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List of Sources

The principal source of documentation for this volume was the indexed central (decimal) files of the Department of State. Documents from the central files were supplemented by materials from Department of State “lot” files (retired decentralized office files) and post files (records retired by United States missions abroad). The editors also made use of papers in the Harry S. Truman Library at Independence, Missouri, and in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library at Abilene, Kansas. Various collections of papers in unofficial repositories were also consulted.

A list of principal sources used in the preparation of this volume follows, with information concerning their origin and scope.

  • Files of the Department of State
  • A/MS Files, Lot 54 D 291
    • Consolidated administrative files of the Department of State for the years 1940–1960, as maintained by the Management Staff of the Bureau of Administration.
  • Camp Files, Lot 55 D 105
    • Special collection of documentation on European political and economic integration for the period 1948–1953, including important correspondence between officers of the Department of State and the White House staff and Congress, as maintained by Miriam Camp of the Office of European Regional Affairs.
  • Conference Files, Lot 60 D 627
    • Collection of documentation on official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and on major international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the period 1953–1955, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State. The file is a continuation of Lot 59 D 95.
  • Consular Affairs Files
    • Files of the Office of Security and Consular Affairs for the period 1946–1953, including general administrative records, consular management files, and miscellaneous subject files of the divisional components of the Office. These files were retired as part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 71A 2100.
  • Current Economic Developments, Lot 70 D 467
    • Master set of the Department of State classified internal publication Current Economic Developments for the years 1945–1969, as maintained in the Bureau of Economic Affairs. These records form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 72A 6248, item 54.
  • Disarmament Files, Lot 58 D 133
    • Consolidated collection of documentation in the Department of State on the regulation of armaments and disarmament for the years 1942–1962.
  • ECAMSA Assistant Administrator Files, FRC 55 A 374
    • Subject and country files consisting of correspondence, memoranda, field communications, committee documents, and budget and program papers, as maintained by the Office of the Assistant Administrator for Program, for the years 1948–1953. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 374.
  • ECAMSA Director’s Files, FRC 55 A 79
    • Bulky package file of material too large for the regular files, including drafts, reports, and briefing books for the period 1950–1953. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 79.
  • ECAMSA Director’s Files, FRC 55 A 79
    • Congressional file of correspondence and related material prepared or used in handling Congressional inquires. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 79.
  • ECAMSA Director’s Files, FRC 55 A 79
    • Country file of correspondence, memoranda, reproduced documents, cables, and airgrams pertaining to the administration of the Mutual Security Program for the years 1950–1953. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 79.
  • ECAMSA Director’s Files, FRC 55 A 79
    • Name file of correspondence and memoranda. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 79.
  • ECAMSA Director’s Files, FRC 55 A 79
    • Subject file of correspondence, memoranda, reproduced documents, administrative issuances, and related papers pertaining to the administration of the Mutual Security Program for the years 1950–1953. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 79.
  • ECAMSAFOA Executive Secretariat Files, FRC 56 A 241
    • Master file of agency and interagency committee document series, budget presentation and briefing books, and other materials retained for use by the Director’s office, for the years 1948–1954. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 56 A 241.
  • ECAMSAFOA Files, FRC 55 A 374
    • Master file of incoming and outgoing FOA and Department of State Eyes Only telegrams for the period August 1949–June 1954. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 374.
  • ECAMSA Special Representative’s Files, FRC 57 A 709
    • General subject and country files of the European Regional Office at Paris, for the years 1950–1953, including correspondence, memoranda, cables, OEEC documents, [Page IX]and other country general program information on projects, commodities, and transportation. These files were retired by the International Cooperation Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 57 A 709.
  • Economic Defense Files, Lot 59 D 665
    • Minutes and documents relating to the interagency Economic Defense Advisory Committee, the Coordinating Committee on export controls, the COCOM Consultative Group, and various other organizations concerned with export controls for the years 1950–1959, as maintained by the EDAC Executive Secretarist, Mutual Defense Assistance Control Staff, Bureau of Economic Affairs.
