No. 622

740.5/3–3051: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the United States Deputy Representative on the North Atlantic Council (Spofford), at London1


Todep 353. For Achilles from Barnard.

1. Pursuant CD Secy’s introductory note D–D(51)80 (urtel 692 Mar 302) soliciting member govt comments on draft agreed minute, you may wish offer fol forthcoming mtg:

  • (a) Implication second sentence para 2(b) that Sov influence less in Alb than in other three satellites due geographical factor is valid only if by influence actual presence Sov personnel understood. Since TitoCominform split, Sov influence has been no less present Alb than in other countries.
  • (b) Statement para 3(b) that Bulg Govt pressing forward successfully with collectivization farms requires some modification: Determined drive for collectivization 1950, coupled with terroristic measures, created discontent proportions so serious Govt has been forced temporarily curtail collectivization program, in order consolidate present stage at which approx 55% land in collectives.
  • (c) Last sentence same para implies gen inability reach goals 5 year plan in face increased mil expenditures. According info in Dept original plan appears have been altered to place greater emphasis on agric and related industries, de-emphasizing heavy industry. Intensive effort implement this aspect plan likely succeed despite marked popular resentment. Secondly actual cost 5 year plan so amended is much less, thus decreasing adverse effect increased mil expenditures. Factors of equal importance undermining 5 year plan are: Shortage manpower in face mil demands, and passive but deliberate resistance which seems increase in proportion force exerted by Govt.
  • (d) Assertion para 3(c) that Rum agric has “so far remained outside socialized sector” does not correspond info available Dept. While collectivization program lagged behind socialization other sectors Rum econ and not so advanced as Bulg collectivization, pressure and tempo substantially increased over past year. Although Rum agric still largely outside socialized sector, is not significantly so as compared other satellites.

[Page 1240]

2. Fol expansion policy analysis given Dept 4000 Mar 2 may be helpful forthcoming discussion pts (a), (b) and (c) page 5 draft minutes:

(a) 1. While YuGovt continues show shyness in asking for mil grant supply assistance at this time it has sought and US is providing economic assistance for inter alia specific purpose preserving mil capabilities, i.e., MDAP portion (about $16 million) of food aid and current steps provide raw material assistance (Todep 312 Mar 21). US in conjunction with other countries has relaxed controls over exports Yugo of commercial quantities various strategic items (COCOM Document 268 Feb 6), including FYI exports mil aircraft and parts (Deptel 3963 Feb 28). US (Deptel 3799 Feb 14) as well as Brit (Embtel 4489 Feb 16) and Fr (Belgrade’s 84 Feb 26 to London) have indicated (AchesonBevan–Baudet statements) concern which wld be felt if satellites attack Yugo; FYI in US view no further warning this nature desirable at this time.3

(a) 2. Recognizing desire YuGovt continue its independent position and inadvisability pressing YuGovt too hard too fast to coordinate its efforts with Western defense measures, US intends take appropriate steps help sustain Yugo economy and mil capabilities with view not only placing Yugo and NAT members in best possible position in event hostilities but also discouraging Cominform from resorting to aggression against Yugo, and hopes other NAT countries will do likewise.

(a) 3. While under present circumstances it wld be highly desirable to have in Balkans some form UN observation on broader basis than present UNSCOB activities in Greece, Dept believes inadvisable at this time for USDep engage in specific discussion possible use POC in Yugo as subject now in exploratory stage with Brit and Fr (Dept’s A–46 Mar 29 to USUN copy to London4) and in view our as yet imprecise knowledge Yugo attitude and absence consultation with Greece and Turkey.

(b) 1. US Govt plans exploit fully as possible formal charges which it, together other treaty signatories, has brought against Bulg, Hung and Rum re violation human rights provisions peace treaties. Although procedures provided by treaties for settlement disputes re interpretation and execution treaty terms have been exhausted, US has assembled and is preparing submit SYG UN pursuant UNGA res Nov 3, 1950 evidence violations in every field human rights and freedoms.5 This detailed evidence will be submitted such manner as insure maximum propaganda effectiveness and impact. US also proposes publicize this evidence by other appropriate means and express suitable occasions its deep concern over such infringements fundamental rights and freedoms of peoples Bulg, Hung and Rum and their resultant loss natl independence. US will also seek emphasize this connection ultimate responsibility borne by USSR for its support treaty violators and refusal [Page 1241] cooperate other treaty signatories under disputes procedures stipulated by peace treaties. US Govt wld welcome concerted or at least parallel action in response UNGA res Nov 3 by other treaty signatories and interested govts which may have similar evidence re suppression human rights and freedoms. US believes important utilize opportunity provided by this res emphasize to Sov leaders and puppet regimes that free peoples will not accept as permanent situation based on flagrant violations explicit internatl obligations and ruthless suppression elementary rights and liberties entire peoples. Moreover, US Govt will continue press for inclusion issue human rights violations CFM agenda.

(b) 2. Opportunities for effective exploitation mil violations satellite peace treaties so far limited. As result publicity given failure US and UK efforts immediately fol armistice period secure compliance, there has been little question in mind Western public that violations occurring. However, this factor has had little or no apparent effect on rate ex-enemy rearmament, and, in view relative failure invocation treaty procedures re human rights, there has been no apparent gain to be anticipated from fol parallel course re mil clauses. Sov reaction inclusion this issue Paris negots6 as among factors contributing present tensions indicates possible effectiveness issue, and we intend continue seek means exploit it.

(c) 1. US, together with large majority UN members, has been unable support applications Bulg, Hung, Rum and Alb for membership UN. All these govts have disregarded or violated treaty obligations, suppressed human rights and freedoms, denied competence and jurisdiction UN organs, and flouted UN recommendations and resolutions. Since actual consideration old membership applications has not taken place in UN since Sept 1949, we have not had occasion carry our consideration membership problem as whole beyond stage reached at that time.

(c) 2. FYI, since question these four applications is essentially merely part of much broader problem UN membership involving numerous countries in various areas, we do not at present envisage that it shld be subj policy discussion among deputies. Additional reason is presence non-members UN, notably Italy, in CD. In any case, question does not become active until much later in year. Accordingly suggest no extensive discussion necessary.


  1. Drafted by Gannett, McKisson, Nickels, Recknagel, and Marcy of EUR/EE, and cleared by UNP, EUR, and RA. Higgs approved transmission and signed for the Secretary of State.
  2. Telegram 692 reported that other delegations to the NATO Council Deputies wished to have another round of discussions regarding the satellite nations of Eastern Europe on the basis of document D–D(51) 80. Ambassador Spofford asked the Department to expand somewhat on the policy statements contained in telegram 4000 to London, Document 617. (740.5/3–3051)
  3. None of the telegrams mentioned in this paragraph is printed.
  4. Not printed.
  5. Regarding the initial presentation to the United Nations of evidence of the sort referred to here, see Document 654.
  6. The reference here is to the Four-Power Exploratory Talks in Paris, March–June.