14. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Iran 1

1587. All parties concerned advised keep you informed developments re Turco-Iraqi Pact. Summary follows.

Statement of intentions issued by Iraqi and Turkish Prime Ministers conclusion visit latter to Baghdad mid-January indicated two Governments would conclude security arrangements. This development unexpected as we had understood no such action in offing. Iraqi draft later submitted to Turks however fell far short of statement intentions. Turks counter-suggested Pact providing for cooperation to meet threat aggression Middle East and for military planning and other steps necessary carry out this purpose. Iraqis showed considerable hesitancy in agreeing to such firm alliance. Compromise version, reportedly final, Nuri point of view recognizes possible threat to Middle East and provides for cooperation in interest defense and security. No specific action authorized in this draft but agreement to agree subsequently on measures to be taken pursuant to pact included. Also has provision for adherence other Arab countries and those concerned with Middle East defenses. Seems reasonable expect conclusion Pact in near future.

Egyptians whose leadership Arab nations threatened by Iraqi step reacted violently in denouncing Pact with Saudi and Yemen backing. Lebanon, Jordan and Syria attempted mediate between Egypt and Iraq or have supported Iraq. More recently French sought discourage Arab support in Damascus and Cairo and both US and UK are approaching French as allies to change this position. In facing this opposition Prime Minister Nuri has maintained firm position though more recently he [Page 21] has shown some signs wavering. For this reason we have agreed with Turks early conclusion Pact desirable even though it may be defective in some respects.

Pakistani Government welcomes the Pact. Knitting Turko-Pakistan and Turco-Iraqi arrangements is most important and might best be done through Pakistan adherence Turco-Iraqi Pact which appears somewhat more suitable as basis security arrangement. Pakistanis based on statement intentions have expressed interest. It is to this agreement Iran’s attention should be directed rather than to Turco-Pakistan Agreement.

We have told Shah we would welcome Iran adherence such step. He has not committed himself but appears likely he will take some action this direction when he returns home. Turks would like Iran’s adherence soon as practicable and expect Iran eventually become member. For present however their policy is not push Iran into Pact. Nuri believes Iran’s participation essential and hopes indication of what steps Iran is now prepared take would be given soon as Shah returns Tehran.

  1. Source: Department of State, Central Files, 682.87/2–1855. Secret. Drafted by Stutesman and Dixon and approved by Kitchen who signed for, Dulles. Repeated to Karachi.