  • EUR/EX Files, Lot 57 D 694
    • Files of the Office of the Executive Director of the Bureau of European Affairs, 1948–1953, relating to foreign assistance and the Mutual Security Program, including action and information copies of letters, memoranda, telegrams, and instructions.
  • FOA Files, FRC 55 A 374
    • Master file of incoming and outgoing FOA airgrams for the period 1953–June 1954. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 374.
  • FOA Files, FRC 55 A 374
    • Master file of incoming FOA cables from the field missions and USRO for the years 1953–1954. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 374.
  • FOA Files, FRC 55 A 374
    • Master file of incoming FOA despatches and reports for the period July 1952–April 1954. These files were retired by the Foreign Operations Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 55 A 374.
  • GATT Files, Lot 59 D 563
    • Subject files containing policy papers and briefing materials relating to international economic conferences, foreign economic policy studies, and European economic integration for the years 1952–1959, as maintained by the Office of International Trade.
  • GATT Files, Lot 63 D 134
    • File of GATT documents for Sessions VI–IX of the Contracting Parties, 1951–1955, including the GATT Review Session in 1955. These records form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 65 A 987.
  • GATT Files, Lot 66 D 209
    • Documents relating to Sessions V–IX of GATT, 1949–1957. These records form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 71 A 6682.
  • Hickerson–Murphy–Key Files, Lot 58 D 33
    • Files of Assistant Secretaries of State for United Nations Affairs John D. Hickerson, Robert D. Murphy, and David McK. Key for the years 1948–1954.
  • INR Files, Lot 59 D 27
    • Miscellaneous files for the years 1948–1954 as retired by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, including the master file of minutes of the Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC).
  • INRNIE Files
    • Files of National Intelligence Estimates, Special Estimates, and Special National Intelligence Estimates, retained by the Directorate for Regional Research, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
  • International Trade Files, Lot 57 D 284
    • Comprehensive collection of files on commercial trade policy, the question of an international trade organization, and the negotiation, conclusion, and operation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, assembled and maintained in various economic offices of the Department of State during the years 1934–1956. These records form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 65 A 987.
  • IO Files, Lot 71 D 440
    • Master files of classified records and correspondence of United States Delegations to sessions of the U.N. General Assembly for the years 1945–1965, maintained by the Bureau of International Organization Affairs.
  • Jessup Files, Lot 53 D 65
    • Files of Ambassador Philip Jessup on the Sixth and Seventh Sessions of the U.N. General Assembly, and other related records. These records form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 64 A 987.
  • L/SFP Files, Lot 67 D 466
    • Files of the Special Functional Problems Division of the Office of the Legal Adviser concerning visa, immigration and passport regulations, cases, and legislation from 1940 to 1961. These files were retired as part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 69 A 6308.
  • L/SPF Files, Lot 68 D 47
    • Files of the Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Special Political Functions.
  • L/T Files
    • Files relating to the Bricker Amendment and the issue of proposals to limit the executive branch’s treatymaking powers, 1950–1962, as maintained in the Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Treaty Affairs.
  • MSAFOA Congressional Files, FRC 57 A 709
    • Files of the Office of the Deputy Director for Congressional Relations, including letters, memoranda, reports, testimony, and other papers related to the foreign economic program, for the years 1953–1954. These files were retired by the International Cooperation Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 57 A 709.
  • MSAFOA Director’s Files, FRC 56 A 632
    • General subject and country file from the Office of the MSAFOA Director covering all aspects of the foreign aid program for the years 1952–1955. These files were retired by the International Cooperation Administration and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 56 A 632.
  • Mutual Security Affairs Files, Lot 56 D 551
    • Country, subject, and legislative files on various aspects of the Mutual Security Program for the years 1954–1956, maintained for the use of the Special Assistant for Mutual Security Affairs (Frederick E. Nolting and Robert C. Hill).
