511.00/2–1552: Circular

The Secretary of State to Certain Diplomatic and Consular Offices 1

confidential
No. 21
  • Subject:
  • Quarterly Propaganda Emphases

1. Purpose

This circular describes the quarterly propaganda emphases approach planned for 1952 in general, and specifically as it relates to the second phase. Reference is made to the circular airgram on this subject, dated November 17, 1951,2 11:05 a.m.

2. General Quarterly Propaganda Emphasis Approach

2.1
Plan for the Quarterly Approach
2.11
In order to afford posts an opportunity to give maximum impact to various carefully planned and coordinated approaches to the major continuing objectives of United States foreign policy, the Department has developed and proposes to continue to develop materials which will have four discernible thematic emphases, corresponding to the four quarters of 1952. The selection of these emphases is dictated by the psychological task of building unity and confidence in support of efforts to achieve peace with freedom. The broad basic theme for all four quarters of 1952 is Progress Through Strength Towards Peace With Freedom.
2.12
It should be understood that no departures from established United States policy are contemplated. The four major propaganda [Page 1617] campaigns here outlined involve themes and aims which are being sustained and will continue to be sustained for the foreseeable future. The Department’s purpose in dividing them into four three-month phases is two-fold: first, to enable IIA’s operating media to plan far enough in advance to take advantage of useful dates and occasions, and to synchronize the fastest media products with the slowest; and second, to enable the posts to arrange well in advance for adaptations, translations, printing (locally or through the Regional Production Centers in London and Manila), and distribution facilities, and for such related local activities as appear to be indicated in each instance.
2.2
Operation of the Quarterly Approach
2.21
Certain operational points may be noted in connection with press and publications campaign output:
a.
Campaign materials will not be forwarded all together in a kit, but each item will be sent as soon as completed as a component part of the steady routing flow of press, photo and publications material.
b.
Leaflets will be sent in the usual 10 English language pilot models to each post, with separate attribution instructions for each.
2.22
Officers should give the most serious consideration to the plan as it is presented, and should approach it as a technique for maximizing our propaganda potential in terms of specific areas. Posts, of course, are urged to continue to exercise their discretion and judgment on the use or adaptation of given items or themes. Field comments are welcome, and should include constructive suggestions on projects outlined in this and succeeding communications and/or new approaches which more closely fit area requirements.
2.23
Officers should bear in mind that campaign themes and materials are applicable to most phases of cultural programs, as well as to media operations. Servicing of campaign materials will be carried on in the same manner as in the past.

3. Development of Phase One

3.1 Major Emphasis for Phase One

The major emphasis for Phase One (January, February, and March) is on Peace With Freedom, with three concurrent subheadings: (1) “The Peace We Believe In”; (2) “Peace Through Deeds”; (3) “The Kremlin—Disturber of the Peace”. Phase One was planned as an intensification of the effort to capture for the United States and its co-partners of the Free World the idea of peace which has been perverted and exploited so successfully heretofore by Soviet propagandists. It seeks to give the word “peace” a broader and richer [Page 1618] content more reflective of basic human needs and aspirations, and sequester the idea against further misuse by the Kremlin by linking it indissolubly with the ideas of freedom and justice.

3.2 Materials for Phase One

Shipment of long-range materials for use in Phase One virtually has been completed. The Wireless Bulletin and other fast media will continue to supply appropriate items on the first theme until the close of the first quarter. This applies particularly to informational materials for use in specific regions and countries.

3.3 Transition to Phase Two

Effort is being made to shift from one major emphasis to the other without a noticeable break in the psychological task undertaken in this coordinated approach to furtherance of continuing major U.S. foreign policy objectives. One phase is expected to pass imperceptibly into the next. The elements of each phase are expected to prove useful in succeeding phases, either through mere persistence of their psychological effect or through actual re-employment to complement the new themes. To a very large extent, the precise nature of themes for Phases Three and Four will be determined by events and by the experience of field officers in the utilization of campaign materials. It is the Department’s desire that this whole concept be regarded as a flexible frame of reference for the posts.

