A/MS files, lot 54 D 291 (V), “UNA/P master file”
Memorandum by the United Nations Planning Staff to the Planning Adviser, Bureau of United Nations Affairs ( Sanders )
- “Principal Stresses and Strains Facing the US in the UN”
- In your memorandum of February 10, 1953 to the Office
Directors,1 supplemented by meetings
with Messrs.Hickerson and Sandifer and the Office Directors, the purposes
of this project were described as follows:
- To make an objective review and analysis of the major issues confronting the US in the UN in order that the new administration could have the benefit of this experience in charting future courses of action.
- To take, in Mr. Hickerson’s words, a “new look” at what we have been doing in the UN after seven years of operation in order to have a clearer picture of directions and trends.
- To establish guides for a selective approach to the problem of UN Charter review.
- In Mr. Sandifer’s memorandum of April 30, 19532 it was stressed that the current stage of this project—the first stage—would consist of objective historical analyses of major stresses and strains, to be followed later by a second stage which would consist of conclusions, identification of new policy decisions required, and well-balanced presentation of alternative courses of action open to the US. He pointed out that the second stage would draw not only on the analysis of difficulties—the first stage papers—but on all other pertinent considerations and factors as well. The first stage studies with findings based upon them are in this sense background material and are being restricted to internal use within UNA only.
- Of the fifteen studies originally scheduled eleven* were ultimately prepared, the others for one reason or another being found to be unsuitable for this presentation. All eleven papers were prepared in collaboration with the appropriate operating units of UNA and often other areas of the Department as well. Some of the papers were initially drafted by the operating officers, some by the UNA/P Planning Staff. In almost all cases extensive redrafting took place during a protracted period of discussion between UNA/P and other units. Most of the papers were fully cleared by all appropriate operating units. Others were approved in substance, and a few were dissented from by one or more units. Thus, although the studies are preponderantly a joint effort and full credit should be given to the many collaborating officers, UNA/P must take full responsibility for the final text.
- It is inevitable that an attempt to state and analyze US experience in the UN should give rise to some apprehensions lest the presentation imply criticism of given policies and actions. No criticism (or advocacy) was intended. The sole purpose of the project was to secure a better grasp of what we have been doing, where we are heading, and what difficulties we must bear in mind.
- Attached hereto is a brief paper of the most significant findings which UNA/P has derived from a number of the studies. The subject matter of a few of the studies did not bear on these central findings, but it should not be inferred that they are of any lesser importance, merely that they should be read as separate problems. The eleven basic papers are being made available under separate cover for background and reference.
- That this memorandum with its attachment be transmitted to Mr. Sandifer, and to Mr. Murphy, when he reports for duty, along with copies of the studies under separate cover.3
- That copies be made available to the Office Directors and their staffs for background information, with a request for their recommendations as to the best way of carrying out the second stage.
- That copies be sent to USUN for the background use of key officers.
- That plans be formulated at an early date for the execution of the second stage.4
- Not found in Department of State files.↩
- Not found in Department of State files. A UNA/P memorandum of Apr. 24, 1953, to Sandifer, on which the Apr. 30 memorandum may have been based, is in decimal file 310.↩
- General Assembly and Security Council; Colonial Question; Propaganda; Collective Security; Bloc Politics; Human Rights; Economic Development; Scope of UN Action; Admission of New Members; International Secretariats; Inter-relationships of International Organizations. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- The 11 studies were organized into a black binder which was entitled “Principal Stresses and Strains Facing the US in the UN”.↩
- No documentation has been found on a second stage operation.↩
- This emerges in the following papers: GA and SC, Colonial Issue, Propaganda, Economic Development, Scope of UN Action, Human Rights, Bloc Politics, and Collective Security. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- The problem appears in the following papers: GA and SC, Bloc Politics, Collective Security, Propaganda, Colonial Issue, Scope of UN Action, Human Rights, and Economic Development. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- This problem is reflected in the following papers: Scope of UN Action, GA and SO, Colonial Issue, Propaganda, Economic Development, Human Rights, Interrelationships of International Organizations, Bloc Politics, and Collective Security. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- Other facts, not mentioned in the original papers, but relevant to the findings, should be mentioned here: The UK has keenly desired to discuss with us the role of the UN, and has set forth its ideas not only in last year’s talks about this subject, but also in a series of articles and speeches by Sir Gladwyn Jebb. On the other hand, the Soviet Union has constantly insisted on a “return to the original concept of the UN”. Further reactions to changing UN functions have come from within the US, where strong groups have expressed fears that the UN might eventually subvert the Constitution, while others voice impatience that it does not yet have the capacity to secure world peace. And within the US Government, opinions are divided on whether the UN should be used primarily for propaganda or for substantive achievement. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- The Cold War is reflected primarily in the following papers: GA and SC, Propaganda, Membership, and Collective Security. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- In the light of the recent “change of course” of Soviet policy, the following observation is pertinent: The Cold War has confronted the world with the problem of bi-polarism and has given rise to the concept of a “third force”. The UN reflects this problem in a characteristic way, since many nations choose to look upon the organization itself as the prime example of a “third force”. With the new interests the Soviets have taken, during their present “peace” campaign, in cultivating and capturing “third force” elements, the entire problem is one of great and vital importance for the security of the US. [Footnote in the source text.]↩
- The problem is reflected in the following papers: Colonial Issue, Human Rights, Economic Development, Scope of UN Action, and Bloc Politics. [Footnote in the source text.]↩