311. Telegram From the Delegation at the Foreign Ministers Meetings to the Department of State 1

Secto 113. 1. Second half October 31 meeting opened with Molotov request that Federal Republic and GDR representatives be invited participate in conference discussions of German problem.2 He said while Soviet Government has relations both German Governments other three powers have relations only one and hence deprived possibility hearing GDR views. Molotov cited Bulganin summit statement that it not possible discuss Germany without representatives of German people. This particularly so now that two sovereign German states exist. If Ministers wish expedite settlement German problem they must help Germans come together. Soviet Government sees no reason prevent German participation since this would enable Germans express views on conference proposals thus far submitted and those which may be submitted. Soviet Government proposes invitations be sent to Bonn and Pankow Governments.

2. Secretary replied it not possible for US accept Soviet proposal. US does not recognize GDR nor feel it represents views of German people. All four-powers recognize Federal Republic and we see no reason why invitation should not be sent Adenauer as suggested. So far as GDR concerned there is coincidence views between it and Soviet Union which could speak for it.

3. Pinay said Western Powers accept principle Germans should be associated discussions concerning their own fate. Only way implement this principle is hold free elections throughout Germany to obtain qualified representatives. Confrontation Bonn and Pankow representatives would be false symmetry of regimes established by freedom and fiat and could lead only to useless polemics. In absence [Page 657] free all-German elections only acceptable procedure would be to hear freely elected representatives of Federal Republic.

4. After brief statement by Macmillan, who made points similar to Secretary and Pinay, Molotov pleaded West acknowledge reality of German situation. He said recognition of governments one thing but dealing with matter involving territory of sovereign government quite another. USSR has experienced same difficulties in trying forge ahead despite obstacles set in path by others who had not recognized it. Life has way taking care such things in time. Refusal hear both German Governments would be to ignore facts and to refuse settle problem before use. Other three Ministers apparently intend deny Germans opportunity be heard. Soviet Government for equal treatment both German Governments and urges acceptance its proposal.

5. During ensuing debate Molotov said Western refusal accept Soviet proposal would have negative effect on remainder conference consideration German problem and this would be realized by German people. Secretary then stated three Ministers reject GDR hearing not merely because regime not recognized nor because its representatives might fail reflect wishes German people but because it is certain GDR would misrepresent German views. Macmillan then said to amusement three sides of table that he recalled GDR regime returned to power last time by 99 percent vote. In his 32 years politics he had taken part in ten elections and could say any party or any man polling such percentage could be regarded only as “walking miracle”. Secretary as chairman then took play from Molotov by proposing immediate invitation to Federal Government since four agreed on its participation. Molotov forced admit this unacceptable and matter of German participation was closed with agreement each side could consult such Germans as it wished outside conference hall.

6. Secretary said would be helpful have previously announced Soviet proposals to study over holiday. Molotov then introduced new Soviet security proposal with agreement that despite different approaches question European security revealed in conference thus far, Soviet Delegation holds possibility reaching positive results this problem not yet exhausted. Taking into account Western suggestions made at two Geneva Conferences particularly those of Eden at summit, Soviet Delegation proposed treaty comprising four powers plus other parties WEU and Warsaw as well as Federal Republic and GDR. Other European countries such as Yugoslavia and Denmark could also be parties. Treaty (text cabled Secto 1083) tabled contained the following provisions: [Page 658]

Parties to treaty undertake not use armed force against one another and refrain from recourse threat force in relations each other and settle any disputes among them by peaceful means.
In event one or several parties to treaty subjected to armed attack in Europe by any party or group of parties to treaty, other parties shall immediately render state or states so attacked all such assistance including military assistance as may be deemed necessary for purpose reestablishing and maintaining international peace and security in Europe.
Parties to refrain from rendering under any pretext direct or indirect assistance to attacking state in Europe.
Parties shall consult whenever in view of any one of them there arises danger of armed attack in Europe against one or more parties in order to take effective steps remove any such danger. They shall immediately undertake necessary consultations reestablishment of peace in event of attack on any party.
Signatories shall by common consent establish special body or bodies for purpose holding above mentioned consultations and taking such other steps assure security as may be found necessary in connection fulfillment undertakings this treaty.
Parties agree undertakings this treaty shall not infringe upon undertakings assumed by them under existing treaties and agreements.
Assumption by states of undertakings under this treaty shall not prejudice right of parties to individual or collective self-defense in event of armed attack as provided Article 51 UN Charter.
Treaty is of provisional character and shall remain in effect until replaced by another more extensive treaty on European security which shall replace existing treaties and agreements.