  • Mutual Security Affairs Files, Lot 57 D 472
    • Subject and country files relating to the Mutual Security Program in Southeast Asia for the period 1950–1952, including International Security Affairs Committee (ISAC) documents, as maintained by the Office of the Special Assistant for Mutual Security Affairs. The bulk of these files form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 64 A 867.
  • Mutual Security Affairs Files, Lot 57 D 567
    • Subject and country files relating to the Mutual Security Program primarily in the Far East and Southeast Asia for the period 1953–1957, as maintained by the Office of the Special Assistant for Mutual Security Affairs.
  • NAC Files, Lot 60 D 137
    • Master file of documents of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Problems for the years 1945–1958, as maintained by the Bureau of Economic Affairs of the Department of State.
  • PNSC Files, Lot 62 D 385
    • Selected serial documentation relating to the National Security Council for the years 1947–1965, as maintained by the Bureau of Public Affairs.
  • PPS Files, Lot 64 D 563
    • Master file of documents, drafts, records of meetings, memoranda, and related correspondence for the years 1947–1953 of the Policy Planning Staff.
  • PPS Files, Lot 65 D 101
    • Master file of documents, drafts, records of meetings, memoranda, and related correspondence for the year 1954 of the Policy Planning Staff.
  • Presidential Correspondence, Lot 66 D 204
    • Exchange of correspondence between the President and the heads of foreign governments for the years 1953–1964, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • PSB Files, Lot 62 D 333
    • Master file of minutes and papers of the Psychological Strategy Board for the years 1951–1953, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • Sandifer Files, Lot 55 D 429
    • Files of Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for United Nations Affairs Durward V. Sandifer for the years 1944–1953.
  • SCA Files, Lot 62 D 146
    • Subject files of the Office of Security and Consular Affairs for the period 1953–1960. These files were retired as part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 69 A 6308.
  • Secretary’s Daily Meetings, Lot 58 D 609
    • Chronological collection of the records of the Secretary of State’s daily meetings with top Department of State officials for the years 1949–1952, as maintained by the Special Assistant to the Secretary of State.
  • Secretary’s Letters, Lot 56 D 459
    • Correspondence of the Secretary of State for the years 1945–1956, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • Secretary’s Memoranda, Lot 53 D 444
    • Comprehensive chronological collections of the Secretary of State’s memoranda, memoranda of conversation, and memoranda of conversation with the President for the years 1947–1953, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • Secretary’s Memoranda of Conversation, Lot 65 D 238
    • Chronological collections of the Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation with the President for the years 1949–1952, memoranda of the Secretary and Under Secretary of State for the years 1951–1952, and the Secretary of State’s memoranda of conversation with Senator Tom Connally of Texas for the years 1950–1951, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • Secretary’s Staff Meetings, Lot 63 D 75
    • Chronological collections of the minutes of the Secretary of State’s daily staff meetings which were held twice a week during the years 1952–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • S/PNSC Files, Lot 61 D 167
    • Serial file of memoranda relating to National Security Council questions for the years 1950–1961, as maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
  • S/PNSC Files, Lot 62 D 1
    • Serial and subject master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence for the years 1950–1961, as maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
  • S/SNSC Files, Lot 63 D 351
    • Serial master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence and related Department of State memoranda for the years 1947–1961, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • S/SNSC Files, Lot 66 D 148
    • Miscellaneous files concerning subjects considered by the National Security Council during the period 1949–1962, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • S/SNSC (Miscellaneous) Files, Lot 66 D 95
    • Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council documentation, including NSC Records of Action, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State for the years 1947–1963.
  • S/SOCB Files, Lot 61 D 385
    • Master set of administrative and country files of the Operations Coordinating Board for the years 1953–1960, as maintained in the Operations Staff of the Department of State.