4. Development of Phase Two

4.1
Major Emphasis of Phase Two
4.11
In further developing the broad basic theme for 1952, Progress Through Strength Towards Peace With Freedom, special emphasis will be placed on the theme Strength for Peace With Freedom in materials prepared for use during the second quarter (April, May and June). Elements of the first phase, Peace With Freedom, should prove useful in the Phase Two.
4.12
The major emphasis for Phase Two, Strength For Peace With Freedom, has three concurrent subheadings: (1) “Aggression Has Been Stopped”; (2) “The Free World is Invincible”; (3) “The Slave System is Doomed”.
4.2
Materials for Use in Phase Two
4.21
Phase Two material is intended to show that the Free World has the material strength and the spiritual will to: (1) resist aggression; (2) attain a peace based on freedom and justice through mutual cooperation; and (3) build up its industrial potential not only to attain and preserve peace, but also for the general advancement of mankind. It also will show that strength in the hands of the Free World threatens the freedom of no one, in contrast to the misuse of force by the Communist imperialists; that the great [Page 1619] strength of the Free World is in its human resources, particularly its workers and its youth, and that the price of freedom is high, requiring sacrifices on the part of those who would remain free.
4.22
So far as the program for the second quarter relates to motion pictures provided to the field by the Assistant Administrator for Motion Picture Services (IMS) and to leaflets, photo displays, posters, picture stories and press features produced by the Assistant Administrator for Press Services (IPS), the items which have been shipped or are in preparation are listed in an enclosure to this circular. This is by no means a complete list of the materials to be supplied for use in Phase Two. It does show the scope of the preparation made for the second quarterly emphasis.
4.23
Many of the press, photographic and publications items supplied for Phase Two will be marked, either through the use of a rubber stamp, or by a special transmittal sheet. Press material, generally, will be unmarked due to the technical difficulties involved. The presence of the subthemes listed in paragraph 4.12 above should be easily discernible in press materials designed for this campaign.
4.24
Voice of America feature and commentary materials will be developed in accordance with the general themes and subthemes cited for IPS materials.
4.25
The Assistant Administrator for Information Center Services will follow this circular with a communication listing materials on hand at centers abroad which are applicable to the themes and subthemes on Phase Two and materials which it plans to send to the field in support of the quarterly program.
4.26
The Department recognizes that USIS officers already are in possession of a large body of materials—press items, films, radio transcriptions and scripts, books, pamphlets, photos, et cetera—which may be used for exploiting the theme Phase Two. Some of the previously shipped material might be usefully employed to complement the materials especially prepared by IPS for use in the second quarter propaganda emphasis.

5. Subsequent Instructions

5.1
The themes and subthemes for the third and fourth quarters will be elaborated in subsequent instructions. USIS officers will also be advised of materials prepared for use in the campaign during the third and fourth quarters of 1952.
5.2
The Department will in a series of communications, issue further guidance on the execution of the plan, as well as set forth what is being done by the IIA operating media to implement the plan.
5.3
Attention of USIS officers is again called to the fact that the whole concept of the four thematic emphases, corresponding to the four quarters of 1952, should be regarded as a broad frame of reference with the greatest flexibility indicated.

Enclosure

confidential

Material or in Preparation by IPS and IMS Relating to Phase Two

a. leaflets, photo displays, posters, picture stories, and press features

1. Aggression Has Been Stopped

Pamphlets and Leaflets:

a) Communism is Losing. Eight-page leaflet showing the decline of Communist strength in trade union memberships, elections, party memberships, etc.

Shipping date: Feb. 20

b) United Action in Korea. 24–page photo pamphlet proving that collective security, as exemplified by U.N. action in halting Communist aggression in Korea, is a working reality. This publication is a reprint of a United Nations pamphlet. It was previously shipped to the field and will be reissued.

Shipping date: Feb. 15

c) Aggression Can Be Stopped. Four-page leaflet which itemizes postwar Communist aggression and how it was stopped by courage and concerted effort.

Shipping date: Feb. 28

Picture Stories:

a) Strength of United Action. Strength of free world as shown through NATO and SHAPE.

Shipping date: March 15

b) Strength Through Sacrifice. Sacrifices of U.N. forces in Korea to preserve peace.

Shipping date: March 5

Posters:

a) NATO . A Power for Peace. Emphasis not only on U.S. contribution but on contributions of other members. Press Features:

a)
How Communist Imperialism Has Been Checked. Series of by-liners, columns, press features, magazine reprints, and commentaries [Page 1621] on how the Free World has succeeded in blocking the Kremlin’s grab for world control.
b)
Collective Security Seen as Block to Soviet Imperialism. Prepared especially for Middle East.
c)
Free World Agriculture Helps Stop Communist Aggression.
d)
Free World Scientists Help Check Communist Aggression.

