No. 629

700.001/4–2851: Circular airgram

The Secretary of State to Diplomatic and Consular Offices 1


World Peace Council No. 2

Major efforts of Commie controlled World Peace Council are devoted to obtaining signatures in all countries for vaguely worded Five Power Peace Pact appeal.

Circular Airgram of April 21, 1951,2 dealt with WPC organization and implied Soviet threat of blackmail toward UN. Subsequent instructions will deal with other aspects of combatting WPC “peace” campaign.

Department considers it essential that World Peace Pact signature drive be exposed vigorously through the use of all media and other suitable means including, where appropriate, approach to foreign governments.

Peace appeal as adopted by Commie-picked WPC February 1951 in Berlin declares:

“To fulfill the hopes cherished by millions of people throughout the world, whatever may be their views of the causes that have brought about the danger of a world war;

“To strengthen peace and safeguard international security;

“We demand the conclusion of a pact of peace among the Five Great Powers: the United States of America, the Soviet Union, the Chinese People’s Republic, Great Britain and France.

“We would consider a refusal to meet to conclude such a pact, by the government of any of the Great Powers, no matter what it might be, as evidence of aggressive design on the part of the government in question.

“We call upon all peace-loving nations to support the demand for this pact of peace, which should be open to all countries.

“We set our names to this appeal and we invite all men and women of good will, all organizations that hope for peace, to add their names in its support.”

Pact is designed to appeal to illusion that present world problems can be solved if big five sit down together and cooperate. However, it is apparent from long and patient efforts of US, UK and France [Page 1254] to negotiate with Soviets in CFM and other bodies, that “cooperation” in Soviet terms means submission to Soviet demands.

Provision of appeal that aggressive intent evidenced by refusal to conclude a pact clearly attempts to create propaganda basis to stigmatize other major powers for declining “peaceful” international settlements on Kremlin terms.

Soviets have never specified in detail what provisions “peace pact” would contain. Vagueness of WPC resolution and its emotional appeal may deceive well meaning uninformed people.

Agitation for signatures now under way on a world-wide basis. Appeal for Peace Pact is combined with regional appeals such as opposition to rearming Japan and Germany, for settlement of Korean war and opposition to commie-defined Colonialism. Peace drive is conceived as grass roots campaign aimed at exploiting: 1—Individual and national fear of rearmament, war and increased taxation; 2—Economic dissatisfaction; 3—Social and political unrest and anti-colonialization; 4—Pacifist and neutrality sentiment; and 5—What Communists call “initiative of churches” on behalf of peace.

WPC drive appears to have short range propaganda purpose of underscoring myth that Kremlin is the power for peace while other great powers are for war, and to prevent or delay anti-communist defenses. Long range purpose is to weaken unity and strength of free world against Soviet aggression, to further Kremlin’s dynamic program for achieving world domination and to prepare naive and uninformed masses, now outside of party or front organizations innocently to accept part in revolutionary expansion of Communism.

Five power peace pact proposal is largely similar to earlier USSR proposals in UN General Assembly and confirms Kremlin control of WPC as a propaganda pressure vehicle for USSR ends. Following recent history may clarify Soviet intent:

1—Pact proposal referred to by Stalin in interview with Kingsbury Smith January, 19493 and formally placed on UN General Assembly agenda September 1949. It was overwhelmingly rejected by GA which adopted as counter-measure “Essentials of Peace” resolution which offered a plan of action for real peace.4 Soviets again introduced proposal in GA September, 1950 and again it was overwhelmingly rejected by GA which adopted as a counter measure the “Peace through Deeds” resolution.5 Soviets voted against both UN resolutions.

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Sole vague reference to the contents of a peace pact which Soviets were considering was made by Vishinsky November 23, 1949 in GA political committee. Vishinsky declared that the pact was “intended to ensure the peaceful settlement of all differences; to curb the preparations for a new war; to reduce military budgets and lighten the burden of taxation; to eliminate foreign military and air bases; and to bring an end to aggressive blocs such as the one resulting from the North Atlantic Treaty.”

2—World Peace Congress in Rome, October 1949, adopted three point appeal to all parliaments which included provision for peace pact within the framework of UN. Expanded version given rubberstamp approval by Eastern European parliaments in February 1950 while Western governments were offered a simpler formula, excluding provision for a peace pact. Periodic references to peace pact made in Soviet and communist propaganda throughout 1950.

3—Warsaw Peace Congress in November, 1950,6 called on UN to convoke meeting of Big Five to discuss differences. In December 1950, Polish delegates to UN asked SYG to circulate to all members memorandum adopted by Warsaw Congress which called, among others, for a meeting of Big Five. The memorandum contained single-package version of all Communist propaganda themes, including proposal of so-called Stockholm Peace appeal of 1950 which demanded banning of atomic weapons.

4—New World Peace Council, composed of 262 Communist or party line members reverted to peace pact proposal in Berlin, February 1951 and made it the main theme of signature drive.