  • S/SOCB Files, Lot 62 D 430
    • Master files of the Operations Coordinating Board for the years 1953–1960, as maintained by the Executive Secretariat of the Department of State.
  • UNP Files, Lot 58 D 742
    • Miscellaneous subject files of the Office of United Nations Political and Security Affairs for the years 1945–1957.
  • UNP Files, Lot 59 D 237
    • Subject files of the Office of United Nations Political and Security Affairs for the years 1946–1957.
  • U.S. Information Agency files
  • USIA Files, Lot 56 D 581
    • General subject files concerning programs and operations of the U.S. Information Agency for the period 1948–1955, including records on the overseas information program and the McCarthy hearings. These records were retired by the U.S. Information Agency and form part of Federal Records Center Accession No. 61 A 502.
  • Other U.S. Government agency files
  • Federal Trade Commission, Bureau of Industrial Economics Files
    • Files relating to the international petroleum cartel, 1950–1957.
  • National Archives, SFRC Records
    • Records of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 1789–1976.
  • Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
  • Truman Library, Acheson Papers
    • Papers of Dean Acheson, 1933–1971.
  • Truman Library, Murphy Papers
    • Papers of Charles S. Murphy, 1947–1967.
  • Truman Library, Spingarn Papers
    • Papers of Stephen J. Spingarn, 1933–1972.
  • Truman Library, Truman Papers, President’s Secretary’s File (PSF)
    • Papers of Harry S. Truman as President, 1945–1953, maintained by his personal secretary.
  • Truman Library, White House Central Files
    • Papers of Harry S. Truman as President, 1945–1953, from the Central Files of the White House.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
  • Eisenhower Library, Dulles Papers
    • Papers of John Foster Dulles, 1952–1959.
  • Eisenhower Library, Eisenhower Records
    • Records of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President, daily appointment books, 1953–1961.
  • Eisenhower Library, Hagerty Papers
    • Papers of James C. Hagerty, Press Secretary to the President, 1953–1961.
  • Eisenhower Library, Randall Commission Records
    • Records of the President’s Commission on Foreign Economic Policy (Randall Commission), 1953–1954.
  • Eisenhower Library, Staff Secretary Records
    • Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary in the White House, 1952–1961, including the records of Paul T. Carroll, Andrew J. Goodpaster, L. Arthur Minnich, Jr., and Christopher T. Russell.
  • Eisenhower Library, White House Central Files
    • Records of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President, White House Central Files, 1953–1961.
  • Eisenhower Library, Whitman File
    • Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President, 1953–1961, maintained by his personal secretary, Ann C. Whitman. The Whitman File includes the following elements: the Name Series, Dulles–Herter Series, Eisenhower Diaries, Ann Whitman (ACW) Diaries, National Security Council Records, Miscellaneous Records, Cabinet Papers, Legislative Meetings, International Meetings, Administration Series, and the International File.
  • Columbia University, New York, New York
  • Columbia University, Oral History Program
    • Oral History Program at Columbia University.
  • Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  • Cornell University, Oral History Program
    • Oral History Program at Cornell University.
  • Ohio Historical Society, Bricker Papers
    • Papers of John W. Bricker, 1939–1959, including materials pertaining to his service as U.S. Senator from Ohio, 1947–1958 and particularly to the Bricker Amendment.
  • Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
  • Princeton University, Corwin Papers
    • Papers of Samuel Edward Corwin, Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University, including files related to his service 1953–1956, as chairman of the Committee for the Defense of the Constitution, an organization opposed to the Bricker Amendment.
  • Princeton University Library, Dulles Papers, Appointment Book
    • Daily log of Secretary of State Dulles’ meetings and appointments for the years 1953–1959.
  • Princeton University Library, Phleger Collection
    • Material collected by Herman Phleger, Legal Advisor of the Department of State, relating to the Bricker Amendment and the treatymaking power of the United States, 1952–1956.