List of Sources

Part A. Unpublished Sources

The following is a list of files and collections of official and private papers consulted in the preparation of this volume.

Department of State

Indexed Central Files

Papers in the indexed Central Files of the Department of State for the years 1952–1954, now located in the National Archives Building, Washington, D.C., in the custody of the National Archives and Records Service, are indicated by a decimal file number in the headnote.

A/MS Files, Lot 54 D 291

Consolidated administrative files of the Department of State for the years 1940–1960, as maintained by the Management Staff of the Bureau of Administration.

ARA Files, Lot 57 D 618

Files of the Special Assistant in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs for the year 1954, and miscellaneous subject files relating to the Caracas Conference, antitrust proceedings against United Fruit Company, and Guatemala for the years 1946–1956, as retired by the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.

ARA/REA Files, Lot 57 D 597

Files relating to the Mutual Security Program for the period 1951–1956, as retired by the Office of Inter-American Regional Economic Affairs.

Cabot Files, Lot 56 D 13

Exchanges of official–informal correspondence between Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs John M. Cabot and Chiefs of Mission in Latin America, for the period January 1953–March 1954, as maintained by the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.

Conference Files, Lot 59 D 95

Collection of documentation on certain official visits of European heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and on major international conferences (including North Atlantic Council Sessions) attended by the Secretary of State for the period 1949–1955, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

Conference Files, Lot 60 D 627

Collection of documentation on official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States, and on major international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the period 1956–1958, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

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Department of State Press Releases, Lot 77 D 9

Record set of the Department of State’s press releases, arranged in volumes, for the period 1912–1970, as retired by the Office of Press Relations in the Office of the Secretary of State.

Guatemala Embassy Files, Lot 59 F 15

Classified subject files of the Embassy in Guatemala for the years 1950–1952, which are part of Federal Records Accession No. 59 A 543.

Guatemala Embassy Files, Lot 60 F 65

Classified subject files of the Embassy in Guatemala for the years 1953–1955, which are part of the Federal Records Center Accession No. 61 A 17.

Holland Files, Lot 57 D 295

Memoranda and exchanges of official–informal correspondence between Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs Henry F. Holland and Chiefs of Mission in Latin America, for the period 1954–1956, as maintained by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs.

INR Files

Files retained by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

INR–NIE Files

Files of National Intelligence Estimates, Special Estimates, and Special National Intelligence Estimates, retained by the Directorate for Regional Intelligence, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

MannWoodward Files, Lot 57 D 598

Functional files of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs (principally Thomas C. Mann and Robert F. Woodward), for the period 1946–1954, as maintained by the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs.

MannWoodward Files, Lot 57 D 634

Top secret letters and memoranda from the functional files of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs (principally Thomas C. Mann and Robert F. Woodward), for the period 1948–1954, as maintained by the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs.

MID Files, Lot 57 D 9

Chronological and subject files relating to Guatemala for the years 1944–1954, as retired by the Office of Middle American Affairs.

MID Files, Lot 57 D 15

Chronological and subject files relating to Costa Rica and Nicaragua for the period 1952–1956, as retired by the Office of Middle American Affairs.

MID Files, Lot 57 D 95

Chronological files relating to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for the years 1947–1956, as retired by the Office of Middle American Affairs.

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MID Files, Lot 58 D 18

Chronological files relating to Guatemala for the year 1954, as retired by the Office of Middle American Affairs.

MID Files, Lot 58 D 78

Chronological and subject files relating to Guatemala for the years 1945–1952, as retired by the Office of Middle American Affairs.

Miller Files, Lot 53 D 26

Files of Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs Edward G. Miller, Jr., for the years 1949–1953.

MSAFOA Director’s Files, FRC 56 A 632

General subject and country files from the Office of the MSAFOA Director covering the foreign aid program for the years 1952–1955 (W–1444). These files were retired by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) and are a part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 56 A 632.

MSAFOA Message Files, FRC 55 A 374

Telegrams, airgrams, despatches, and reports to and from all overseas missions from January 1, 1953 to June 30, 1954, as maintained by MSAFOA headquarters (W–130, W–131, W–136, W–140). These files were retired by the FOA and are part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 374.

NAC Files, Lot 60 D 137

Master file of documents of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Problems for the years 1945–1958, as maintained by the Bureau of Economic Affairs of the Department of State.

OAS Files, Lot 60 D 665

Basic collection of records of meetings of the Organization of American States, other major inter-American governmental organizations, and inter-American conferences together with related subject files for the years 1939–1962, as maintained by the Office of Inter-American Regional Political Affairs.

PPS Files, Lot 64 D 563

Master file of documents, drafts, records of meetings, memoranda, and related correspondence of the Policy Planning Staff for the years 1947–1953.

PPS Files, Lot 65 D 101

Master file of documents, drafts, records of meetings, memoranda, and related correspondence of the Policy Planning Staff for the year 1954.

Presidential Correspondence, Lot 66 D 204

Exchanges of correspondence between the President and the heads of foreign governments for the years 1953–1964, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

Secretary’s Actions, Lot 61 D 258

Summary statements, under varying titles, of major activities of the Secretary and Under Secretary of State for the period November 1954 through 1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

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Secretary’s Daily Meetings, Lot 58 D 609

Chronological collection of the Secretary of State’s daily meetings with top Department of State officials for the years 1949–1952, as maintained by the Special Assistant to the Secretary of State.

