Fredrick Aandahl and William Z. Slany directed the planning, editing, review, and declassification of this volume.

The following members of the Office of The Historian prepared sections of this volume: Herbert A. Fine (Israel; the Point Four Program in the Near East); Lisle A. Rose (general policies in the Near East and South Asia); Joan M. Lee (the Cairo Conference, petroleum policy in the Near East, and relations with Saudi Arabia and Yemen); John A. Bernbaum (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Morocco); Charles S. Sampson (disposition of the former Italian colonies in Africa; portions of the section on Iran); Evans Gerakas (Greece, Turkey, and portions of the section on Iran); David H. Stauffer (the Kashmir dispute, and the dispute between Afgahnistan and Pakistan over the North-West Frontier Province and Tribal Areas, and relations with India, Nepal, and Pakistan); Paul Claussen (the Helmand River dispute; Ethiopia); and Mr. Slany (general policies with respect to Africa, and relations with Liberia, Tunisia, and the Union of South Africa). Mr. Claussen provided subsequent research and review and Mr. Stauffer coordinated declassification and clearance. Margaret G. Martin, Ruth M. Worthing, and Dana J. Johnson supplied editorial assistance. The technical editing of the volume was done by the Publishing and Reproduction Division (Paul M. Washington, Chief), and Francis C. Prescott prepared the index.

The editors acknowledge with appreciation the assistance provided them by the historians of the Department of Defense, including those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. They are grateful for the cooperation of the National Security Council, the Department of Defense, and the Central Intelligence Agency, all of which facilitated declassification of documents for release in this volume. Thanks are also due to those foreign governments that kindly granted permission for publication of certain of their documents.

David F. Trask

The Historian
Bureau of Public Affairs
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Principles for the Compilation and Editing ofForeign Relations

The principles which guide the compilation and editing of Foreign Relations are stated in Department of State Regulations 2 FAM 1350 of June 15, 1961, a revision of the order approved on March 26, 1925, by Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, then Secretary of State. The text of the regulation, as further amended, is printed below:

1350 Documentary Record of American Diplomacy

1351 Scope of Documentation

The publication Foreign Relations of the United States constitutes the official record of the foreign policy of the United States. These volumes include, subject to necessary security considerations, all documents needed to give a comprehensive record of the major foreign policy decisions within the range of the Department of State’s responsibilities, together with appropriate materials concerning the facts which contributed to the formulation of policies. When further material is needed to supplement the documentation in the Department’s files for a proper understanding of the revelant policies of the United States, such papers should be obtained from other Government agencies.

1352 Editorial Preparation

The basic documentary diplomatic record to be printed in Foreign Relations of the United States is edited by the Historical Office, Bureau of Public Affairs of the Department of State. The editing of the record is guided by the principles of historical objectivity. There may be no alteration of the text, no deletions without indicating where in the text the deletion is made, and no omission of facts which were of major importance in reaching a decision. Nothing may be omitted for the purpose of concealing or glossing over what might be regarded by some as a defect of policy. However, certain omissions of documents are permissible for the following reasons:

To avoid publication of matters which would tend to impede current diplomatic negotiations or other business.
To condense the record and avoid repetition of needless details.
To preserve the confidence reposed in the Department by individuals and by foreign governments.
To avoid giving needless offense to other nationalities or individuals.
To eliminate personal opinions presented in despatches and not acted upon by the Department. To this consideration there is one qualification—in connection with major decisions it is desirable, where possible, to show the alternatives presented to the Department before the decision was made.

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1353 Clearance

To obtain appropriate clearances of material to be published in Foreign Relations of the United States, the Historical Office:

Refers to the appropriate policy offices of the Department and of other agencies of the Government such papers as appear to require policy clearance.
Refers to the appropriate foreign governments requests for permission to print as part of the diplomatic correspondence of the United States those previously unpublished documents which were originated by the foreign governments.