22. National Security Council Report0
STATEMENT OF U.S. POLICY TOWARD SOUTH, CENTRAL, AND
1. The primary importance of the area of South, Central and East Africa is its emerging political significance. There is a growing awareness in the world that Africa is an area which will have an increasingly important influence on the course of world events and that the political alignment of the present and future independent nations of the continent will be deeply affected by the policies which Western European nations and the United States pursue.
2. In contrast to West Africa, the situation in this area is complicated by the presence, in most of the territories concerned, of a well-entrenched white settler minority together with politically less significant Asian or other minorities. Despite spectacular post-war quickening of economic activity in certain areas, most Africans still live the primitive life of the hinterland and the African population generally is poorly prepared for self-government. Nevertheless, African pressure for political equality has now assumed major proportions throughout most of the area.
3. The principal problem affecting U.S. interests in this area is the development of the dependent territories, in an orderly manner and in cooperation with the European metropoles, toward ultimate self-determination. If this transition takes place in a way which preserves the essential ties which bind Western Europe and Africa, areas which are economically complementary, close and mutually advantageous relationships between the Western European powers and Africa can be maintained after the colonial period has passed.
4. The political stability of the area faces severe trials as many of the territories move more rapidly toward self-government and independence, frequently amidst the strains and tensions of multi-racial [Page 80]and rival tribal societies. During the transitional and independence periods, the opportunities for Communist penetration and influence are likely to increase and complicate the already difficult and complex problems of the area and make it more difficult to assure the area’s identification with the West. There are indications that the Communist Bloc is paying more attention to this area and that the Bloc will increase its efforts to identify itself as anti-colonial. Communist influence in Central and East Africa is negligible, and the African leaders who have emerged thus far look primarily to the West for sympathy and support. Should they fail to receive such support, they may be expected to turn for it to the Communist Bloc or other countries not sympathetic to the metropoles or the United States. There is a discernible Communist influence in African and Indian political groups in the Union of South Africa. African students both in Western Europe and in the Soviet Bloc are assiduously cultivated by the Communists and many have been subverted.
5. African leaders seek the understanding and goodwill of the United States. Above all, they want to be accepted and to be treated as equals and with dignity and respect.
6. American economic interests in South, Central and East Africa are relatively modest. In 1958 this area accounted for only 2.2 per cent of U.S. trade (about $650 million). American investment in the area is approximately $450 million but the great bulk of it is in the Union of South Africa where most of the American economic interests lie. The area is a major source of the Free World for such strategic materials as diamonds, cobalt, chromite, manganese, copper and sisal. The United States is heavily dependent on the area for diamonds, cobalt and chromite. The area is also an important producer of many other minerals and agricultural products.
7. In the event of war or loss of Western access to sea and air routes through the Middle East, control of sea and air communications in this area of Africa would be extremely important. Under these circumstances, our primary strategic military interest is to deny the area to Communist control. In the future, moreover, there may be more significant requirements (military and other) for U.S. use of rights and facilities in the area. Installations in this area are already becoming increasingly important to U.S. research and development in, and exploitation of, the fields of outer space, missile weaponry, and world wide communications.
8. Maintenance of the Free World orientation of the area and denial of the area to Communist domination, including:
- The minimization of Communist influence therein;
- Orderly economic development and political progress toward self-determination by the countries of the area in cooperation with the metropoles and other Free World countries; and
- Access to such military rights and facilities and strategic resources as may be required in our national security interests.
Regional Policy Guidance
9. In applying the policy guidance which follows to all parts of this area except the Union of South Africa, be guided by the basic policy of encouraging and, to the extent feasible, relying on Western European nations to influence and support their respective dependent and recently independent areas so long as such encouragement and reliance are consistent with U.S. national interests.
- Until an area achieves independence conduct U.S. activities and
programs in the area in full recognition of the responsibilities of the
metropolitan power involved, and, to the extent feasible:
- Consult with the responsible metropolitan power on U.S. activities and programs in or relating to the area; and
- Avoid actions in the area or directly relating to the area likely to cause serious misunderstandings between the United States and the metropolitan power involved.
- Should a situation arise in a dependent area or in an area having
achieved independent status in which reliance on the European power
concerned would not be in the U.S. interest, determine the independent
U.S. course of action relating to such area by taking into account:
- The need for establishing friendly working relationships with the newly emerging state.
- The need to incline this state toward the Free World rather than the Communist world.