2. The Free World is Invincible

Pamphlets and Leaflets:

a) The People are Winning. Illustrated leaflet recounting the achievements won by free peoples in the fields of labor, economics, politics, etc. To be written in three versions for Europe, Southeast Asia, and Middle East.

Shipping date: March 1

b) American Labor Unions. 48–page illustrated pamphlet which tells the story of the American labor movement, how arbitration and collective bargaining operate, and the role of the ICFTU. This publication was previously sent to the field and is being reissued in conjunction with the campaign.

Shipping date: March 10

c) Working Together, the Role of Cooperatives. 48–page pamphlet illustrated by photos and drawings. Tells the story of cooperatives all over the world, what they are, the problems they face. Examples taken from Nova Scotia, India, Israel, Denmark, Egypt, U.S. Previously shipped to field; being reissued.

Shipping date: March 20

d) Consumer Capitalism in Action. 24–page pamphlet with photos. A simplified account of how capitalism works in the U.S., how labor and management negotiate, etc. Previously sent to field; to be reissued.

Shipping date: March 1

e) Why We March. Four-page leaflet. Comparison of May Day in free and Communist worlds; comparison of the workers; life in a free society and a Communist world. Primarily aimed at Germany, Italy, France, but adaptable for other audiences.

Shipping date: Feb. 15

f) NATO For Peace. Eight-page leaflet. Because aggressors respect strength only, the best insurance for peace and security is NATO.

Shipping date: March 15

Photo Displays:

a) Aid to Other Nations. Accomplishments of ECA, TCA, etc.

Shipping date: Jan. 30

b) Practicing Brotherhood of Man in the U.S. Red Cross, Community Chest, etc.

Shipping date: March 28

[Page 1622]

c) NATO . Activities of Allied nations for preserving world peace.

Shipping date: April 15

d) Western Metropolis. Where Many People Live in Peace and Security—San Francisco melting pot.

e) NATO . A Power for Peace. Emphasis as in feature poster—but with different pictures, and at least one picture for each member, Greece and Turkey included.

f) Religion. A Power for Peace. Emphasis on part that religion plays in daily lives of Americans and on religion as a power for peace.

g) Washington. At Work for Peace. Emphasis on those features of a great capital which directly or indirectly stand for peace of freedom and defense of that peace.

Picture Stories:

a) Strength Through Knowledge. Foreign students exchange program.

Shipping date: Feb. 26

b) Invincibility in the Free World. U.S. military power.

Shipping date: Feb. 15

c) Power of Youth to Obtain Peace Objectives. PAL,3 Boys Town, etc.

Shipping date: Feb. 19

d) Progress of Point Four in Various Countries.

Shipping date: March

e) The Only Goals We Seek. U.S. and free world efforts to eliminate poverty, disease, illiteracy, etc.

Shipping date: Feb. 26

f) NATO . A Power for Peace. Similar in emphasis to feature poster and photo display of same title but with different pictures.

g) Religion. A Power for Peace. Emphasis as in photo display, but pictures telling a story of a spiritual pilgrimage and retreat in a monastery in Kentucky, (for discretionary area use).

h) Ideas. A Power for Peace. Similar in emphasis to World Photo Review Poster with different pictures. Pictures will cover all major areas.

Posters:

a) They Work For Peace. World Photo Review No. 35.

Shipping date: Dec. 10

b) World Leaders Meet to Promote Peace. World Photo Poster No. 36.

Shipping date: Jan. 12

c) Borders Without Bayonets. World Photo Review Poster No. 37.

Shipping date: Jan. 25

[Page 1623]

d) International Exchange of Ideas. Feature Poster No. 38.

Shipping date: Feb. 8

e) Atomic Energy for Peacetime Uses. Newspaper Insert No. 5.

Shipping date: Jan. 25

f) Point Four in Action. Educational Poster No. 1.

Shipping date: Jan. 18

g) International Understanding Through Youth Groups. Education Poster No. 2.

Shipping date: March 18

h) Harmonious Labor-Management Relationships. Educational Poster No. 3.

