Memorandums
      • National Security Council Histories
      • NSC File
      • NSC Meetings File
      • Rostow File
      • Subject File
    • Ball Papers
    • Bator Papers
    • Clifford Papers
    • Tom Johnson's Notes of Meetings
    • Records and Transcripts
    • Transcripts and Tapes of Cabinet Room Meetings
    • White House Central Files
      • Confidential Files
        • Unpublished Studies. Additional background information was derived from the following classified and unclassified historical studies prepared in the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
    • Cornelius, Wayne, Jr. (ed.). Documents on Non-Proliferation: A Compilation of Documents Relevant to the U.S. Draft Treaty on Non-Proliferation Tabled in the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Committee, August 17, 1965, at Geneva. (1965)
    • Lambert, Robert W. (ed.). American and Soviet Substantive Statements on the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, December 1966-July 1969. (1969)
    • Lambert, Robert W. Arms Control Developments Concerning Outer Space, 1957-1967. (1971)
    • ———. Background Information on the Strategic Nuclear Delivery Vehicles Freeze, 1964-1967. (1968)
    • ———. Negotiations on a Comprehensive Test Ban, 1963-1971. (1971)
    • Nary, R. William. Negotiations of Article V (Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes) of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. (1977)
    • The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Administration During the Johnson Administration: Part I. Summary and Analysis of Principal Developments; Part II. Policy and Negotiations. (1969)

Published Sources

  • Government Publications and Documentary Collections
    • United Nations. Yearbook of the United Nations, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968 (New York: Columbia University Press)
    • U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Arms Control and Disarmament Agreements: Texts and Histories of the Negotiations (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990 edition)
    • ———. Documents on Disarmament, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
    • ———. International Negotiations on the Seabed Arms Control Treaty. Publication 68 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973)
    • ———. International Negotiations on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Publication 48 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969)
    • ———. Review of International Negotiations on the Cessation of Nuclear Weapon Tests, September 1962-September 1965. Publication 32 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966)
    • U.S. Congress, Senate. Executive Sessions of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (Historical Series), vol. XVIII [1966] (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993)
    • ———. Military Implications of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Ninety-First Congress, First Session (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969)
    • ———. Nonproliferation Treaty: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninetieth Congress, Second Session (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968)
    • ———. Nonproliferation Treaty: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-First Congress, First Session, Part 2 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969)
    • ———. Treaty on Outer Space: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninetieth Congress, First Session (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967)
    • U.S. Defense Nuclear Agency. Operations Crosstie and Bowline: Events—Door Mist, Dorsal Fin, Milk Shake, Diana Moon, Hudson Seal, and Ming Vase, 31 August 1967-20 November 1968 (DNA 6322F, 1985)
    • ———. Operations Flintlock and Latchkey: Events—Red Hot, Pin Stripe, Discus Thrower, Pile Driver, Double Play, New Point, Midi Mist, 5 March 1966-26 June 1967 (DNA 6321F, 1984)
    • ———. Operations Nougat and Whetstone: Events—Hard Hat, Danny Boy, Marshmallow, Mudpack, Wishbone, Gumdrop, Diluted Water, and Tiny Tot, 15 February 1962-17 June 1965 (DNA 6320F, 1984)
    • U.S. Department of Energy. Announced United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 Through December 1992 (DOE/NV-209 (Rev. 13), May 1993)
    • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963-64, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968-69 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
    • U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
    • ———. Department of State Bulletin, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
    • ———. Documents on Germany, 1944-1985 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985)
  • Memoirs, Autobiographies, Diaries, and Histories by Participants
    • Garthoff, Raymond L. “Banning the Bomb in Outer Space,” International Security, V (Winter 1980/81), pages 25-40.
    • Johnson, Lyndon. Presidency, 1963-1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971)
    • Nitze, Paul H. (with Ann M. Smith and Steven L. Rearden). From Hiroshima to Glasnost: At the Center of Decision, A Memoir (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1989)
    • Rostow, W. W. The Diffusion of Power: An Essay in Recent History (New York: Macmillan, 1972)
    • Seaborg, Glenn T. Journal of Glenn T. Seaborg . Pub-625, Volumes 7-17, 26, Appendix, and Press Clippings (Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, 1989-1992)
    • ——— (with Benjamin S. Loeb). Stemming the Tide: Arms Control in the Johnson Years (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1987)