- The effect of our policies on other Free World states having a colonial heritage.
- The need for maintaining Free World harmony including friendly relationships and consultations as appropriate with the metropolitan powers.
Nationalism, Colonialism and Regionalism
10. Support the principle of self-determination consistently and in such a way as to assure that evolution toward this objective will be orderly; making clear that self-government and independence impose important responsibilities which the peoples concerned must be prepared to discharge.
11. Encourage those policies and actions of the metropolitan powers which help prepare the dependent peoples for self-determination and responsible self-government or independence. Avoid U.S. identification with those policies of the metropolitan powers and the Union [Page 82]of South Africa which are stagnant or repressive and, to the extent practicable, seek to influence the metropolitan powers and the Union of South Africa to abandon or modify such policies.
12. As appropriate, encourage the formation of federation or other forms of association among newly emerging states of the area which will enhance their political and economic viability.
13. As feasible, support constructive, non-Communist nationalist and reform movements, balancing the nature and degree of such support, however, with consideration of our relations with our NATO allies.
14. Encourage participation of the moderate leaders in regional or Pan-African movements.
15. Seek to correct distorted African views of U.S. race relations, emphasizing, where appropriate, progress made by the United States in the race relations field.
16. Encourage, where practicable, a more liberal approach in areas where extremism is now the order of the day, pointing out on appropriate occasions the likelihood that violence will result from continuation of rigid, repressive racial policies.
17. To the extent feasible, encourage the concept of a system of government and social relations which would be a middle way between the extremes of black nationalism and the inequities and tensions generated by apartheid.
18. Seek to influence any consideration in the UN of racial matters in Africa along constructive lines.
19. Encourage American companies to set an example in practicing non-discrimination in their operations to the maximum extent consistent with local laws, and to train Africans for managerial positions.
20. Cooperate locally with security organizations to combat Communist subversive activities.
21. As areas become independent, encourage them to avoid or minimize formal Sino-Soviet Bloc representation, to avoid extensive use of Sino-Soviet Bloc technicians, and to limit other Sino-Soviet Bloc economic and cultural contacts. Alert the governments of such nations to the probability that the Sino-Soviet Bloc will attempt to utilize trade and assistance programs as a technique for political subversion. Nonetheless, maintain a flexible posture that would minimize the damage to U.S. prestige in the event that such nations accept diplomatic or economic relations with the Sino-Soviet Bloc.[Page 83]
Military and Strategic
22. Keep the area under periodic survey to determine any changes in the U.S. appraisal of its strategic value to the United States, bearing in mind that the United States may, in the future, require bases or facilities.
23. Discourage the development of an arms race in Africa and of the concept that the United States is prepared to provide military assistance to any nation which desires it. As countries in the area become independent, encourage them to maintain adequately equipped and trained internal security forces. In those cases where external assistance is required for this purpose, encourage the appropriate former metropole to provide such assistance. If this approach fails and if required to achieve U.S. objectives, consider providing U.S. assistance to meet minimum legitimate internal security requirements, including technical training in U.S. military institutions.
24. a. As areas achieve independence encourage them (1) to make the maximum contribution to their own economic development, (2) to eliminate barriers to trade and investment, (3) to take measures capable of attracting maximum amounts of external private capital, and (4) to look essentially to Western Europe, to the Free World international financial institutions, and to private investment to meet their needs for external capital so long as this is consistent with U.S. security interests.
b. Urge the United Kingdom, Belgium and Portugal to increase their economic assistance to their dependent or recently dependent territories of this area and, to the maximum extent feasible, rely on these metropolitan powers, the Free World international financial institutions, organizations such as the Common Market, and private capital to meet the needs of the territories and nations of the area for external capital.
c. Take steps as appropriate to improve the climate for private investment (domestic and foreign).
d. In the event that it does not prove feasible or consistent with U.S. security interests to rely wholly on the sources in paragraph b to meet the external capital needs of a particular territory or nation, be prepared on a case-by-case basis to extend economic development assistance or special economic assistance from the United States to such territory or nation (excluding the Union of South Africa).
e. Seek to avoid the creation of unrealistic African expectations of U.S. assistance.[Page 84]
25. Be prepared (except in the case of the Union of South Africa) to provide U.S. technical and limited related assistance to advance U.S. interests, and to negotiate surplus commodity sales under P.L. 480 when appropriate.