Shipping date: May 18

i) Museums of Science and Industry. (Cultural) Feature Poster No. 37.

Shipping date: Jan. 26

j) Ideas. A Power for Peace, World Photo Review Poster. Emphasis on exchange of ideas through international exchange of students. Pictures will cover all major areas.

Press Features:

a)
Free World’s Growing Strength to Defend Itself. Series of by-liners, columns, press features, magazine reprints, and commentaries on the material and spiritual strength of the Free World.
b)
Strength of Free World Is In Cooperation. Series of Special Press Features to be sent out by Mission Service European Unit.
c)
Asia’s Growing Power to Defend Itself. Prepared especially for Far East.
d)
Organization of American States Knits Hemisphere into Strong Force for Peace.
e)
Americas Share Military Know-How to Strengthen Peace Power.

3. The Slave System is Doomed

Pamphlets and Leaflets:

a) Where Are They Now? 24 pages. Names, pictures, and biographies of old-time Bolsheviks, formerly Stalin’s cronies, who were purged.

Shipping date: Feb. 25

b) Slave Labor in the Soviet World. 32 pages. Documenting [words missing from the source text.]

Shipping date: Feb. 12

c) The Deadly Parallel. 16–page comparison of the similarity between Nazism and Communism.

Shipping date: April 15

[Page 1624]

d) Blood Money for Mao. 8–page leaflet describing the Chinese Communist extortion racket, mainly for Far and Middle East.

Shipping date: Feb. 15

e) Buddhism Under the Soviet Yoke. 4–page leaflet. Reports of plight of Buddhism in Communist countries, with a statement by a “Living Buddha”.

Shipping date: Jan. 31

Picture Stories:

a)
Pattern for Slavery. Comparing Nazism and Soviet Communism.
b)
Development of a Soviet Satellite.

Posters:

a) Vishinsky Laughed. Emphasis of pictures on various scenes of war-caused misery, on U.N. efforts towards peace, and on Vishinsky’s celebrated U.N. scoffing.

Shipping date: Jan. 8

b) Stalin ’s Slave Empire. Emphasis on “Gulag” may [name?] of Russian slave labor camps. Feature poster No. 36.

Shipping date: Jan. 11

Press Features:

a)
Unrest Behind the Iron Curtain. Series of byliners, columns, press features, magazine reprints, and commentaries citing the growing weakness of the Soviet Union and its satellites.
b)
Purges Behind the Iron Curtain.
c)
The Iron Curtain—Symbol of Soviet Decadence, Fear, and Weakness.
d)
Failures of Soviet Economic Institutions to Reach Objectives.
e)
Falsification of Soviet Statistics to Cover Failures.

b. films

1. Films Previously Distributed

a)
In Defense of Peace
b)
One Year in Korea
c)
UN Aids Korea

2. Films in Current Distribution

a)
Plan for Peace. Animation depicting plan for international control of atomic energy as presented at the UN General Assembly, Paris. Released for distribution by Republic Pictures.
b)
Japan Joins the Free Nations. Pegged on signing of the Japanese Peace Treaty at San Francisco.
c)
Soldiers of Freedom. Filmed at Fort Benning, Ga., and showing the training of military personnel from NATO and other nations.
[Page 1625]

3. Films to be Distributed

a)
Workers For Peace. Embrace the 9 living winners of the Nobel Peace Prize, highlighting most recent recipient, Ralph Bunche.
b)
Foreign Language Press and Radio in the U.S. Stressing the freedom of the press and radio throughout the U.S. to disseminate information in various foreign languages for the benefit of those who do not understand English.
c)
Operation Mascot. Demonstrating humanitarian efforts to rehabilitate the children of Korea for useful lives in a peaceful world.
d)
Peace Worth Having (The first two films of the “Peace With Freedom” Series. The third and
e)
Keeping the Peace final film will be “Defending the Peace” and will be released toward the end of the year.)
  1. This Foreign Service Information and Educational Exchange Circular was drafted by Charles P. Miller of OII and cleared by Orville C. Anderson of PRS. Sent to all USIE posts and to HICOG Bonn, Johannesburg, Jerusalem, Salisbury, and Camaguey. Sent “Air Mail Urgent”.
  2. For text, see Foreign Relations, 1951, vol. i, p. 961.
  3. Police Athletic League.