Secretary’s Letters, Lot 56 D 459

Correspondence of the Secretary of State for the years 1945–1956, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

Secretary’s Memoranda, Lot 53 D 444

Comprehensive chronological collections of the Secretary of State’s memoranda, memoranda of conversation, and memoranda of conversation with the President for the years 1947–1953, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

Secretary’s Memoranda of Conversation, Lot 64 D 199

Chronological collection of the Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation and the Under Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation for the years 1953–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

Secretary’s Memoranda of Conversation, Lot 65 D 238

Chronological collection of the Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation with the President for the years 1949–1952, memoranda of the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary of State for the years 1951–1952, and the Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation with Senator Tom Connally of Texas for the years 1950–1951, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

Secretary’s Staff Meetings, Lot 63 D 75

Chronological collection of the minutes of the Secretary of State’s staff meetings during the years 1952–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

S/PNSC Files, Lot 61 D 167

Serial file of memoranda relating to National Security Council questions for the years 1950–1961, as maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.

S/PNSC Files, Lot 62 D 1

Serial and subject master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence for the years 1948–1961, as maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.

S/SNSC Files, Lot 63 D 351

Serial master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence and related Department of State memoranda for the years 1947–1961, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

S/SOCB Files, Lot 62 D 430

Master files of the Operations Coordinating Board for the years 1953–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

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State–JCS Meetings, Lot 61 D 417

Top secret records of meetings between representatives of the Department of State and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the period 1951–1959 and selected problem files on the Middle East for the period 1954–1956, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

Under Secretary’s Meetings, Lot 53 D 250

Master file of records, documents, summaries, and agenda of the Under Secretary’s meetings for the years 1949–1952, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.

U/MSA Files, Lot 56 D 551

Files for the period 1954–1956 retained for the use of the Secretary of State’s Special Assistant for Mutual Security Affairs, as maintained by the Office of the Special Assistant for Mutual Security Affairs.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas

Eisenhower Library, Eisenhower Records

The daily appointment books of President Eisenhower for the years 1953–1961.

Eisenhower Library, James C. Hagerty Papers

Papers of James C. Hagerty, Press Secretary to the President, for the years 1953–1961.

Eisenhower Library, Eisenhower Papers, Whitman File

Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States for the years 1953–1961. This collection, which was maintained by the President’s personal secretary Ann Whitman, and subsequently called the “Whitman File”, has several major component parts, including the National Security Council File, the International Meeting File, and the International File.

Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey

Dulles Papers, Daily Appointments

Daily log of the meetings and appointments of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles for the years 1953–1959.

Willauer Papers

The papers of Whiting Willauer for the period 1941–1961, including materials relating to his career as Ambassador to Honduras, 1954–1958, and Ambassador to Costa Rica, 1958–1961.

Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri

Truman Papers, President’s Secretary’s File (PSF)

Papers of Harry S. Truman as President of the United States for the period 1945–1953, as maintained by his personal secretary.

Part B. Published Works

The following publications, including secondary accounts, were consulted in the preparation of this volume. Citations to additional published documents, memoirs, and other primary sources are provided throughout the volume as appropriate. No responsibility is taken by the Department of State for the accuracy of events set forth in unofficial sources.

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Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York, W.W. Norton, 1969).

Sherman Adams, First-Hand Report (New York, Harper & Row, 1951).

Stephen E. Ambrose, with Richard Immerman, Ike’s Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment (Garden City, New York, Doubleday & Co., 1981).

John Moors Cabot, First Line of Defense: Forty Years’ Experiences of a Career Diplomat (Washington, School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, n.d.).

William Colby, Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1978).

Blanche Wiesen Cook, The Declassified Eisenhower: A Divided Legacy (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1981).

Robert J. Donovan, Eisenhower : The Inside Story (New York, Harper & Row, 1956).

Dwight D. Eisenhower, The White House Years: Mandate for Change, 1953–1956 (Garden City, New York, Doubleday & Co., 1963).

E. Howard Hunt, Undercover: Memoirs of an American Secret Agent (New York, Berkley Publishing, 1974).

Richard H. Immerman, The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention (Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press, 1982).

———, “Guatemala as Cold War History,” Political Science Quarterly, Volume 95 (Winter 1980–1981), pages 629–653.

Lester D. Langley, The United States and the Caribbean, 1900–1970 (Athens, Georgia, University of Georgia Press, 1980).

Herbert S. Parmet, Eisenhower and the American Crusades (New York, Macmillan, 1972).

David A. Phillips, Nightwatch: Twenty Years of Peculiar Service (New York, Atheneum, 1977).

Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala (Garden City, New York, Doubleday & Co., 1982).

Jose M. Aybar de Soto, Dependency and Intervention: The Case of Guatemala in 1954 (Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1978).

U.S. Congress, Congressional Record, 1952–1954.

———, House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Selected Executive Session Hearings of the Committee, 1951–1956: The Middle East, Africa, and Inter-American Affairs, Historical Series, Vol. XVI (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1980).

———, House, Select Committee on Communist Aggression, Report of the Subcommittee to Investigate Communist Aggression in Latin America, 83d Congress, 2d session (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1954).

———, House, Select Committee on Communist Aggression, Subcommittee on Latin America, Ninth Interim Report of Hearings: Communist Aggression in Latin America, 83d Congress, 2d session (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1954).

———, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Executive Sessions of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Historical Series, Vol. VI, 83d Congress, 2d session (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1977).

U.S. Department of State, American Foreign Policy, 1950–1955: Basic Documents (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1957).

———, A Case History of Communist Penetration: Guatemala, Department of State Publication 6465 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1957).

———, Bulletin, 1952–1954.

———, Intervention of International Communism in Guatemala, Department of State Publication 5556 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1954).

———, United States and Panama (Washington, Department of State, 1952).

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U.S. President, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1952–1953 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1966).

———, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1960).

———, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1954 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1960).

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