26. In cases where U.S. assistance is provided:
- Attention should be given to those activities which especially (1) complement the efforts already undertaken by the governments of the area concerned; (2) improve, develop, or conserve human resources by programs of education, training, and health; (3) accelerate economic development by the selective application of skills to the resources available, with particular emphasis on the fields of agriculture, light manufacturing and processing industries and public administration; (4) encourage private investment, both domestic and foreign.
- Within the categories in a above, accord priority to projects (1) which are of particular interest to the Africans or to which they attach special importance, (2) serve multi-national needs or are otherwise regional in scope.
- In the priority area of education and training give special attention to: (1) surveys of the educational requirements of the area; (2) development of appropriate research activities, the establishment and extension of training facilities, and surveys of manpower requirements and availabilities; (3) those programs designed to develop Western-oriented leaders in the area.
27. Encourage U.S. and Free World business to participate more actively in the development of the economies of these countries by expanding trade and investment. Seek the denial or limitation of exports of strategic commodities from these areas to the Sino-Soviet Bloc in accordance with U.S. economic defense policy.
28. Encourage expanded efforts by private American institutions and foundations in the fields of education, training and research on Africa.
Policy Guidance on Individual Countries and Territories Supplemental to the “Regional Policy Guidance” Above2
Union of South Africa
29. Maintain as wide an area of mutual regard and communication as possible in official U.S. relations with the Union Government. At the same time continue to point out to the Union Government that the United States cannot accept the apartheid concept as valid.
30. Encourage and improve communication between the various racial groups in the Union.[Page 85]
31. In international forums:
- Seek to put the racial problem in proper context in order to avoid intemperate or strongly condemnatory resolutions.
- Make clear, however, U.S. regret and concern that discriminatory practice in the Union continues to be fortified and sanctified by law, and point out that the United States believes South Africa’s best interests will be served by policies which will give all racial groups grounds for hope that their legitimate aspirations can be attained.
32. Encourage the Union to develop closer and mutually desirable cooperative relations with other African territories and nations.
33. Encourage the Union to respect its obligations in its administration of the Territory of South West Africa in accordance with the terms of the original mandate, and to seek with the United Nations a basis for an agreement which would continue to accord to the Territory an international status.
Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi
34. Encourage friendly relations between the Congo and the independent African countries.
35. Encourage the Belgians to fulfill their obligation as trustee for Ruanda-Urundi by improving economic conditions in that area and preparing it for eventual self-government or independence, preferably with ties to Belgium.
Angola and Mozambique
36. To the extent possible, urge on the Portuguese the long-range benefit to themselves of more enlightened policies in Africa, including liberal trade and investment policies.
37. Without indicating approbation of over-all Portuguese policy in Africa, do not publicly dispute the proposition that Angola and Mozambique are integral parts of Portugal.
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
38. Encourage maintenance of the federal system of government and acceptance of the ideal of a multi-racial democracy. Urge on receptive local leaders the propriety and feasibility of the use of federal law in advancing social justice.
39. Impress upon the United Kingdom and Federation Governments the urgent need for accommodating the legitimate aspirations of all inhabitants in the Federation within the federal system of government.
40. Encourage the United Kingdom to recognize the need to advance Africans and to promote economic development in primarily African areas in Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia, where the United [Page 86]Kingdom maintains ultimate responsibility, in order to regain African confidence in the United Kingdom and to win African consent to the continuation of the Federation.
41. Encourage friendly relations between the Federation and other independent African countries and close association with members of the Commonwealth.
- Source: Department of State, S/P–NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1, NSC 5920 & NSC 6001. Secret. Enclosure to a note from Lay to the NSC dated January 19. The Financial Appendix is not printed.↩
- Includes the Union of South Africa, South West Africa, and the High Commission territories (Bechuanaland, Basutoland and Swaziland), the Belgian Congo, the Portuguese territories of Angola and Mozambique, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Kenya, Uganda, Zanzibar and the Trust Territories of Tanganyika and Ruanda-Urundi. Madagascar will be dealt with in the policy paper on West Africa, inasmuch as the Malgache Republic is a part of the French Community. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- The General Considerations on which this Policy Guidance is based are contained in the Annex to this paper. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- Bantustans are areas in which Africans enjoy a measure of local self-government. [Footnote in the source text.)↩
- The rioting took place January 4–10, 1959, and the Belgian Government declaration was issued on January 13.↩