Vigor and imagination required to combat spurious peace appeal which, if successful, could only lead to a peace of MVD policed slave labor camp. All techniques perfected by Communists in Stockholm Peace Appeal are certain to be used again and new methods attempted. Soviet propaganda now devoting unusually large proportion of time to peace theme.

Following points should be stressed against peace pact appeal:

  • 1—UN Charter constitutes solemn peace pact to which all member countries, including Five Great Powers, have subscribed. All members have assumed obligation to settle their differences peacefully and to refrain from the use or threat of force. If these basic obligations were honored by all members, including Soviet Union, true peace would be insured. Need exists for fulfillment of UN charter and other obligations, which Kremlin attempts to sabotage, rather than new pact of Great Powers.
  • 2—Kremlin has violated existing obligations to such extent that world has lost confidence in its respect for treaties. There is no sense in Soviets assuming new treaty obligations until they have restored confidence of world in their word by honoring existing obligations. Emphasize Soviet violations of war time agreements, UN charter and examples of lack of cooperation such as: [Page 1256]
    • a—Enslavement of Eastern European countries by Kremlin controlled Communists.
    • b—Sealing off, as Soviet reservation, of Eastern Germany and Northern Korea.
    • c—Fomenting civil strife and aggression against Greece; Berlin blockade.
    • d—Militarization of East German Police.
    • e—Soviet stripping of machinery and factories in Manchuria; detachment of large land areas from China.
    • f—Soviet supported aggression against South Korea.
    • g—Communist support of communist rebels and bandits in Indochina and Malaya.
    • h—Threat of force against Yugoslavia and Turkey.
    • i—Support of re-militarization of Hungary, Bulgaria and Rumania in violation of peace treaties.
    • j—Soviet maintenance of disproportionately high armaments at a time when Germany and Japan were demilitarized and all other powers rapidly and radically reduced their armaments below level where they could constitute threat to Soviet Union.
    • k—Persistent Soviet refusal to cooperate in UN majority approved plans for control of atomic energy and regulations of armament.
    • l—Imperialist extinction of Baltic nations and vast extension of Soviet power by threats and force against smaller states.
    • m—Refusal to conclude treaty on Austria after five years of negotiations.
    • n—Conspiracy and constant incitement by Kremlin-instructed communists to overthrow governments and weaken peaceful countries by civil war.
    • o—Persistent refusal of Soviet Union to cooperate in efforts of UN specialized agencies for social and economic improvement.
    • p—Use of police terror, slave labor and erection of iron curtain to prevent relations between people of the Soviet bloc and outside world.
  • 3—Big Five pact could mean control of world by great powers without a voice by smaller nations in their own fate.
  • 4—Soviet hopes that peace pact will provide instrument more amenable to their will than United Nations, and that pact will wreck or impair efforts to build up General Assembly and NATO to cope with aggression. Soviet veto in UN Security Council has not proved as effective an instrument for Soviets as they hoped. To meet Soviet obstruction in Security Council, importance of General Assembly increased and NATO developed.
  • 5—Fifth Power in proposed pact, Communist China, already stands condemned by free world through UN as aggressor in Korea and is openly and actively supporting aggression.
  • 6—Machinery exists in Council of Foreign Ministers for settlement of issues appropriate to major power discussions. Efforts to achieve agreement in CFM at six conferences from 1945 to 1949 thwarted by obstructionism of Kremlin which considers agreements only as assent of others for Soviet proposals. However, we are willing to try again as in present Paris talks.
  • 7—Growing strength and determination of free world deters Kremlin from imposing its imperialist will and objectives on world. When Soviets recognize their inability to impose their will on free nations by force, threats or subversion, means and methods will be found for negotiating differences with due regard for legitimate Soviet national interests.
  • 8—Methods for achieving true peace for which free world strives contained in “Essentials of Peace” resolution adopted by 1949 General Assembly by 53 members of UN and opposed only by Soviets and satellites. This resolution reaffirmed urgent necessity for members to act in accordance with UN charter principles; called on all nations to refrain from threatening or using force or fomenting civil strife, to carry out international agreements in good faith, to cooperate with UN bodies, to promote respect for basic human rights, to promote higher living standards, remove obstacles to free exchange of information and ideas, to settle disputes peacefully, to cooperate to attain effective regulation of conventional armaments and international control of atomic energy.

  1. Drafted by Bruskin (P/POL) and cleared by UNP, UNA, EUR, FE, ARA, NEA, P/POL, and P.
  2. Document 625.
  3. For documentation on this interview, see Foreign Relations, 1949, vol. v, pp. 561 ff.
  4. For documentation on the preparation of the resolution of the U.N. General Assembly of December 1, 1949, see ibid., vol. ii, pp. 72 ff.
  5. For documentation on the resolution of the U.N. General Assembly of November 17, 1950, see ibid., 1950, vol. ii, pp. 371 ff.
  6. Regarding this congress, see telegram 1082, Foreign Relations, 1950, vol. iv, p. 331.