In written statement (text cabled Secto 1094), Molotov explained that Soviet Government in submitting this proposal proceeds from premise that “afterwards” existing treaties and agreements (NATO, WEU and Warsaw) shall become ineffective and military groupings based on them liquidated. He said Soviet Government proposes neither concrete term of validity for treaty outlined above nor specific time for its replacement by more extensive all European treaty. Soviet Government finds it possible merely mention that treaty proposed here will remain in force until replaced by broader treaty which in turn will provide for dissolution existing treaties and agreements. Molotov also expressed concern for security countries which suffered heavily from German aggression, mentioning specifically Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Greece. In passing he pointed out Western security proposals failed indicate whether states bordering Germany included. He asked for clarification on this point.

7. Molotov then referred to Eden proposal at summit creation special zone where armaments would be subject to limitation and inspection and recalled that Bulganin took favorable position on this. [Page 659] He cited directive recommendation concerning establishment between East and West of zone in which disposition armed forces will be subject mutual agreement. He then argued that zone “between East and West” must mean dividing line should fall between East and West Germany rather than East of reunified Germany. Western Powers security proposal therefore does not correspond actual state affairs. Soviet Government considers this question deserves serious attention and that positions relating to it should be reconciled since on number points Western Powers and USSR have much in common. Molotov then suggested agreement by both on following:

Zone of limitation and inspection of armaments in Europe shall include territory of Federal Republic, GDR and all or some neighboring states.
Agreement on zone shall envisage ceiling for strength troops of four powers stationed on territories of other states in zone. Question of troop levels subject additional consideration.
Obligations pertaining limitation and control of armaments assumed by states under appropriate agreement shall be agreed upon by these states which are free in taking decisions on this matter in accordance their sovereign rights.
To fulfill obligations pertaining limitation armaments in zone, joint inspection of armed forces and armaments of states parties to agreement shall be established. In concluding remarks Molotov said attainment of such an understanding would make solution disarmament problem easier because feasibility measures in Europe would have been demonstrated and could subsequently be carried out on larger scale. He said Soviet Delegation hoped its proposals would serve “as suitable basis for bringing our positions closer together and will facilitate reaching of necessary understanding among four powers on European security.”

8. In preliminary comment Macmillan stated Soviet proposal contained certain points which seem at first sight make considerable advance in certain discussions but decisive point is that whole plan appears based on division of Germany. Three powers have made it quite clear that no matter how ingenious a security plan may be there can be no real security in Europe as long as Germany remains divided. For this reason we cannot fully appreciate Soviet security proposal until it has presented companion proposal on German reunification. Secretary seconded Macmillan’s argument and urged Soviets delay no longer in presenting reunification proposal.

9. In brief response to Macmillan Molotov said it not secret that two German states now exist and our task is help reestablish united Germany in such way as take into account existing realities. Soviet Delegation believes at next meeting views could be exchanged on proposals just tabled by Soviet Delegation after which Soviet Delegation intends make certain proposals directly on German problem.

  1. Source: Department of State, Central Files, 396.1–GE/11–155. Confidential; Priority. Repeated to London, Paris for USRO, Bonn, Moscow, Berlin. Passed to Defense. Regarding this meeting, see footnote 1, supra .
  2. For text of Molotov’s statement, circulated as MFM/DOC/22, see Foreign Ministers Meeting, pp. 75–76.
  3. Not printed. (Department of State, Central Files, 396.1–GE/11–155) For texts of Molotov’s statement and the Soviet draft treaty, circulated as MFM/DOC/23, see Foreign Ministers Meeting, pp. 76–82, or Cmd. 9633, pp. 36–39 and 106–107.
  4. Not printed. (Department of State, Central Files, 396.1–GE/11–155)